Production Wells

From Open Energy Information

Exploration Technique: Production Wells

[edit]
"{{{ExplorationCostPerMetric}}}" is not in the list of possible values (100 feet cut, 30 foot core, compound, day, element, foot, hour, mile, point, process, sample, sq. mile, station, Subject, well) for this property.



"{{{ExplorationTimePerMetric}}}" is not in the list of possible values (job, 10 mile, 10 stn, 100 mile, sq. mile, foot) for this property.



Exploration Technique Information
Exploration Group: Drilling Techniques
Exploration Sub Group: Development Drilling
Parent Exploration Technique: Development Drilling
Information Provided by Technique
Lithology: Drill cuttings are analyzed to determine lithology and mineralogy
Stratigraphic/Structural: Fractures, faults, and geologic formations that the well passes through are identified and mapped.
Hydrological: Identify aquifers, reservoir boundaries, flow rates, fluid pressure, and chemistry
Thermal: Direct temperature measurements from within the reservoir
Dictionary.png
Production Wells:
A well drilled with the primary purpose of bringing geothermal water and steam to the surface for commercial utilization.
Other definitions:Wikipedia Reegle


 
Introduction
  • "A production wells primary purpose is to bring geothermal fluids to the surface for commercial utilization. Production wells are normally larger in diameter and deeper than exploratory wells, thus they are also much more expensive to drill. Drilling of production wells are the last step in the exploration process and developers normally have a good reservoir model established from other exploration methods before production drilling takes place. Production well designs can vary greatly depending on target depth, expected down hole conditions, and drilling equipment available. Production well drilling can be very complicating and often costs around 1-7 million dollars per well.'"`UNIQ--ref-00000000-QINU`"'

    Cost increases with depth drilled and time spent drilling. Estimating drilling times and costs is extremely difficult because there are many different well designs and many unknown factors that will influence the drilling operations such as loss of drilling fluid, drilling rates, and number of drill bit changes just to name a few.'"`UNIQ--ref-00000001-QINU`"'

    [[File: Cost_vs_depth_of_production_wells.PNG|thumb|center|400px| Drilling costs as a function of well depth, comparing geothermal wells (red line) to oil and gas wells (black line). Drilling costs increase exponentially with depth.'"`UNIQ--ref-00000002-QINU`"'" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki.
  • The given value was not understood.
A production wells primary purpose is to bring geothermal fluids to the surface for commercial utilization. Production wells are normally larger in diameter and deeper than exploratory wells, thus they are also much more expensive to drill. Drilling of production wells are the last step in the exploration process and developers normally have a good reservoir model established from other exploration methods before production drilling takes place. Production well designs can vary greatly depending on target depth, expected down hole conditions, and drilling equipment available. Production well drilling can be very complicating and often costs around 1-7 million dollars per well.[1]

Cost increases with depth drilled and time spent drilling. Estimating drilling times and costs is extremely difficult because there are many different well designs and many unknown factors that will influence the drilling operations such as loss of drilling fluid, drilling rates, and number of drill bit changes just to name a few.[2]

Drilling costs as a function of well depth, comparing geothermal wells (red line) to oil and gas wells (black line). Drilling costs increase exponentially with depth.[3]
 
Use in Geothermal Exploration
  • "Production wells are essential for geothermal utilization and are the link between a geothermal reservoir and the surface. The main goal of a production well is to reach areas within the reservoir that have the highest permeability, temperature, and pressure, so that the highest enthalpy fluids can be extracted. A production wells main purpose is geothermal utilization but they can also be considered an exploration method because data from the first production well will often lead to a better drilling location for a second production well. Production wells are the best means for acquiring direct measurements from within the reservoir and the information gained from each successive production well enhances the reservoir model allowing for improvement in each drilling effort. Due to the high costs, drilling production wells is the most risky step in geothermal development. Drilling costs will normally consist of about 35-40% of the total capital cost during a geothermal project.'"`UNIQ--ref-00000003-QINU`"' Not all production wells will be successful but on average a strong production wells can often provide enough geothermal fluids to generate around 5-7 MW of electricity. Most wells drilled throughout the world produce 3 MW.'"`UNIQ--ref-00000004-QINU`"' On average the success rate of the first production well drilled in a geothermal area is about 50%.'"`UNIQ--ref-00000005-QINU`"'" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki.
  • The given value was not understood.
Production wells are essential for geothermal utilization and are the link between a geothermal reservoir and the surface. The main goal of a production well is to reach areas within the reservoir that have the highest permeability, temperature, and pressure, so that the highest enthalpy fluids can be extracted. A production wells main purpose is geothermal utilization but they can also be considered an exploration method because data from the first production well will often lead to a better drilling location for a second production well. Production wells are the best means for acquiring direct measurements from within the reservoir and the information gained from each successive production well enhances the reservoir model allowing for improvement in each drilling effort.

Due to the high costs, drilling production wells is the most risky step in geothermal development. Drilling costs will normally consist of about 35-40% of the total capital cost during a geothermal project.[1] Not all production wells will be successful but on average a strong production wells can often provide enough geothermal fluids to generate around 5-7 MW of electricity. Most wells drilled throughout the world produce 3 MW.[1] On average the success rate of the first production well drilled in a geothermal area is about 50%.[1]

 
Related Techniques
"<br>

  • Development Drilling
  •  
    Field Procedures
    The given value was not understood.
    Drilling of production wells requires the largest type of drill rigs, large quantities of material, and a high amount of water. Once the drilling location is established the land needs to be cleared to make way for the drilling rig and all of the associated equipment. In remote areas access roads may need to be constructed. There are many types of drilling procedures and well designs that can be used depending on the geology, target depth, expected temperatures, flow rates, etc. for a detailed description of geothermal drilling methods see chapter 6 (Drilling and Well Construction) in Geothermal Direct Use Engineering and Design Guidebook.[2]
    Geothermal drilling at Te Mihi west of Wairakei, New Zealand.[4]

     
    Environmental Mitigation Measures
    When multiple wells are to be drilled sometimes direction drilling can be utilized so that more than one well can be drilled from the same drilling pad. This reduces land usage by reducing the amount of drilling pads, the amount of access roads needed, and the amount of pipeline tracks needed.


     
    Best Practices
    Firm evidence from multiple exploration techniques is very important when deciding where to drill production wells. A solid reservoir model should be in place when deciding on the best drilling locations.
     
    Potential Pitfalls
    Production wells are very expensive, so an unsuccessful well can be very costly to the company.



     
    References
    1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 International Finance Corporation, GeothermEx Inc.. 2013. Success of Geothermal Wells: A Global Study. Washington, D.C.: International Finance Corporation.
    2. 2.0 2.1 Gene Culver. 1998. Geothermal Direct Use Engineering and Design Guidebook - Chapter 6 - Drilling and Well Construction. N/A: Geo-Heat Center. 129-164p.
    3. Jeff Tester. 2011. Oil and Gas Well Drilling. N/A. N/A. Oil and Gas Well Drilling; N/Ap.
    4. Geothermal drilling at Te Mihi NZ.jpg [Internet]. 2010. Wikimedia Commons. [cited 2013/10/03]. Available from: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Geothermal_drilling_at_Te_Mihi_NZ.jpg



      Document #Analysis
      Type
      ApplicantGeothermal
      Area
      Lead
      Agency
      District
      Office
      Field
      Office
      Mineral
      Manager
      Surface
      Manager
      Development
      Phase(s)
      Techniques
      DOI-BLM-CA-670-2010-107CXOrmat Nevada, Inc.North Brawley Geothermal AreaBLMBLM California Desert District OfficeBLMBLMGeothermal/Well FieldProduction Wells
      DOI-BLM-NV-063-EA08-091EAOrmat Technologies IncBuffalo Valley Hot Springs Geothermal AreaGeothermal/Power PlantProduction Wells
      DOI-BLM-NV-B010-2011-0015-EAEAOrmat Technologies IncMcGuinness Hills Geothermal AreaBureau of Land ManagementBLM Battle Mountain District OfficeBureau of Land ManagementBureau of Land ManagementGeothermal/Power PlantWell Testing Techniques
      Drilling Techniques
      Production Wells
      DOI-BLM-NV-C010-2009-0018-EAEAMagma EnergySoda Lake Geothermal AreaBureau of Land ManagementBLM Carson City District OfficeBLM Stillwater Field OfficeBLMBureau of ReclamationGeothermal/Well FieldProduction Wells
      DOI-BLM-NV-C010-2012-0016-DNADNAOrmat Technologies IncSalt Wells Geothermal AreaBureau of Land ManagementBLM Carson City District OfficeBLM Stillwater Field OfficeBureau of Land ManagementBureau of Land ManagementGeothermal/Well FieldProduction Wells
      DOI-BLM-NV-C010-2013-0020-DNADNAGradient Resources Geothermal Drilling Permit Application Well 14-28Patua Geothermal AreaBureau of Land ManagementBLM Carson City District OfficeBLM Stillwater Field OfficeBLMBureau of ReclamationGeothermal/Well FieldProduction Wells
      DOI-BLM-NV-C010-2013-0026-DNADNATGP Coyote Canyon LLCDixie Valley Geothermal AreaBLMBLM Carson City District OfficeBLM Stillwater Field OfficeBLMBLMGeothermal/Well FieldProduction Wells
      DOI-BLM-NV-CO10-2011-0501-EAEAGradient ResourcesPatua Geothermal AreaBureau of Land ManagementBLM Carson City District OfficeBLM Stillwater Field OfficeBLMGeothermal/Well FieldProduction Wells
      Thermal Gradient Holes
      NEPA Process for Geothermal Power Plants in the Deschutes National ForestEISCal EnergyNewberry Caldera Geothermal AreaUSFS
      BLM
      Geothermal/Exploration
      Geothermal/Well Field
      Geothermal/Power Plant
      Exploration Drilling
      Exploratory Boreholes
      Production Wells
      Thermal Gradient Holes
      San Emido Geothermal Energy North ProjectEAUSG Nevada LLCSan Emidio Desert Geothermal AreaBLMBLM Winnemucca District OfficeBLMBLMGeothermal/Power Plant
      Geothermal/Well Field
      Production Wells


      <metadesc> About Production Wells, a geothermal exploration technique, including areas of use. </metadesc>