Research And Development Of Geothermal Energy Production In Hungary

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Journal Article: Research And Development Of Geothermal Energy Production In Hungary

The basement of the Pannonian (Carpathian) basin is represented by Paleozoic metamorphic and Mesozoic dolomite and limestone formations. The Tertiary basin gradually subsided during the Alpine orogeny down to 6000 m and was filled by elastic sediments with several water horizons. A heat flow of 2.0 to 3.4 μcal/cm2s gives temperature gradients between 45 and 70°C/km in the basin. At 2000 m depth the virgin rock temperature is between 110 and 150°C. 80 geothermal wells about 2000 m deep have shown the great geothermal potential of the basin. The main hot water reservoir is the Upper Pliocene (Pannonian) sandstone formation. Hot water is produced by wells from the blanket or sheet sand and sandstone, intercalated frequently by siltstone. Between a 100-300 m interval, 3 to 8 permeable layers are exploited resulting in 1-3 m3/min hot water at 80-99°C temperature. Wells at present are overflowing with shut-in pressures of 3-5 atm. The Pannonian basin is a conduction-dominated reservoir. Convection systems are negligible, hot igneous systems do not exist. The assessment of geothermal resources revealed that the content of the water-bearing rocks down to 3000 m amounts to 12,600 _ 1018cal. In the Tertiary sediments 10,560 _ 1018cal and in the Upper Pannonian, 1938 _ 1018cal are stored. In the Upper Pannonian geothermal reservoir, below 1000 m, where the virgin rock temperature is between 70 and 140°C, the stored heat is 768 _ 108cal. A 1018 cal is equivalent to the combustion heat of 100 million tons of oil. The amount of recoverable geothermal energy from 768 _ 108cal is 7.42 _ 1018cal, i.e. about 10,000 MW century, not considering reinjection. At present the Pannonian geothermal reservoir stores the greatest amount of identified heat which can be mobilized and used. Hungary has 496 geothermal wells with a nominal capacity of 428 m3/min, producing 1342 MW heat. 147 wells have an outflow temperature of more than 60°C producing 190 m3/min, that is, 845 MW. In 1974 290 MWyear of geothermal energy was utilized in agriculture, district heating and industry.

T. Boldizsar

Published Journal 
Geothermics, Date Not Provided

Not Provided
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T. Boldizsar. . Research And Development Of Geothermal Energy Production In Hungary. Geothermics. (!) .