Resources exploring wind turbines and sound are listed below.
American Wind Energy Association. Sound: Wind Energy and Human Health. Accessed April 15, 2016.
The American Wind Energy Association dedicates a page on its website to the impacts of wind energy sound on human health.
Australian Government National Health and Medical Research Council. (July 2010). Wind Turbines and Health: A Rapid Review of the Evidence. Accessed April 15, 2016.
This Australian paper presents findings from a review of current literature on the issue of wind turbines and potential impacts on human health.
Bolin, K.; et al. (2011). Infrasound and Low-Frequency Noise from Wind Turbines: Exposure and Health Effects. Environmental Research Letters, Volume 6 Number 3. Accessed April 15, 2016.
This article reviews the present knowledge of infrasound and low-frequency noise exposure from wind turbines and related disturbances or ill-health of residents living near wind turbines.
Chief Medical Officer of Health (CMOH) of Ontario. (2010). The Potential Health Impact of Wind Turbines. Toronto: Queen’s Printer for Ontario. Accessed April 15, 2016.
This report presents a synopsis of scientific evidence on the potential health impact of noise generated by wind turbines. The review concludes that while some people living near wind turbines report symptoms such as dizziness, headaches, and sleep disturbance, the scientific evidence available to date does not demonstrate a direct causal link between wind turbine noise and adverse health effects. The sound level from wind turbines at common residential setbacks is not sufficient to cause hearing impairment or other direct health effects, although some people may find it annoying.
Colby, W.D., M.D.; Dobie, R., M.D.; Leventhall, G., Ph.D.; Lipscomb, D.M., Ph.D.; McCunney, R.J., M.D.; Seilo, M.T., Ph.D.; Søndergaard, B., M.Sc. (December 2009). Wind Turbine Sound and Health Effects: An Expert Panel Review. Prepared for the American Wind Energy Association and the Canadian Wind Energy Association. Accessed April 15, 2016.
This literature review focuses on the issue of perceived health effects of wind turbines.
Hawkins, T. Fact Sheet: Wind Turbines and Low-Frequency Sound. Prepared for Beyond Zero Emissions Inc. Accessed April 15, 2016.
This report provides an overview of sound-related wind energy concerns.
Knopper, L.; Ollson, C. (2011). Health Effects and Wind Turbines: A Review of the Literature. Environmental Health, 10:78. Accessed April 15, 2016.
This paper provides results of a peer-review of scientific literature and the most prominent information found in the popular literature regarding wind turbines and health effects.
Leventhall, G. (2006). Infrasound from Wind Turbines – Fact, Fiction, or Deception? Accessed April 15, 2016.
This article delves into the facts surrounding infrasound created by wind turbines with the intent of clarifying existing misinformation.
Massachusetts Department of Environmental Protection, Massachusetts Department of Public Health. (January 2012). Wind Turbine Health Impact Study: Report of Independent Expert Panel. Accessed April 15, 2016.
This report is the result of work prepared for the Massachusetts Department of Environmental Protection in collaboration with the Massachusetts Department of Public Health by a panel of independent experts asked to identify any documented or potential health impacts of risks that may be associated with exposure to wind turbines, and specifically, to facilitate discussion of wind turbines and public health based on scientific findings.
Minnesota Department of Health Environmental Health Division. (May 2009). Public Health Impacts of Wind Turbines. Accessed April 15, 2016.
The Minnesota Department of Health Environmental Division released this report in response to a request from the Minnesota Department of Commerce Office of Energy Security. This report evaluates possible health effects associated with low-frequency vibrations and sound from wind energy development.
New England Wind Energy Education Project. (August 2014). Understanding the Impacts of Wind Turbine Sound: A NEWEEP Webinar. Accessed April 15, 2016.
The New England Wind Energy Education Project (NEWEEP) hosted this webinar that includes a discussion of wind turbine generator sound, permitting issues, and mitigation with a question-and-answer session. This event was designed for the general public, local officials, facility siting decision-makers, policy-makers, and others interested in objective information on wind energy impacts.
Ontario Ministry of the Environment. (December 2010). Low-Frequency Noise and Infrasound Associated with Wind Turbine Generator Systems - A Literature Review. Accessed April 15, 2016.
Howe Gastmeier Chapnik Limited (HGC Engineering) was retained by the Ontario Ministry of the Environment to provide a literature review of materials related to low-frequency noise and infrasound associated with large, modern, upwind wind turbine generators. Materials including journal articles, papers presented at technical conferences, technical reports, as well as guidelines or regulations from various jurisdictions were reviewed. This report is a result of the work.
Pedersen, E.; Waye, K.P. (March 2007). Wind Turbine Noise, Annoyance, and Self-Reported Health and Well-Being in Different Living Environments. Accessed April 15, 2016.
This article evaluates the prevalence of perception and annoyance due to wind turbine sound among people living near the turbines, and to study relations between noise and perception/annoyance, with a focus on differences between living environments.
Public Health Division Oregon Health Authority. (2013). Strategic Health Impact Assessment on Wind Energy Development in Oregon. Accessed April 15, 2016.
This health impact assessment is intended to assist stakeholders to understand and respond to health-related questions related to new wind energy developments in Oregon and provides a framework to guide assessments and decisions for specific projects.
Renewable Northwest Project. (2009). Reviewing the Facts on Wind Turbine Sound Impacts. Accessed April 15, 2016.
The Renewable Northwest Project dedicates a website page to debunking several wind energy sound myths, with links to resources.
Rogers, A.; Manwell, J.; Wright, S. (2002; amended January 2006). Wind Turbine Acoustic Noise. Renewable Energy Research Laboratory, Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, University of Massachusetts at Amherst. Accessed April 15, 2016.
This report describes sound fundamentals, sound as it relates to wind turbines, and noise standards and regulations.
RSG. (February 2014). Wind Turbine Research Study Interim Modeling Report for WNTAG. Prepared for Massachusetts Clean Energy Center – MASSCEC and Massachusetts Department of Environmental Protection – MASSDEP. Accessed April 15, 2016.
The Wind Noise Technical Advisory Group (WNTAG) was created in January 2012 to advise the Massachusetts Department of Environmental Protection (MassDEP) on how best to craft regulatory and policy responses to wind developments in Massachusetts. At the sixth and final meeting in March 2014, this RSG report was released. Also at this meeting, WNTAG presented its findings in a discussion document that summarized DEP’s ideas on potential changes to current wind noise regulations and centered on two topics: compliance evaluation and permitting of wind turbines in Massachusetts.
Thibault, B. (July 2013). Survey of Complaints Received by Relevant Authorities Regarding Operating Wind Energy in Alberta. The Pembina Institute. Accessed April 15, 2016.
This research takes a non-anecdotal, objective approach to documenting formal complaints made to the most likely authorities in Alberta, Canada, to receive complaints relating to wind energy since 2000. The evidence gained from this research indicates that there is no pressing concern in wind-rural interactions in the Alberta context that would warrant obstruction or restriction of continued wind energy growth in Alberta, so long as new developments are well regulated and continue to follow good practices in development, including local consultations, setback requirements and limitations in place.
Victoria State Government Department of Health. (April 2013). Wind Farms, Sound, and Health: Technical Information. Accessed April 15, 2016.
This report explains sound-related concepts, particularly as they pertain to wind farms.