Radar

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Exploration Technique: Radar

Exploration Technique Information
Exploration Group: Remote Sensing Techniques
Exploration Sub Group: Active Sensors
Parent Exploration Technique: Active Sensors
Information Provided by Technique
Lithology:
Stratigraphic/Structural: Detect fault and ground movement
Hydrological: Can give indications about subsurface geothermal fluid flow
Thermal:
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Radar:
Radar is an active-sensor remote sensing tool used to detect small changes in ground movement at geothermal locations.
Other definitions:Wikipedia Reegle


 
Introduction
RAdio Detection And Ranging (RADAR) is used in a wide variety of applications. In remote sensing applications, the source of the radio waves is from satellites, and the signals are bounced off of the earth’s surface to determine the precise distance from the satellite to the ground. The amount of time it takes for the radio signal to return to the satellite is measured and then the distance can be calculated. By taking a number of measurements over a period of time precise ground movement can be determined.
 
Use in Geothermal Exploration
Radar methods have become a useful tool for geothermal reservoir monitoring and exploration. Remote sensing - Radar methods are cost effective and can easily cover large areas to get a full sense of the ground movement in and around a geothermal area. Precise ground movements within millimeter accuracy can be determined which is useful for monitoring a reservoir. Ground subsidence or uplift, and lateral movements, as well as movement rates of the geothermal area over time can be mapped and are useful for reservoir modeling and possibly helping to determine future drilling targets. Geothermal fluid flow patterns can also be deduced from ground movement and deformation maps. Fault movements and potentially undiscovered faults can also be revealed using radar techniques.[1]
 
Related Techniques


 
Physical Properties
Radar utilizes electromagnetic (EM) waves in the radio and microwave wavelengths. These EM waves range in lengths of between around 1 mm - 100000 mm. The EM signals are sent out via a transmitter and travel at the speed of light, they bounce off objects and part of the signal is reflected back to a receiver. The time the signal takes to return to the receiver and the strength and frequency of the signal are recorded and interpreted.[2]

Common radar remote sensing bands.[3]

 
Data Access and Acquisition
Use of remote sensing – radar in geothermal exploration and reservoir monitoring is done via several commercial satellites described in the table below. [3]

Common radar remote sensing bands.[3]

 
Best Practices
•Radar remote sensing is a useful technique for monitoring the effects of fluid injection and extraction on surface deformation at geothermal areas. Ground subsidence and uplift can be measured with millimeter accuracy.[1]

•This method can also be used for detection of active faults in a geothermal area

 
Potential Pitfalls
•When being utilized in densely forested regions only certain frequency bands can penetrate the forest canopy.[3]

•Collection of data for a particular area is limited to the time intervals that the satellites pass by.








 
References
  1. 1.0 1.1 Giacomo Falorni,Jessica Morgan,Mariana Eneva. 2011. Advanced InSAR Techniques for Geothermal Exploration and Production. Geothermal Resources Council Transactions. 35(N/A):1661-1666., Giacomo Falorni,Jessica Morgan,Mariana Eneva. 2011. Advanced InSAR Techniques for Geothermal Exploration and Production. Geothermal Resources Council Transactions. (!) .
  2. Institute For Geophysics. How Radar Works [Internet]. 2013. N/A. Institute For Geophysics. [updated 2013/09/23;cited 2013/09/23]. Available from: http://www.ig.utexas.edu/research/projects/mars/education/radar_works.htm
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 William V. Parker. Discover the Benefits of Radar Imaging [Internet]. 2012. N/A. EIJ Earth Imaging Journal. [updated 2013/09/20;cited 2013/09/20]. Available from: http://eijournal.com/2012/discover-the-benefits-of-radar-imaging, William V. Parker. Discover the Benefits of Radar Imaging [Internet]. [cited {{{WebCiteDate}}}]. Available from: {{{WebSiteURL}}}




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