Variations In The Chemical And Isotopic Composition Of Fluids Discharged From The Taupo Volcanic Zone, New Zealand

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Journal Article: Variations In The Chemical And Isotopic Composition Of Fluids Discharged From The Taupo Volcanic Zone, New Zealand

Abstract
Contents of H2O, CO2 and Cl in well discharges from six explored geothermal systems of the Taupo Volcanic Zone, New Zealand, point to the existence of two distinct source fluids. The fluid present in discharges from systems along the eastern boundary is characterised by high CO2 contents, 1.6 ± 0.5 , at mole ratios of 3.9 ± 1.5. High (0.06) and (12) weight ratios in these waters suggest that all four constituents are derived from associated andesitic rock. Geothermal discharges in the western parts of the TVZ, dominated by rhyolitic magmatism, are characterised by low CO2 contents, 0.12 ± 0.05 , and low (0.14 ± 0.1) ratios. Again, relative Cl, B, Li and Cs contents agree with those of this potential source rock. High and ratios in the east are typical of fluids affected by the addition of volatiles released from subducted marine sediments. For the western systems, these ratios resemble more closely those expected for mantle-derived volatiles. The isotopic compositions of all deep waters point to the presence of variable amounts of a magmatic component, some 14 ± 5% in the eastern and 6 ± 2% in the western systems. The observed variations are explained in terms of interaction of volatiles released from the subducted sediments with material of the mantle wedge to form a volatile-charged, high-alumina basalt. Its convective rise, in a direction opposite to that of the down-going slab, leads to high enrichment in volatiles of the magmas generated beneath the eastern parts of the TVZ and increases their ability to intrude the continental crust. Further fractional crystallisation and assimilation leads to the formation of volatile-rich andesitic melts, partly extruded to form the volcanoes of the andesitic arc, partly intruded to act as source rocks for the high-gas geothermal systems. Batches of high-alumina basalt, depleted in subducted volatiles, travel farther west to pond beneath a zone of crustal extension. Following extensive fractionation, highly siliceous melts, carrying predominantly mantle-type volatiles, rise beneath the western part of the TVZ to supply both heat and volatiles to the geothermal systems there.

Author 
Werner F. Giggenbach








Published Journal 
Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 1995





DOI 
Not Provided
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Citation

Werner F. Giggenbach. 1995. Variations In The Chemical And Isotopic Composition Of Fluids Discharged From The Taupo Volcanic Zone, New Zealand. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research. (!) .