The Geochemistry Of Fluids From An Active Shallow Submarine Hydrothermal System- Milos Island, Hellenic Volcanic Arc

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Journal Article: The Geochemistry Of Fluids From An Active Shallow Submarine Hydrothermal System- Milos Island, Hellenic Volcanic Arc

Abstract
Geothermal activity in the Aegean island of Milos (Greece), associated with island-arc volcanism, is abundant both on-and off-shore. Hydrothermal fluids venting from several sites, mainly shallow submarine (up to 10 m), but also just above seawater level in one locality, were sampled over four summer field seasons. Some of the discharging fluids are associated with the formation of hydrothermal edifices. Overall, the main characteristics of the hydrothermal fluids are low pH and variable chlorinity. The lowest recorded pH was 1.7, and chlorinity ranged from 0.1 to 2.5 times that of seawater. The highest fluid temperatures recorded on site were 115°C. Two main types of fluids were identified: low-chlorinity fluids containing low concentrations of alkalis (potassium, lithium, sodium) and calcium, and high concentrations of silica and sulphate; and high-chlorinity fluids containing high concentrations of alkalis and calcium, and lower concentrations of silica and sulphate. The type locality of the high-chlorinity fluids is shallow submarine in Palaeochori, near the east end of the south coast of the island, whereas the type locality of the low-chlorinity fluids is a cave to the west of Palaeochori. The two fluid types are therefore often referred to as "submarine" and "cave" fluids respectively. Both fluid types had low magnesium and high metal concentrations but were otherwise consistently different from each other. The low-chlorinity fluids had the highest cobalt, nickel, aluminium, iron and chromium (up to 1.6 μM, 3.6 μM, 1586 μM, 936 μM and 3.0 μM, respectively) and the high-chlorinity fluids had the highest zinc, cadmium, manganese and lead (up to 4.1 μM, 1.0 μM, 230 μM and 32 μM, respectively). Geochemical modelling suggests that metals in the former are likely to have been transported as sulphate species or free ions and in the latter as chloride species or free ions. Isotopic values for both water types range between ΔD -12 to 33‰ and Δ18O 1.2 to 4.6‰. The range of fluid compositions and isotopic contents indicates a complex history of evolution for the system. Both types of fluids appear to be derived from seawater and thus are likely to represent end members of a single fluid phase that underwent phase separation at depth.

Authors 
E. Valsami-Jones, E. Baltatzis, E. H. Bailey, A. J. Boyce, J. L. Alexander, A. Magganas, L. Anderson, S. Waldron and K. V. Ragnarsdottir








Published Journal 
Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 2005





DOI 
Not Provided
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Citation

E. Valsami-Jones,E. Baltatzis,E. H. Bailey,A. J. Boyce,J. L. Alexander,A. Magganas,L. Anderson,S. Waldron,K. V. Ragnarsdottir. 2005. The Geochemistry Of Fluids From An Active Shallow Submarine Hydrothermal System- Milos Island, Hellenic Volcanic Arc. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research. (!) .