Persistent Activity And Violent Strombolian Eruptions At Vesuvius Between 1631 And 1944
Journal Article: Persistent Activity And Violent Strombolian Eruptions At Vesuvius Between 1631 And 1944
AbstractDuring the period 1631-1944, Vesuvius was in persistent activity with alternating mild strombolian explosions, quiet effusive eruptions, and violent strombolian eruptions. The major difference between the predominant style of activity and the violent strombolian stages is the effusion rate. The lava effusion rate during major eruptions was in the range 20-100 m3/s, higher than during mild activity and quiet effusion (0.1-1 m3/s). The products erupted during the mild activity and major paroxysms have different degree of crystallization. Highly porphyritic lava flows are slowly erupted during years-long period of mild activity. This activity is fed by a magma accumulating at shallow depth within the volcanic edifice. Conversely, during the major paroxysms, a fast lava flow precedes the eruption of a volatile-rich, crystal-poor magma. We show that the more energetic eruptions are fed by episodic, multiple arrival of discrete batches of magma rising faster and not degassing during the ascent. The rapidly ascending magma pushes up the liquid residing in the shallow reservoir and eventually reaches the surface with its full complement of volatiles, producing kilometer-high lava fountains. Rapid drainage of the shallow reservoir occasionally caused small caldera collapses. The major eruptions act to unplug the upper part of the feeding system, erupting the cooling and crystallizing magma. This pattern of activity lasted for 313 y, but with a progressive decrease in the number of more energetic eruptions. As a consequence, a cooling plug blocked the volcano until it eventually prevented the eruption of new magma. The yearly probability of having at least one violent strombolian eruption has decreased from 0.12 to 0.10 from 1944 to 2007, but episodic seismic crises since 1979 may be indicative of new episodic intrusions of magma batches.
- Roberto Scandone, Lisetta Giacomelli and Francesca Fattori Speranza
- Published Journal
- Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 2008
- Not Provided
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Roberto Scandone,Lisetta Giacomelli,Francesca Fattori Speranza. 2008. Persistent Activity And Violent Strombolian Eruptions At Vesuvius Between 1631 And 1944. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research. (!) .