Assess and improve the national GHG inventory and other economic and resource data as needed for LEDS development

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Stage 2

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2.4 Assess and improve the national GHG inventory and other economic and resource data as needed for LEDS development

2.4.1 GHG Inventory Development Toolkit

The GHG Inventory toolkit, below, provides information on and links to tools, datasets, and best practices as related to developing a GHG inventory.

Greenhouse Gas Inventory Development Toolkit

 
Check List
If there is an existing GHG inventory, is data:

  • Up to date, easily accessible, complete and consistent?
  • Well documented?
  • Publicly available for stakeholders?

Additionally:

  • Are there gaps in available data on sources, sinks and sources?
  • Are relevant sectors all able to contribute data?
  • Are results consistent across time periods?
  • Are emissions estimates consistent with IPCC guidelines?
  • Is there a sufficient number of staff assigned to work on the inventory?
  • Is there a quality control/quality assurance plan in place?
  • Are there country-wide mandates for emission reductions?

If the inventory is not up to date or does not exist:

  • Is there an inventory improvement plan?
  • Is there a designated agency in charge of the inventory?
  • Have any staff members been trained in inventory methods and procedures?
  • Is external donor support available for developing a new inventory?

2.4.2. Conduct a key emission source category analysis
Source:US Environmental Protection Agency

The analysis can be performed using GHG inventory data and following IPCC guidelines

The EPA's Key Category Analysis Tool (template shown right) shown at the bottom of the linked page provides guidance on development of a key emission source category analysis.

2.4.3. Assessing Monitoring Systems for Landscapes

The stakeholder group must design a monitoring system to credibly measure and report (a) emission reductions and removals of greenhouse gases, and (b) development and other benefits and impacts over time, in relation to the reference scenario. Emissions reductions and removals must be measurable and reportable in a robust and verifiable manner. This system should build the foundation for any future measuring, reporting and verification (MRV) system. The MRV systems that will be required to qualify for performance-based financial incentives are still under negotiation in the UNFCCC. However, there is some guidance on the criteria for quality domestic systems. The UNFCCC SBSTA decision on REDD from COP-15 (2/CP.13) states that “estimates of reductions or increases of emissions should be results-based, demonstrable, transparent and verifiable, and estimated consistently over time.” LEDS support will focus on quality domestic systems that follow existing SBSTA guidance and do not prejudge an international outcome.

 
Products

  • Assessment of availability and quality of data for all relevant sources, sinks, and sectors
  • National GHG inventory and other economic and resource data compiled and verified
  • GHG inventory report
  • GHG inventory improvement plan based on standard practice
  • GHG inventory system design and sustainability plan
  • Updated and accurate national GHG inventory and based on standard practice

In addition, this system should monitor rural livelihoods, conservation of biodiversity, key governance factors directly pertinent to landscape LEDS implementation, financial transactions related to landscapes LEDS, and impacts of the landscape LEDS on forestry, agriculture and other related industries. Monitoring of social, environmental and economic performance should follow accepted best practices, e.g., the Montreal Process on Criteria and Indicators for measuring social benefits.

Landscape LEDS require much more emphasis on measuring, monitoring and reporting than most forest monitoring programs, and most countries have limited capacity to create robust GHG inventories and monitoring systems. This stage includes an assessment of the gaps between existing national forest monitoring systems and the requirements of likely international standards for landscape and REDD+ systems (e.g. in the absence of international agreement within the UNFCCC, standards and best practices are available from the IPCC good practice guidelines).

Climate policies and monitoring concepts focus on emissions and carbon impacts. However, national LEDS will need to target the key causes and processes that cause forest and landscape emissions on the ground, which are often policy related. To design a national landscapes monitoring systems, one needs to understand the active drivers and processes of forest and landscape emissions, have sufficient data to assess their importance (emissions impact), and be able to analyze how policies can achieve landscape LEDS objectives.

The monitoring system will be specially designed, taking into consideration each countries’ forest and landscape conditions, current forest monitoring and available resources. Although remote sensing is a valuable component of many monitoring systems, these systems do not have to be hi-tech, and in situ ground truthing is an important component of monitoring systems, and also contributes to the transparency and participatory elements of the LEDS. Community monitoring can be comparably accurate to professional monitoring with the benefits of being lower cost and facilitate greater transparency.

Key Questions Check List Product
Designing a Monitoring System for Landscapes How will emission reductions and removals of greenhouse gases be monitored in a measurable and reportable manner?

How will other benefits and impacts be monitored over time, including rural livelihoods, conservation of biodiversity, key governance factors, financial transactions, and impacts on forestry, agriculture and other related industries?

  1. Assess current capacity to create robust terrestrial carbon inventories and measuring, monitoring and reporting systems
  2. Assess gaps between existing national forest monitoring systems and the requirements of international standards for landscape and REDD+ MRV systems in development.
  3. Determine how the data on carbon stocks and carbon stock changes can be improved
  4. Based on the drivers of emissions and potential interventions, develop monitoring system that meets good practice standards (e.g., IPCC good practice guidelines). Different interventions will have different monitoring plans.
  5. Determine how a combination of remote and in situ observations can support the monitoring systems
  6. Determine the potential for use of community monitoring
  7. Develop a plan to improve the monitoring system to increase the credibility of the system as data is updated and technical capacity improves
  8. Develop a plan to link sub-national activities to the national monitoring system
Robust, monitoring system that meets good practice standards (e.g. IPCC good practice guidelines), will build the foundation for any future measuring, reporting and verification (MRV) system that is customized to monitor country-specific interventions and take advantage of remote sensing, in situ and community monitoring resources