Philippines: Energy Resources
|Energy Consumption||1.29 Quadrillion Btu|
|2-letter ISO code||PH|
|3-letter ISO code||PHL|
|Numeric ISO code||608|
|UN Region||South-Eastern Asia|
|Energy Maps||6 view|
|Energy Organizations||4 view|
|CIA World Factbook, Appendix D|
|Wind Potential||11,055||Area(km²) Class 3-7 Wind at 50m||30||1990||NREL|
|Coal Reserves||348.33||Million Short Tons||40||2008||EIA|
|Natural Gas Reserves||108,700,000,000||Cubic Meters (cu m)||52||2010||CIA World Factbook|
|Oil Reserves||168,000,000||Barrels (bbl)||63||2010||CIA World Factbook|
Energy Maps featuring Philippines
Policy and Regulatory Overview 
The Philippines consists of several islands, the larger of which are the islands of Luzon, mainland Mindanao, and the six largest islands in the Visayas (Cebu, Negros, Panay, Bohol, Leyte, and Samar). These eight dominant islands constitute the major electrical systems of the country with a combined power demand of around 7,000 MW.At present, the main islands in the Visayas are interconnected to each other with limited transfer capacity. The interconnected grid is linked with the Luzon grid to effectively share the reserve capacity of the system. The Mindanao grid remained isolated from the rest of the system until 2004, when a 500 MW, 436 km HVDC connector was constructed between Leyte and Mindanao.The government envisaged attaining 100% electrification by 2008. 98.03% of the population had access to electricity as of the 30th June 2009.
The Renewable Energy Bill that, after pending in Philippine Congress for more than 18 years, was passed by the Senate in 2008 and contains a set of initiatives to attract renewable energy developers to invest in the country. Dubbed as the Renewable Energy Act of 2008, it gives incentives to investors and energy producers to build renewable energy power plants instead of fossil fuel-based systems. The legislation aims to accelerate the development and use of the nation's vast renewable energy resources through fiscal and non-fiscal incentives for investors. It also assures investors in wind, solar, ocean, run-of-river hydro power and biomass a secure market in electricity generated from these clean sources through feed-in tariffs. Other incentives include duty-free importation of equipment, tax credit on domestic capital equipment and services, special realty tax rates, income tax holidays, net operating loss carry-over, accelerated depreciation and exemption from the universal charge and wheeling charges. The bill also seeks to institutionalise a Renewable Portfolio Standard requiring the country's electric utilities to obtain a certain portion of their electricity from clean, home-grown renewable energy sources. The DOE signed the implementing rules and regulations (IRR) just five months after the law was passed. With the signing, the DOE expects to further boost investments in the sector and double power production from the sector to 9,000 MW by 2013.Aiming to build on the success of the NRE Sources Development Program, and the 100% electrification of barangays in the country in 2009, the NEA constructed the 2010 Medium-term Development Plan, aiming at 100% electrification of Sitios, the next geo-political unit of society, as well as a line enhancement program to improve the electricity access of the newly-powered barangays.In November 2009, the Philippine Government, in agreement with the Asian Development Bank (ADB), the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development, and the International Finance Corporation developed a business plan. The plan is called the Clean Technology Fund (CTF) Country Investment Plan (CIP). The CIP is a proposal to use the CTF resources in the Philippines, and includes a potential pipeline of projects and required resources.The sectors considered for using the CTF fall into three subsectors: energy efficiency renewable energy urban transport.However, the programs proposed for CTF financing do not involve new technology. Rather, they involve technology that is readily available to the Philippines, but that faces institutional, regulatory, or cost barriers (especially upfront investment cost barriers) which must be overcome for replication and up-scaling.
To further boost investors’ interest in renewable energy development, the sector is awaiting the promulgation of other policy and regulatory mechanisms. These mechanisms include such things as a Renewable Portfolio Standard, which will set the minimum percentage of generation from eligible renewable energy resources provided by the generators, distribution utilities and electric suppliers, and a feed-in tariff (FiT) system, which will provide guaranteed payments on a fixed rate per kilowatt-hour for renewable energy generation (excluding any generation for own use).
Total installed electricity capacity (2009): 61,934 GWhIts power requirements were sourced primarily from natural gas-fired and coal-fired power plants with 32% and 27% shares, respectively. Geothermal power plants and hydropower plants (ranked third and fourth, respectively, in terms of the economy’s power generation), experienced a combined decline of 2.2% from the 20 566 GWh of electricity generated in 2008. However, electricity generated from other renewable sources (wind/solar/biomass) significantly increased by 25% during the same year. Oil-based thermal plants provided 8% of the economy’s total power requirements.Total primary energy supply (2009): 39,456 ktoeOf this total, 59.5% was contributed by indigenous sources; the remainder was imported.Oil: 34.2%Geothermal & other renew.: 42.7%Coal: 14.9%The Philippines’ energy consumption per capita remains low among the APEC member countries. Due to its relatively small indigenous energy reserves and growing consumption, the Philippines is a net importer of energy, particularly of oil, coal and natural gas. Peak demand is forecast to continue to grow by ~5% per year until 2030. An effort to limit coal imports by 20 percent to reduce the country’s dependence on imported energy sources has led to expanded exploration for new oil and gas reserves, aiming to increase them by approximately 20 percent. Part of the strategy is thus to prioritise use of natural gas for power generation.
In preparing the electricity market for open access and competition, the ERC has been developing and promulgating a number of rules and regulations and has identified seven pillars for building a vibrant electricity market:i. Business Separation Guidelines directs distribution utilities (DUs) to have a clear separation of accounts for their regulated and non-regulated activities, and no cross-subsidies between their business activities;ii. Competition Rules to guard against the abuse of market power and anti-competitive agreements resulting from mergers and acquisitions between market participants;iii. Distribution Services and Open Access Rules for interface between the DUs and all users of the distribution system, including retail electricity suppliers (RES);iv. Guidelines for the Issuance of Licenses to RES prescribe the criteria, procedures for securing a license, as well as the general obligations of a RES;v. the Code of Conduct for Competitive Market Participants establishes standards of behaviour for marketing electricity to contestable customers;vi. Guidelines for the Supplier of Last Resort (SOLR) prescribes the conditions and procedures for SOLR service, the rates, the terms of service, etc.;vii. Uniform Business Practices (UBP) - rules relating to customer enrolment, switching and exchange of information between retail market participants.The ERC has also, promulgated the Magna Carta for Residential Consumers; required officials of DUs to undergo a mandatory regulatory education program; and established a consumer help desk. It has also promulgated Rules for Customer Switching and Contestability to govern the operations in the WESM. Approval of tariffs for electric power transmission and distribution is the responsibility of the ERC, after setting by the regulated enterprises of the sector. Tariffs are set to promote efficiency, as well as non-discrimination.The 2011 goals set by the ERC fall under the broad goal of “Efficient Utilities Management”. Activities of the ERC within 2011 will focus on ensuring the provision off efficient and high-quality service to customers from all regulated bodies within the sector. A Utilities Performance Index (UPI) has been created to this end.
After a power crisis in the early 1990s, the government set out to restructure and privatise the power sector to ensure adequate electricity supply and investment in energy infrastructure. The Electric Power Industry Reform Act (EPIRA) of 2001 set into motion the break-up and eventual privatisation of state-owned enterprises. The NPC’s assets designated for privatisation were organized into two state holding companies: the National Transmission Corporation (TransCo), and the Power Sector Assets and Liabilities Management Corporation (PSALM), which assumed control of NPC’s power plants. Under EPIRA measures, the government was also required to sell its equity stake in the Manila Electric Company (Meralco), the country’s largest electricity distribution company that serves the island of Luzon and the metropolitan Manila area. By 2007, 10 of 23 hydro and coal-fired thermal plants had been privatised, amounting to some 43% of the privatization target of 70% of the overall NPC’s assets that would signal open access and retail competition. This has earned valuable funds for the government, some US$2.682 billion, though lower than FDC and government targets. Generation of electric power is now competitive and open in the country. The Power Reform Law did not introduce any radical changes to the distribution sector. Both the transmission and distribution of electricity are regulated common carrier businesses, requiring a national franchise. The NGCP is currently the sole transmission operator in the country.
Total final energy consumption in 2008 amounted to 22,770 ktoe. The transport sector in the country contributed most to this, with 33.4% of TFC being attributed to the sector. The industrial and residential sector contributed 27.6% and 27.1% respectively, with the remainder being attributed to the commercial and agricultural sectors. Significant potential for the utilisation of demand-side management strategies therefore exists. Specific sectors that offer the most potential include the use of efficient lighting for on- and off-grid customers, improvements in building energy efficiency, and decreasing consumption in the public sector. Total primary energy supply per capita was 0.45 ktoe in 2008. The government is committed to promoting energy efficiency standards in all sectors, with projected savings of 229 million barrels of fuel oil equivalent (Mbfoe), and 50.9 million tonnes of CO2 available. There are also a number of potential sources of energy savings on the supply-side, particularly in distribution. 7.7 billion kWh of total distribution losses were recorded in 2008.
The heavy dependence on imported fossil fuels for power generation in the Philippines leaves the country vulnerable to price shocks in the international markets. Considerable indigenous geothermal resources are in the process of being fully developed, but until such a time as this occurs, imported fossil fuels will continue to dominate the energy mix. Despite current electricity generation being sufficient to meet demand, export capacity is limited, and the expansion of generating capacity in the country is primarily focused on coal power. Hydroelectric generation plants within the country are suffering due to falling reservoir levels, and power plant instability is becoming a problem in several of the grids, particularly the Luzon grid, which recorded a generation deficiency of 236 MW on March 3rd, 2010.
Under the Renewable Energy Act of 2008, the National Renewable Energy Board (NREB) was created. Members of the board represent the broadest spectrum of organisations involved in energy in the country, including representatives from the DOE, the Department of Trade and Industry, the Department of Finance, the Department of the Environment and Natural Resources, representatives from the national utilities, as well as NGOs and private operators. The Renewable Energy Management Bureau, established within the board as of 2009, acts as a technical secretariat to the Board. Tasks of the board include the implementation of the current Renewable Energy Act, as well as responsibilities to the DOE as the recommending body for renewable energy projects and action plans, including the proposition of feed-in tariffs. In addition, the NREB is responsible for overseeing the Renewable Energy Trust Fund, and the benefits the fund may confer upon renewable energy projects.
The National Electrification Administration (NEA, www.nea.gov.ph), created in 1969, is a Filipino government-owned and controlled corporation. It is the prime mover in the Rural Electrification Program, providing financial, institutional, and technical services to the electric distribution utilities.The National Transmission Corporation (TransCo, www.transco.ph) was a government-owned and controlled corporation that has assumed the electrical transmission functions of the National Power Corporation (NPC, www.napocor.gov.ph) in the major Philippine grids. Created by the Electric Power Industry Reform Act of 2001, TransCo was responsible for the planning, construction, centralised operation and maintenance of high voltage transmission facilities nationwide, including those of grid interconnections and provision of ancillary services. Following a competitive public bidding process in 2007, TransCo retained ownership of the national transmission network, and transferred management and operation of the network to the National Grid Corporation of the Philippines (NGCP, http://www.ngcp.ph/). Napocor currently operates as a generation and wholesale enterprise.The Power Sector Assets and Liabilities Management Corporation (PSALM, www.psalm.gov.ph) has been tasked to help transform the power industry into a competitive, market-driven sector. PSALM began operations in July 2001 to take ownership, manage, privatise and dispose of all existing generation assets, liabilities and other disposable resources of the National Power Corporation. These include contracts with independent power producers that the state-owned power firm tapped in the 1990s (during the power crisis) to provide the additional capacity needed to ensure an adequate supply of electricity. PSALM also owns the transmission assets and facilities and sub-transmission functions and resources of the TransCo. It has a corporate life of 25 years, after which all properties possessed by the company will be turned over to the Philippine government.The Wholesale Electricity Spot Market (WESM, http://www.wesm.ph/) was designed to provide private entities with an efficient venue for trade and investment in the power industry. The WESM was formally launched in June 2006 in the Luzon grid and later in the Visayan grid, after a trial year to test the rules, procedures and systems and the readiness of market participants.
Degree of independence
Appointments to the Commission are the sole prerogative of the President, and there is no transparent process. The incumbent ERC Chairman and his immediate predecessor are both former Congressmen. Other members of the Commission often come from the regulated industry players. The Board of the Commission consists of five members, a Chairperson and four Commissioners.There is perception from academics in economics, as well as from industry players, that tariff setting is influenced by the populist political stance of the Presidency, resulting in low tariffs. On the other hand, there is also the perception from civil society organisations that, given the background of many ERC members, the ERC is prey to regulatory capture by influential industry players.Financing for the Commission is allocated from the national budget.
The Philippines is a member of the Association of South-east Asian Nations (ASEAN), an organisation dedicated to promoting regional integration to facilitate the economic and social development of all member states. Under ASEAN, specifically under the Centre for Energy, the country is involved in several networks and projects, including the promotion of the integration of electricity networks, as well as technical and human capacity building and sharing under the Sub-Sector Networks on renewable energy and energy efficiency.In addition, a number of studies have been conducted into the role of energy services in improving poor household livelihoods, as well as renewable energy in extending electricity access. The University of Twente, in the Netherlands, in conjunction with the Department for International Development of the UK, published a 2005 report, “Enabling Urban Poor Livelihoods Policy Making: Understanding the role of Energy Services”, available here: http://www.utwente.nl/mb/cstm/research/urbanenergy/reports/philippine_rep.doc/
Recognizing its role as the major instrument in the realization of the energy sector’s vision of achieving energy independence, in 2009 the Department of Energy crafted the 2009–30 Philippine Energy Plan (PEP 2009–30). The plan has an overall vision of ‘ensuring the best energy choices for a better quality of life’. The 20-year plan incorporates the government’s mission to ensure the delivery of secure, sustainable, sufficient, affordable and environment-friendly energy to all economic sectors. The mission is anchored on the following frameworks: The economy’s Six-point National Energy Sector Strategic Directions1. Promote green and clean energy2. Ensure responsive, comprehensive, integrated, and consistent energy policy3. Identify and achieve the optimal (or best) energy mix4. Strengthen energy research and development program5. Develop manpower and institutional capacities6. Continue the implementation of social mobilization and monitoring mechanisms at7. the local and economy-wide levels The 2008 Philippine Energy Summit Public consultationThe Sustainable Development Framework (Low Carbon Strategy) International frameworks on energy cooperation.These frameworks are implemented through action plans and programs by the different energysub-sectors categorized under three broad policy thrusts:Ensure energy security Accelerate the exploration and development of oil, gas and coal resources Intensify the development and utilization of renewable and environment-friendly alternative energy resources/technologies Enhance energy efficiency and conservation Attain economy-wide electrification Put in place a long-term reliable power supply Improve transmission and distributions systems Secure vital energy infrastructure and facilities Maintain a competitive energy investment climate.Pursue effective implementation of energy sector reforms Monitor the implementation of, and if necessary, recommend amendments to existing energy laws Promote an efficient, competitive, transparent and reliable energy sector Advocate the passage of new and necessary laws.Implement social mobilization and cross-sector monitoring mechanism Expand reach through Information, Education and Communication (IEC) Establish cross-sector monitoring mechanism in cooperation with other economy- wide government agencies, academe, local government units, non-government organizations and other local and international organizations Promote good governance.Formulated by the Department of Energy (DoE), the Philippine Energy Plan (PEP) 2004-2013 is the government’s medium-term plan to alleviate poverty including bridging the urban/rural divide. One component is the rural electrification program, which has an objective of achieving 90% household electrification by 2017.Part of the PEP is also focused on renewable energy projects in wind, solar, ocean energy, mini-hydro and biomass. The plan identifies at least six projects that will provide an additional 1,000 MW for the Luzon grid. These include a 25 MW wind farm by the NorthWind Development Corporation, a subsidiary of state-owned Philippine National Oil Company. It also identifies the 345 MW San Roque hydropower plant in Pangasinan. In the Visayas and Mindanao, committed projects include the 40 MW Northern Negros geothermal power plant by Negros Occidental, and a 200 MW coal-fired plant in Northern Mindanao.The long-term goals for RE, as identified by the DoE, include:1. an increase in RE-based capacity by 100% by 2013,2. to increase non-power contribution of RE to the energy mix by 10 million barrels of fuel oil equivalent (MBFOE) in 2003–2012.Another major accomplishment of the economy’s energy sector was the passage of the Renewable Energy Act of 2008 to further promote the development, utilization and commercialization of renewable energy resources. Subsequently, the Implementing Rules and Regulations were signed on 25 May 2009, and in accordance with the Act, the National Renewable Energy Board (NREB) was created. The NREB’s members are representatives from other government agencies, stakeholders and non-government organisations.The passage of the Renewable Energy Act has spurred investor interest in the development of renewable energy sources. At the end of 2009, the total installed capacity from RES stood at 5431.4 MW. Of the total capacity, hydropower contributed the biggest share with 3367 MW, of which 3291 MW is grid connected and the remaining (76 MW) is offgrid. Geothermal is the second biggest contributor with 1958 MW, followed by biomass with 68 MW, of which 30 MW is on-grid. Biomass has its own distinct characteristics, being an area-based or site-specific generating facility due to the availability of the resources. For solar, a total of 4.16 MW of off-grid installations are already providing electricity to communities not connected to the grid.In support of the Renewable Energy Act, the Renewable Energy Policy Framework serves as the economy’s roadmap for renewable energy planning. Its long-term goal is to increase renewable energy based capacity for power generation as well as its non-power contribution to the primary energy mix.The Biofuels Law (2006) provides fiscal and non-fiscal incentives to accelerate development by the private sector. It mandates the use of biofuel blends in the fuel supply in the Philippines, aiming to: reduce dependence on imported oil; mitigate toxic and greenhouse gas emissions; increase rural employment and income; and protect the ecosystem, biodiversity and food reserves of the country.To encourage investments in the production, distribution, and use of locally-produced biofuels, the Biofuels Law sets incentives such as:(i) a specific tax on local or imported biofuels component;(ii) an exemption of VAT for materials used to produce biofuels;(iii) an exemption of charges for water effluents originating from production of biofuels, and then used for agricultural purpose; and(iv) financial assistance from government financial institutions.The New and Renewable Energy (NRE) Sources Development Program aims to provide greater opportunities to the underprivileged. Under this program, energy is a prime mover for the development of rural communities, particularly those without electricity. According to the National Electrification Administration (NEA), 6,483 barangays, or village-scale administrative regions, were electrified in 2004. 4,488 were connected to the grid, and the remaining 1,995 were electrified using new and RE technologies. This was in line with the current national priority in NRE development, promoting off-grid NRE systems to improve the livelihood of people in rural areas.Hydropower: The Philippines government has enacted The Republic Act 7156, better known as the Mini-hydroelectric Power Incentive Act, which creates incentives for mini-hydro projects. The Philippine Department of Energy’s Renewable Energy Power Program (REPP) has allocated US$30 million for private sector participation in new renewable energy projects for capacities from 200 kW to 25 MW. However, the proposed interest rate of 12%, with an additional 4–6% spread for the conduit bank, is not overly attractive. The law requires at least 60% Filipino ownership of corporations, partnerships, associations or companies engaged in mini-hydro.As a way of hedging against the high cost of oil, the National Energy Efficiency and Conservation Program is seen as an essential strategy in rationalizing the economy’s demand for petroleum products and eventually lessening the impact of escalating prices on the economy. The NEECP continues to provide the framework for the economy’s efforts to promote efficient and judicious use of energy, through the following programs: Information, education and communication campaign Voluntary agreement Energy labelling and efficiency standards for household appliances Government Energy Management Program Energy Management Program.The Renewable Energy Trust Fund was launched by the DoE in 2009 to help develop renewable energy and promote the use of RE in the Philippines. The money will be generated from various government-owned corporations, and also from the government's royalties from several service contracts. The trust fund will be administered by the DoE, and was mandated by the Renewable Energy Act of 2008, which calls for US$8.5 billion to be invested in biomass, geothermal, hydro, ocean, wind, and solar energy in the next ten years. To guarantee the efficient disbursement of the fund, the National Renewable Energy Board (NREB) will supervise and oversee the process.In October 2009, the Philippine Climate Change Act of 2009 (RA 9729) was passed, creating the Climate Change Commission. The Commission is a policy-making body attached to the Office of the President tasked with coordinating, monitoring and evaluating programs and action plans relating to climate change. Headed by the President, the four-member commission will have the same status as a central government agency. Cognizant of its role to ensure that policy and program mechanisms are in place to mitigate the impacts of global warming, the Department of Energy incorporated in the PEP 2009–30 a universal framework to showcase a low carbon strategy. This will ensure the full-scale development and commercialization of renewable energy and alternative fuels.
To help meet the economy’s fuel requirements, the Philippines imports 43.3% of its total energy supply. Net imported fuels mainly comprised of 32.2% oil and oil and products, 11% coal and 0.1% biofuels. Imports were 9% lower than the 2008 level of 17,557 ktoe due to the strong combined production in 2009 of domestic crude oil, gas and coal.
Role of the government
The Philippine Department of Energy (DOE, www.doe.gov.ph) sets overall policy goals in the energy industry. Under the Department of Energy Act 1992, the DOE is mandated to prepare, implement and supervise all plans relating to the energy sector, including the exploration and development of new energy sources and their utilisation, in addition to the distribution and conservation of energy sources and power.
Under the terms of the Renewable Energy Act 2008, provisions for a feed-in tariff system, as well as a dedicated Renewable Energy Market (REM) within the WESM, and the fiscal incentives as previously described, are defined. However, the implementation of these measures has been limited, in particular the creation of the feed-in tariff. Legislation for the creation of the tariff took effect on the 12th of August, 2010. Proposed tariff rates for various different renewable energy sources were submitted to the Commission on the 16th of May, 2011.
Significant steps have been taken to improve the regulatory, institutional and legislative framework for renewable energy in recent years, including the establishment of the NREB and the creation of a dedicated market for RE certificates. Further policy measures that could help to overcome the barriers to the commercialisation of RE technologies in the Philippines include:appropriate financing packages for rural households,information on available technologies (PV, SWH, bioenergy, pico-mini hydropower systems, etc.) and financing packages ;the development of local technical capacity,the development of market awareness and acceptance,formulation and enforcement of quality standards,the creation of an information and education campaign for RE technologies.
The Energy Regulatory Commission (ERC, www.erc.gov.ph) is charged with regulating the electricity sector. The ERC was established June 2001 through the Electric Power Industry Reform Act of 2001. The Act abolished the Energy Regulatory Board (ERB) and created the ERC, which is an independent regulatory body performing the combined quasi-judicial, quasi-legislative and administrative functions in the electric industry. With the EPIRA, the ERC has been reconfiguring itself to be a competent, “strong, independent and professional regulator, to transform the electric industry and balance the interests of all stakeholders.”
Hydropower/Wave Energy The Philippines derives 3,367 MWh from its hydro resources, partly through five mini-hydro power contracts. Eleven hydro-power plants with a total capacity of 300 MW are being developed. The abundance of water resources makes hydropower an important part of the energy sector. However, the large up-front investments, long construction periods and related environmental concerns have tarnished some of its attraction. Hence, the government focuses on small hydro. The Department of Energy (DOE) estimates the potential for small hydro is roughly 1,300 MW. Plans from the DOE estimate an increase in hydropower capacity to 5,468 MW, an increase which is expected to provide 7.7 TWh of additional electricity generation per year, equivalent to a fuel oil displacement of 12.9 million barrels of fuel-oil equivalent (MMBFOE). The potential for utilisation of wave/OTEC power sources has been assessed by the Mindanao State University, with a theoretical potential of 170,000 MW to be found within the archipelago's significant ocean territory.Wind energyDespite minimal use of wind energy in the Philippines, potential is strong. A wind mapping survey estimated that the Philippines could potentially generate 70,000 MW from the available wind resource. The survey identified 47 provinces, with the potential to generate at least 1,000 MW each. Average wind power density across the country is estimated at 31 W/m2. The wind resource is greatest in the north and north-east of the country. Areas that face east towards the coast from Luzon to Samar also represent good-to-excellent wind resources for utility-scale, and excellent wind resources for village-scale, applications. Less potential exists in the south and south-west of the archipelago. Existing use of wind generation includes a 10 kW stand-alone system that provides electricity to 25 households. Batangas Province has a 25 kW stand-alone system with six different loads. A 3 kW wind-diesel system is also in use for a telecommunications relay station. A 25 MW wind farm was inaugurated in June 2005 at Bangui Bay, Ilocos Norte, which is the first wind farm to be fully operational in the Philippines, and the largest in South-East Asia.Solar energyThe Philippines has one of the longest histories with PV systems in Asia. The majority of its programs have been aid-driven, with mixed results. Whilst the technical potential is present, prohibitive costs and grid extension of conventional electricity hinders the commercial potential of solar home systems. Average insolation across the country ranges from 4.5 to 5.5 kWh/m2/day. Current utilisation is low, however, due to factor, including low public image of the technology, as well as lack of technical and maintenance capacity. Installed capacity in 2000 amounted to 567 kW. Stimulus was received for the technology in 2004, with the opening of the Sunpower Solar Wafer Fabrication Plant, which was expected to provide 30% of its supply to local markets, driving down prices for PV significantly.Biomass energyWith extensive agricultural, forestry and livestock industries the Philippines has an abundance of bioenergy sources, including bagasse, coconut residues, wood, rice husks and municipal solid waste. Fuel wood dominates as a household energy source in rural areas. Wood and wood charcoal are also utilised in bakeries, restaurants and other small-scale commercial operations. A 6 MW biomass combustor plant designed to operate using rice husks is proposed for Panay Island. Sugar cogeneration, rice husk power and coconut residues represent a 920 MW potential in total. By 2012, biomass supply potential in total is expected to reach 323.1 MMBFOE. Traditionally rice husks are disposed of along road sides, in rivers or by open-field burning, with detrimental environmental impacts. Previously, rice husk projects have failed as a result of poor maintenance, supply considerations and management constraints. Municipal solid waste disposal is a growing problem in the Philippines. Consequently the Presidential Task Force on Solid Waste Management is considering landfill gas generation and incineration as options. A 30 MW bagasse cogeneration plant came into operation in 2007 in the Visayas, as part of a joint project between the PNOC and Bronzeoak Philippines.Geothermal energyGeothermal continues to be the major indigenous resource of the economy, with a 22.5% share of its total indigenous primary energy supply in 2009. It is used solely for power generation. With a total installed capacity of 1958 MW, the Philippines is the second largest producer of geothermal energy in the world. The economy aims to be the number one producer, and the government continues to encourage greater private sector involvement in the exploration and development of the economy’s vast geothermal energy potential.
- Enhancing Capacity for Low Emission Development Strategies (EC-LEDS) Program
- Enhancing Capacity for Low Emission Development Strategies (EC-LEDS)
- Philippines-Enhancing Capacity for Low Emission Development Strategies (EC-LEDS)
- Philippines-Strengthening Planning Capacity for Low Carbon Growth in Developing Asia
- Philippines-Standard Assessment of Mitigation Potential and Livelihoods in Smallholder Systems (SAMPLES)
- view all
- Sustainable Urban Development Priorities – Development of a Rapid Assessment Tool for Urban Mobility in Cities with Data Scarcity
- Climate Change and Clean Energy Project (CEnergy) Toolkit
- Rapid Assessment of City Emissions (RACE): Case of Batangas City, Philippines
- NREL-Philippine Wind Farm Analysis and Site Selection Analysis
- Low Carbon Green Growth: Integrated Policy Approach to Climate Change for Asia-Pacific Developing Countries
- view all
4 Energy Organizations
- Asian Development Bank
- PNOC EnerAsia JV
- First Gen Corporation
- Cagayan Electric Power and Light Co Cepalco
3 Clean Energy Companies
0 Research Institutions