RAPID/BulkTransmission/Transmission Siting & Interconnection/California
Bulk Transmission Transmission Siting & Interconnection in California
At a Glance
|State Siting Act:||Public Utilities Act|
|State Preemptive Authority||Local jurisdictions acting pursuant to local authority are preempted from regulating electric power line projects constructed by public utilities subject to the California Public Utility Commission’s (CPUC) jurisdiction, the public utilities shall consult with local governments concerning land use matters.|
|Permit/Authorization Required:||Certificate of Public Convenience and Necessity (CPCN), and California Environmental Quality Act (CEQA) environmental analysis depending on voltage and whether the utility is investor owned.|
|Triggers:||According to CPUC General Order NO. 131-D 200kV and higher voltage require process of both CPCN and CEQA environmental analysis, facilities between 50kV and 200kV require a Permit to Construct which includes CEQA level environmental analysis.|
|Application Requirements:||The CPCN for larger transmission projects requires the applicant to demonstrate need for the project and load forecasts. The CEQA environmental analysis requires the applicant to analyze impacts to various environmental and socioeconomic resources.|
|Permit Processing Timeframe:||Typically 18 months but the process can take longer for contentious projects.|
|Contacts/Agencies:||California Public Utilities Commission|
General Transmission Siting & Interconnection Overview
Electrical transmission in California falls under the jurisdiction of three entities: The CPUC, which determines need and is responsible for siting new facilities; CEC, which addresses policy and forecasting in biennial reports, has jurisdiction over establishing new transmission corridors in the state and which licenses thermal power plants over 50 MW; and the California Independent System Operator (CAISO), which annually plans transmission upgrades for and operates as the balancing authority for more than 80% of the California grid. CAISO is regulated by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) and carries out its activities in close collaboration with the CPUC and CEC.
As part of the Western Interconnection, additions and connections to the electrical grid in California are planned as part of the WestConnect and CAISO regional planning entities that were established under FERC Order 1000. CAISO is the West’s only Independent System Operator and collaboratively plans and has responsibility for operating the grid for the state’s investor owned and FERC jurisdictional entities. California publicly owned utilities are organized in WestConnect for regional and interregional planning and cost allocation determinations. They typically plan and operate transmission under the jurisdiction of their local governments or the elected boards of their respective utility or irrigation districts. Both WestConnect and CAISO also participate in interconnection-wide transmission planning under the auspices of the Western Electricity Coordinating Council (WECC).
The Western Electricity Coordinating Council and the newly formed WECC spin-off company, Peak Reliability, are responsible for planning, coordinating and promoting Bulk Electric System transmission and reliability in the Western Interconnection, including in California. WECC analyzes system needs and futures and coordinates the planning activities of its members as part of its Regional Transmission Expansion Planning (RTEP) project. Pacific Gas & Electric, Southern California Edison, Imperial Irrigation District, Los Angeles Department of Water and Power, San Diego Gas & Electric, Sacramento Municipal Utility District, PacifiCorp, Bonneville Power Administration, Transmission Agency of Northern California, Metropolitan Water District and Western Area Power Administration provide transmission services in the state of California.
California Energy Policy
The Warren-Alquist Act (http://www.energy.ca.gov/reports/Warren-Alquist_Act/index.html Division 15 of the Public Resources Code) designates the Energy Commission as the state's primary agency for energy policy and planning. Every two years, the commission is required to prepare the Integrated Energy Policy Report (IEPR) for the Governor and Legislature. The IEPR addresses transmission needs to meet goals related to electricity and natural gas, transportation, energy efficiency, renewables, and public interest energy research.
State Transmission Siting & Interconnection Process
Transmission lines 200 kV or greater are required to undergo a two-part state siting and permitting process with the CPUC. One part of the process will analyze the need for the project and consists of obtaining a CPCN from the CPUC. The other part of the process will analyze environmental and community impacts in the environmental analysis for CEQA. These processes can occur concurrently, and typically take more than 18 months.
The overall permitting process starts with the applicant submitting a CPCN application and Proponent’s Environmental Assessment (PEA). The CPCN and CEQA review processes run concurrently, but on separate paths. The application can be protested by outside parties, which would trigger public and evidentiary hearings with an Administrative Law Judge. Uncontested applications would move forward into the CEQA analysis process without having to conduct public hearings. Concurrently, the PEA will be reviewed, and the project will undergo public meetings and review. After the public meetings have taken place, using the PEA as a starting point, a draft Environmental Impact Report (EIR) or Mitigated Negative Declaration (MND) would be developed and issued by the CPUC. An MND is a written statement briefly describing the reasons why a proposed project will not have a significant environmental impact and that the project will not require the preparation of an EIR.  There will be another public comment period on the draft EIR or MND, after which a final EIR or MND would be prepared. An approval decision would be made in both the CPCN and CEQA proceedings, which would again be open for comment and a final decision, would be made and certified.
The application for the CPCN would address issues of need,Public Utilities Commission General Order NO. 131-D  current system reliability and increased reliability from the proposed project, load forecasts, project cost, opportunities for local generation, and interconnection with renewable resources.
The environmental analysis process ensures that environmental impacts are evaluated pursuant to CEQA. The proponent will first develop and submit a PEA, which includes detailed analysis of environmental resources, community values, aesthetic resources, and historic resources. Project alternatives are also included in the environmental analysis and must include the methods used to arrive at the proposed proposal and alternatives, and the alternatives considered but eliminated and the reasons for elimination. Alternatives are discussed in the detailed discussion of significant impacts chapter of the PEA. The PEA must include the following sections:
- Project Purpose and Need
- Project Description
- Environmental Setting
- Environmental Impact Assessment Summary of the following resources:
- Agriculture Resources
- Air Quality
- Biological Resources
- Cultural Resources
- Geology, Soils, and Seismicity
- Hazards and Hazardous Materials
- Hydrology and Water Quality
- Land Use and Planning
- Mineral Resources
- Population and Housing
- Public Services
- Transportation and Traffic
- Utilities and Services Systems
- Cumulative Analysis
- Growth-Inducing Impacts, If Significant
- Detailed discussion of significant impacts
The CPUC provides a detailed guidance checklist for developing the PEA, called the Proponent’s Environmental Assessment Checklist for Transmission Line and Substation Project. Projects less than 200kV but greater than 50kV are not subject to the CPCN process, but must obtain an approved Permit to Construct which includes compliance with CEQA.  Projects less than 50 kV are not subject to permits from the CPUC or local governments. Projects that do not require permits must still communicate with and obtain input of local authorities regarding land use.  The proponent is responsible for obtaining any non-discretionary permits, such as public works permits.
Local Transmission Siting & Interconnection Process
Local jurisdictions do not have siting authority for transmission facilities.
Policies & Regulations
- An Introduction to Electric Power Transmission
- CPUC General Order 131-D
- CSLC ROW Forms
- California PRC 25120, Definition for Thermal Powerplant
- California Public Utilities Act
- California – Establishing Transmission Project Review Streamlining Directives
- ETrans Federal Permitting Transmission Tracking System
- Edison Electric Institute State Generation and Transmission Siting Directory
- Electric Transmission Siting at the California PUC
- Environmental Recommendations for Transmission Planning
- GIDAP Best Management Practice
- Generation Interconnection and Deliverability Allocation Procedures
- Glossary of Transmission Grid Integration Terms
- Interstate Transmission Challenges for Renewable Energy: A Federalism Mismatch
- Proponent’s Environmental Assessment (PEA) Checklist for Transmission Line and Substation Projects
- Renewable and Distributed Power in California Simplifying the Regulatory Maze – Making the Path for Future
- State Electricity Profiles
- State Generation & Transmission Siting Directory
- Testing the Effectiveness of an Avian Flight Diverter for Reducing Avian Collissions with Distribution Power Lines in the Sacramento Valley, California
- Transmission Siting in Western United States: Overview and Recommendations Prepared as Information to the Western Interstate Energy Board
- U.S. Energy Mapping System
- P.R.C. § 21064.5 (2014).
- Public Utilities Commission General Order NO. 131-D (1995). part VIII
- P.U.C. § 399.25 (2011).
- P.R.C. § 21000-21189.3 et.seq. (1970).
- P.U.C. § 1002 (1981).
- P.U.C. § 1002.3 (1951).
- Public Utilities Commission General Order NO. 131-D (1995). Section III B, Section IX B
- Public Utilities Commission General Order NO. 131-D (1995). Section III C