Types Of Scaling Occurring By Geothermal Utilization In Iceland
Journal Article: Types Of Scaling Occurring By Geothermal Utilization In Iceland
AbstractThe low-temperature geothermal fields in Iceland are mostly used for space heating. Scaling problems have only occured in a few cases during exploitation. The most severe cases are due to precipitation of calcium carbonate in brackish water and occur both in downhole pumps and surface installations. In plants heating fresh water scaling by magnesium silicate has occured In the hightemperature geothermal fields calcium carbonate precipitation in wells is not uncommon but occurs at shallow levels and is amended by reaming the wells at regular intervals. Silica scaling in waste water is a general problem in most of the fields, but is mostly avoided inside the plants and in the distribution piping. Aluminium-silicates have been troublesome where the high-temperature waters have been used directly for heating as they are precipitated at temperatures well above saturation with opaline silica at which point the onset of scaling was expected From the brine in the Reykjanes field there have been encountered downhole scales of iron - magnesium - silicates, and metalsulfide with high contents of precious metals is precipitated at the wellhead of one of the wells, Rn-9. Iron-silicates were precipitated from the magmatic influenced geothermal fluid in the Krafla field and metallic sulfides and oxydes were also present in the scales blocking the wells at that time.
- Hrefna Kristmannsdottir
- Published Journal
- Geothermics, 1989
- Not Provided
Check for DOI availability: http://crossref.org
Hrefna Kristmannsdottir. 1989. Types Of Scaling Occurring By Geothermal Utilization In Iceland. Geothermics. (!) .