Stable And Radiogenic Isotopes As Tracers For The Origin, Mixing And Subsurface History Of Fluids In Submarine Shallow-Water Hydrothermal Systems

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Journal Article: Stable And Radiogenic Isotopes As Tracers For The Origin, Mixing And Subsurface History Of Fluids In Submarine Shallow-Water Hydrothermal Systems

Abstract
The shallow-water hydrothermal system in Tutum Bay on the west side of Ambitle Island, Papua New Guinea provides us with an exceptional opportunity to study isotope systematics in a near shore setting. Compared to seawater, the hydrothermal fluids in Tutum Bay have lower values for ΔD, Δ18O, Δ13C, and 87Sr and higher values for 3H, Δ34S(SO4) and Δ18O(SO4). The Δ18O and ΔD records for vents 1 and 4 indicate that fluid compositions remained stable over an extended period. Interpretation of isotope data clearly demonstrates the predominantly meteoric origin of Tutum Bay hydrothermal fluids, despite their location in a marine environment. Δ18O and ΔD values are identical to mean average annual precipitation in eastern Papua New Guinea. The hypothesis that these fluids are a simple product of mixing between seawater and onshore hydrothermal fluids from the Waramung (W-1) and Kapkai (W-2) thermal areas has been rejected, because the observed Δ37Cl, 3H, Δ34S(SO4) and Δ18O(SO4) values cannot be explained by a simple mixing model. The application of Δ18O(SO4) and Δ13C thermometers in combination with 3H values corroborates the three-step model of Pichler et al. (Pichler, T., Veizer, J., Hall, G.E.M., 1999. The chemical composition of shallow-water hydrothermal fluids in Tutum Bay, Ambitle Island, Papua New Guinea and their effect on ambient seawater. Marine Chemistry 64 (3) 229-252), where (1) phase separation in the deep reservoir beneath Ambitle Island produces a high temperature vapor that rises upward and subsequently reacts with cooler ground water to form a low pH, CO2-rich water of approximately 150-160°C, (2) caused by the steep topography, this CO2-rich fluid moves laterally towards the margin of the hydrothermal system where it mixes with the marginal upflow of the deep reservoir fluid. This produces a dilute chloride water of approximately 165°C, and (3) possibly the entrainment of minor amounts of ground or seawater during its final ascent.

Author 
Thomas Pichler








Published Journal 
Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 2005





DOI 
Not Provided
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Citation

Thomas Pichler. 2005. Stable And Radiogenic Isotopes As Tracers For The Origin, Mixing And Subsurface History Of Fluids In Submarine Shallow-Water Hydrothermal Systems. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research. (!) .