Property:Notes

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D cont.

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I cont.

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2-M Probe At Alum Area (Kratt, Et Al., 2010) +More than 100 new 2m measurements at Astor Pass, Nevada resolved additional details of near-surface thermal outflow in this blind geothermal system
2-M Probe At Astor Pass Area (Kratt, Et Al., 2010) +More than 100 new 2m measurements at Astor Pass, Nevada resolved additional details of near-surface thermal outflow in this blind geothermal system
2-M Probe At Columbus Salt Marsh Area (Kratt, Et Al., 2010) +At Columbus Salt Marsh, Nevada, additional 2m measurements better defined the shape of a blind, shallow thermal anomaly; also at this location deeper temperature measurements were used to develop a near-surface temperature gradient.
2-M Probe At Dead Horse Wells Area (Kratt, Et Al., 2010) +Background temperatures between 14.7°C and 17.7°C were encountered in the playa and are likely influenced by near-surface groundwater, as evidenced by abundant greasewood. In comparison, what we interpret as background, or near-background temperatures in the alluvial fan environment averaged about 20°C. The2-meter anomaly is characterized by temperatures up to 37°C (99°F) measured over a distance of more than 1.5 km. Lower, yet still anomalous, temperatures extend for a total distance of 5.5 km. The long axis of this thermal anomaly is oriented in an east-northeast direction and is at least 2 km wide.
2-M Probe At Flint Geothermal Area (DOE GTP) +"shallow temp"
2-M Probe At Fort Bliss Area (DOE GTP) +"shallow temp"
2-M Probe At Gabbs Alkali Flat Area (Kratt, Et Al., 2008) +More than 100 2-meter-deep temperature measurements were made during two separate surveys that took place in December 2007 and April 2008 (Figure 5). The area covered was 16 km in length parallel to the range front and a maximum of nearly 5 km out into the valley. The highest recorded temperature of 37°C was obtained approximately 100 m upslope from Rawhide hot springs. Near these springs, temperatures rapidly cool towards the playa due to shallow groundwater masking the thermal anomaly. In contrast, to the north near the hot well, temperatures are less impressive but are anomalous and suggest the presence of a broad thermal anomaly. A maximum of 22°C was recorded about 2 km to the south of the hot well and temperatures averaging about 20°C extend for about 3 km parallel to the range front and 3 km perpendicular to the range front. Temperatures drop to background levels that are lower than 18°C to the north and east of the hot well anomaly. The temperature anomaly at Gabbs Alkali Flat is more subtle than it is at Tungsten Mountain, Teels, and Rhodes Marshes.
2-M Probe At Hawthorne Area (Kratt, Et Al., 2010) +Shallow 2m surveys were first conducted at Hawthorne by Trexler et al. (1982b), who were among the earliest researchers to employ 2m surveys on a systematic basis in the Great Basin. Their work identified two shallow thermal anomalies, one of them located west of the city of Hawthorne at the base of the Wassuk Range, and the other in the "Southeast Magazine" area, south of state highway 50 and southeast of Hawthorne (anomalies A and B on Figure 3). Subsequent drilling verified the existence of shallow thermal groundwaters at both localities (Trexler et al., 1982b). A new 2m survey, employing the modernized equipment and techniques developed at the Great Basin Center for Geothermal Energy, was completed at Hawthorne in 2009 and 2010 as part of a geothermal exploration program funded through the Navy Geothermal Program Office. This survey envelopes the area of the previous survey and extends coverage further to the northeast and south. The results corroborate the earlier work well in the areas of overlap, while in the zone of expanded coverage, two new thermal anomalies (anomalies C and D, Figure 3) were identified.
2-M Probe At Mcgee Mountain Area (DOE GTP) +"shallow temp"
2-M Probe At Rhodes Marsh Area (Kratt, Et Al., 2008) +Two-meter survey work at Rhodes Marsh began in December of 2007 followed by more recent activity in May of 2008. More than 65 2-meter-deep temperatures have been measured over a distance of 7 km (Figure 4). At the foot of the Pilot Mountains these data roughly parallel the southern end of Benton Springs fault. Anomalous temperatures up to 26.7°C occur adjacent to opalized sands and reveal a significant NW elongate temperature anomaly more than 5 km long. Cold shallow groundwater at the playa's eastern margin abruptly conceals the central and westward part of the anomaly.
2-M Probe At Rhodes Marsh Area (Shevenell, Et Al., 2008) +Coolbaugh et al. (2007), Sladek et al. (2007), and Kratt, et al. (2008, this volume) describe a shallow temperature survey system in which temperatures can be measured quickly and inexpensively at 2 m depths. This system was tested at Desert Queen based on its structural setting and availability of thermal gradient well data obtained in the 1970's from which to make thermal anomaly comparisons. The system was subsequently used at Tungsten Mountain and Teels and Rhodes Marshes to help locate blind geothermal systems.
2-M Probe At Teels Marsh Area (Kratt, Et Al., 2008) +"An initial 2-meter survey was conducted at Teels Marsh in November and December of 2007. The range bounding Excelsior fault was followed as closely as terrain would allow. The two week effort resulted in over 80 measurements covering a distance greater than 26 km and the identification of two anomalous temperature zones (Figure 2). Temperatures in the northern anomaly reached as high as 26°C while temperatures at the southern anomaly were up to 35°C. These data stand in contrast to background temperatures of approximately 16-18°C. More recently, infill work completed in May 2008 provided detail at the southern anomaly. A deeper probe inserted at the location of the highest measured 2-meter-deep temperature reached a temperature of 65°C (148°F) at a depth of 9.5 meters (31 feet, Figure 3). The two anomalous temperature zones at Teels Marsh have a combined strike length of almost 4 km parallel to the western end of the Excelsior Mountain fault, and both occur where the strike of the fault changes from northeast to northwest."
2-M Probe At Teels Marsh Area (Shevenell, Et Al., 2008) +Coolbaugh et al. (2007), Sladek et al. (2007), and Kratt, et al. (2008, this volume) describe a shallow temperature survey system in which temperatures can be measured quickly and inexpensively at 2 m depths. This system was tested at Desert Queen based on its structural setting and availability of thermal gradient well data obtained in the 1970's from which to make thermal anomaly comparisons. The system was subsequently used at Tungsten Mountain and Teels and Rhodes Marshes to help locate blind geothermal systems.
2-M Probe At The Needles Area (Kratt, Et Al., 2010) +"A new geothermal system was identified from 2m measurements at Emerson Pass on the Pyramid Lake Paiute Reservation in Washoe County, Nevada. This narrow NNW-trending valley contains several faults that appear to transfer dextral strain from NW-striking faults in the northern Walker Lane to N-NNW striking normal faults in the Smoke Creek Desert. The thermal anomaly extends for at least 3 km parallel to the range-front fault that defines the east side of the Emerson Pass valley. A maximum temperature of 35°C was recorded near several large tufa mounds on the valley floor down-gradient from a NNW-striking, west dipping normal fault. Also indicated on GTP ARRA spreadsheet, 3/24/2011"
2-M Probe At Tungsten Mountain Area (Kratt, Et Al., 2008) +"To test if it would have been possible to find the Tungsten Mountain geothermal system with a shallow temperature survey, more than 80 2-meter-deep temperatures were recorded during a two week period in late June and early July, 2007. These measurements spanned an 8-km-long zone parallel to the range front and extended eastward from the range front up to 2 km towards the playa's edge (Figure 1). Two-meter temperatures ranged from 14.0°C up to a maximum of 26.7° C. The higher temperatures correspond to the area of exploration drilling, although anomalously high temperatures extend northeastward beyond the area of drilling. These results help to better define a thermal anomaly that generally parallels the range-front for over 5 km and remains open to the northeast."
2-M Probe At Tungsten Mountain Area (Shevenell, Et Al., 2008) +Coolbaugh et al. (2007), Sladek et al. (2007), and Kratt, et al. (2008, this volume) describe a shallow temperature survey system in which temperatures can be measured quickly and inexpensively at 2 m depths. This system was tested at Desert Queen based on its structural setting and availability of thermal gradient well data obtained in the 1970's from which to make thermal anomaly comparisons. The system was subsequently used at Tungsten Mountain and Teels and Rhodes Marshes to help locate blind geothermal systems. Of the new, blind geothermal sites identified through collaboration with the minerals industry, shallow temperature surveys were conducted at Tungsten Mountain. No hot springs are known in the Tungsten Mountain area, yet the minerals industry located hot waters in their exploration holes. A two meter temperature survey conducted during 2007 identified a strong thermal anomaly at least 6 km long in the vicinity of the mineral exploration drill holes along a hydrothermally altered range front fault (Figure 3, overleaf). The geothermal system, which has geothermometer temperatures of 175degrees C, occupies a possible step-over in the range from fault on the northwest side of Edwards Creek Valley.
2-M Probe At Winnemucca Dry Lake Area (Kratt, Et Al., 2010) +More than 20 2-meter-deep temperatures were measured adjacent to these selected towers in a two-day period of November 2007. No obvious zones of temperature anomalies were detected. We were unable to clearly ascertain the background temperature but the spatial distribution of the data did not point to a broader zone of thermal highs. At both of these tufa localities, the process of inserting 2-meterlong probes into the ground was substantially slower, as compared with other study areas, due to the presence of tufa rocks that are hidden below the surface. More work at Winnemucca Dry Lake and Toulon, or similar settings may be needed to get a better idea of what local background temperatures are. Although no hidden temperature anomalies were identified, future work is planned to better understand how and when sub-lacustrine tufa can be used as indicators of geothermal potential.
2-M Probe Survey At Chena Geothermal Area (Wescott & Turner, 1982) +Ground temperature survey performed with a 0.5 m probe. This survey yielded a SE-trending anomaly with an elongated orientation, parallel to inferred faulting in the granitic pluton. These results were interpreted as an indication of the potential presence of fault-dominated thermal fluid flow.
2-M Probe Survey At Coso Geothermal Area (1977) +Shallow soil temperature data (2m) were collected at 102 sites at Coso. Close geometrical similarity between the shallow soil temperature has been observed with the 30-m contour data for Coso using computer program.
2-M Probe Survey At Coso Geothermal Area (1979) +Corrected 2-m temperature anomaly at Coso was compared with a low altitude aeromagnetic anomaly and an anomaly outlined by electrical resistivity methods obtained independently. Preliminary tests were made with a simple thermal conductivity probe demonstrating the feasibility of measuring soil thermal diffusivity at the time the 2-m temperatures are recorded.
2-M Probe Survey At Coso Geothermal Area (2007) +The field data include subsurface temperature measured with temperature probes at depths down to 1 m, surface temperatures recorded with a hand-held infrared camera and an infrared thermometer, reflectance of contrasting surfaces measured with a hand-held spectroradiometer for the purpose of estimating the albedo effect, and radiosonde atmospheric profiles of temperature, water vapor, and pressure in order to apply atmospheric corrections to the images.
2-M Probe Survey At Dixie Valley Geothermal Area (Skord, Et Al., 2001) +A couple of Two-Meter temperature surveys were conducted for a geothermal exploration project at Naval Air Station Fallon. One of the surveys was conducted along the perimeter of bombing range 17 which covers the southern part of Dixie Valley and Fairview valley which is just south of Dixie Valley. Four anomalies were discovered during this study, the anomaly of most interest is at Pirouette Mountain and is likely geothermal related; temperatures of 3-4°C above the background were recorded there. Pirouette Mountain is located in the southeast side of Dixie Valley. Gradient hole drilling had been done at Pirouette Mountain previous to this study and also revealed a potential geothermal anomaly.
2-M Probe Survey At Salt Wells Area (Coolbaugh, Et Al., 2006) +This study used a modified version of the 2 m temperature probe survey, adapted for the Salt Wells site (where the water table is at or near the land surface) to measure temperatures at relatively shallow depths of 30 cm. A 1/8 inch diameter, 30-cm-long digital K-type thermocouple and probe was used to collect temperature measurements at each sample point. Temperature measurements were taken by inserting the probe into the ground by hand, and required minimal equilibration times of 1-2 minutes owing to the small thermal mass of the device and the level of water saturation of the measured sediments. Temperature surveys were conducted during the winter in February 2005, when background temperatures at 30 cm depth were near a seasonal minimum of 3 to 10°C. A continuous 24 hour temperature test was also conducted using a 3-wire Platinum Resistance Temperature Device (Pt-RTD) in February 2006, in order to demonstrate the stability of temperatures at 30 cm depth, which only varied by +/- 0.1°C during the day. A temperature threshold of 12°C was used to distinguish thermal anomalies from background temperatures; of the several thousand temperature measures taken for this study, a total of 286 readings were above the 12°C cutoff, with 133 measures of > 20°C, and 32 measures of > 38°C. The maximum temperature encountered was 67.2°C. The measured areas of warm ground showed considerably better correlation with major northwest- and north- to northeast-striking structural controls than the more sporadically distributed springs and seeps, and in some cases were used to locate seasonal springs and seeps for water sampling. The authors concluded that the semi-continuous distribution of silicification and warm ground along the northwestern margin and central portion of the Salt Wells basin define a 6-km-long, thermally active north- to northeast-striking structure that broadly aligns with the thermal anomaly identified by the early Anadarko geothermal gradient drilling. This thermal anomaly is thought to relate either to northward flow of thermal groundwater in the subsurface from the inferred zone of upwelling in the southwest corner of the basin, or to intermittent upflow along the north- to northeast-striking structure on the basin’s western margin.
2-M Probe Survey At Salt Wells Area (Skord, Et Al., 2011) +Two-meter temperature data were measured at approximately 50 stations using a Resistance Temperature Device (RTD) lowered through a hollow steel temperature probe tipped with tungsten for easier ground penetration. Corrections were applied to these data to account for seasonal temperature drift of +4°C, measured in several base stations between the months of February and May. Two-meter temperatures ranged from 10°C to 45°C, with high temperature measurement stations defining a roughly north-south trending anomaly spanning several kilometers that is believed to represent an outflow zone along the eastern flank of the Bunejug Mountains. Subtle to moderate temperature anomalies (between 13 and 25°C) were measured in Simpson Pass, and are interpreted as the main zone of upwelling within the Salt Wells geothermal system. The highest temperature measurements occurred to the north of the producing geothermal plant, and may represent an additional upwelling zone within the outflow plume associated with known fault scarps on the Basin’s western margin.

A

Acoustic Logs At Alum Area (Moos & Ronne, 2010) +The results revealed that acoustic images are superior to electrical images to detect structurally important natural fractures and stress-induced wellbore breakouts and tensile wall fractures, and were adequate to detect stratigraphic features.
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