Pakistan: Energy Resources
|Energy Consumption||2.48 Quadrillion Btu|
|2-letter ISO code||PK|
|3-letter ISO code||PAK|
|Numeric ISO code||586|
|UN Region||Southern Asia|
|Energy Maps||5 view|
|CIA World Factbook, Appendix D|
Pakistan, officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, is a sovereign country in South Asia. With a population exceeding 180 million people, it is the sixth most populous country in the world.
|Wind Potential||69,226||Area(km²) Class 3-7 Wind at 50m||17||1990||NREL|
|Coal Reserves||2,281.78||Million Short Tons||21||2008||EIA|
|Natural Gas Reserves||840,200,000,000||Cubic Meters (cu m)||29||2010||CIA World Factbook|
|Oil Reserves||436,200,000||Barrels (bbl)||49||2010||CIA World Factbook|
Energy Maps featuring Pakistan
Policy and Regulatory Overview 
Population Access to Electricity (2008): 57.6%Rural: 46%Urban: 78%70.4 million people do not have access to electricity.Two separate grids form the electricity transmission network in the country, the national grid operated by the National Transmission and Dispatch Company (NTDC), and a dedicated grid for Karachi, the Kerachi Electric Supply Company Limited (KESC). These networks are interconnected via a 220 kV line. The NTDC currently operates approximately 4,160 km of 500 kV transmission line, and a further 4,000 km of 220 kV line .
To enhance hydropower generation, there are five projects under construction, i.e., the Allai Khwar, Khan Khwar, Duber Khwar, Jinnah and Neelum Jhelum hydropower projects. Dams under construction include the Gomal Zam, Mirani, Sabakzai, and Satpara Dam, and the Mangla Dam Raising project. The future projects announced include the Diamer Basha Dam, the Kalabagh Dam, the Kurram Tangi Dam, the Munda Dam, and the Akhori Dam projects. The hydropower projects about which feasibility studies are being conducted include the Golen Gol, Dasu, Bunji, Keyal Khwar, Lawi, Pallas Valley (Chor Nullah), Spat Gah, Basho, Phandar, Jabban, Thakot and Patan hydropower projects . Tubewell Efficiency ProjectWith the world’s largest irrigation-based agricultural system, Pakistan uses much of its power on pumping water for farms. The United States Agency for International Development (USAID) is providing USD18.5 million to help replace up to 11,000 tubewell pumps with more efficient models. This project is allowing farmers to significantly reduce their electricity usage, for a savings of nearly USD8 million and 45MW of electricity each year .Presently, the AEDB is working on :Design and development of a 100MW wind farm at Gharo-Keti Bandar, Sindh;Electrification of 800 remote area villages through RETs;development of wind turbines,development of solar PV panels,Establishment of solar thermal power plants in the country, andFormulation of laws and taxes to promote alternative and renewable energy (ARE) projects and products in the country.The Government of Pakistan has given targets to AEDB to install 700 MW wind power by the year 2010. The target for 2030 is at least 9.7 GW, which would be 5% of the total planned national power generation capacity at that time. The AEDB has initiated a program for the installation of 100 MW wind farm at Gharo-Keti Bandar site in the coastal area of Sindh. The AEDB has so far issued 94 letters of intent to private wind investors for 50 MW capacity sites (equivalent to 4.7 GW). Twenty-five of these private wind investors have been allocated land by the provincial government. Eight companies have completed feasibility studies and have received generation licenses from NEPRA (National Electric Power Regulatory Authority). Zorlu Enerji Pakistan Ltd. (Turkey) has installed the first wind farm of Pakistan of 6 MW capacity (5 wind turbines of 1.2 MW capacity each) at Jhampir Thatta, Sindh. The wind farm was inaugurated in May 2009.The Asian Development Bank (ADB) is helping Pakistan craft, a comprehensive energy efficiency policy and investment programme to meet the growing energy demands of an expanding economy and population. The activities will include a comprehensive study on the energy efficiency market and build awareness in the country of the need for energy efficiency .
The Government has announced the formulation of a new alternative energy policy to attract investors to the sector. The draft Alternative and Renewable Energy Policy (ARE 2011) was drafted in consultation with stakeholders.
Total Installed Electricity Capacity (2009): 19,786 MW Thermal: 65%Hydro-electric: 33%Nuclear: 2%Total Primary Energy Supply (2009): 85,520 ktoe*Biofuel and Waste: 34.5%Natural Gas: 31.9%Oil: 24.7%Coal/peat: 5.2%Hydro-electric: 2.8%Nuclear: 0.9%*Share of TPES excludes electricity tradeThe annual growth of primary energy supply increased from 3.17% to 4.3% during 1997-98 to 2006-07.Indigenous natural gas is the largest source of energy supply in Pakistan contributing 27.7 million TOEs (45.4%) in 2009/10, followed by oil products, mainly imports, at 21.3 million TOEs (34.9%), hydro-electric power at 7.5 million TOEs (12.3%), coal, mainly imports, at 3.7 million TOEs (6.1%) and nuclear power at 0.8 million TOEs (1.3%). Consumption of indigenous natural gas has grown rapidly in all sectors of the economy (residential, commercial, industrial, transport and power) over the past 15 years, driven by growing availability of gas and a low, government-controlled gas price as compared with alternate fuel prices. As a result, Pakistan has developed a vast natural gas transmission and distribution network across the country . Electricity is used for domestic, commercial, agriculture and industrial purposes. Despite its high per unit price, household demand for electricity is growing. This sector is the largest consumer of electricity in the Pakistan with a share of 42%, whereas the industrial and agriculture sectors shares are 25.2% and 13.3% respectively.In 2008, the total generation capacity from the Water and Power Development Authority´s (WAPDA) own hydro and thermal sources plus generation from two nuclear power plants, KESC and IPPs stood at 19,420 MW. At present, total RE produced in the country accounts at 40MW which is about 0.21% of total installed generation capacity.
The most important regulatory functions of the NEPRA are grouped in the following five main categories :The determination of tariff rates and terms and conditions,Granting licenses, and the approval of power acquisition programmes,The setting and enforcement of quality-of-service standards, and approval of operating codes and investment standards,Industry structure/privatisation, including the transition towards a competitive market where feasible,The protection of consumer rights and obligations, including a complaint redresser.The NEPRA’s broad policy guidelines for power sector reform revolve around :Tariff structure, to ensure sufficient resources to cover costs and investment in the short term,Encouraging generation, transmission and distribution capacities on a non-discriminatory basis, to meet existing needs and growing demand in the long term,Quality of service to consumers, as well as ensuring network efficiency, including reliability and reducing voltage disturbances. OGRA’s regulatory roles are licensing, tariff setting, promote of competition, market surveillance in the oil and gas sectors.
The Pakistani power sector has historically been dominated by the public sector utilities, WAPDA and KESC. Over the years, these institutions became large, vertically-integrated utilities with problems with maintenance of Infrastructure, financial and technical inefficiencies, and dependence on public sector development resources.In order to mobilise private sector investment for the power sector, an IPP policy was launched in 1994, and subsequently reviewed in 1998 and 2002. A Private Power and Infrastructure Board (PPIB) was set up to provide support to the private sector. The government also set up the National Electric Power Regulatory Authority (NEPRA) in 1997. In 1998, it embarked upon a programme of unbundling the WAPDA through corporatisation and commercialisation. The WAPDA has now been reorganised into nine distribution companies, one National Transmission and Dispatch Company (NTDC) and four thermal generation companies, called GENCOs. The hydroelectric power development and operation functions remain with the WAPDA. To carry out this restructuring a facilitation company called Pakistan Electric Power Company (PEPCO) was also incorporated in 1998. Several IPPs are operating in Pakistan, while a number of projects are under construction. The gross power generation capacity of the IPPs is 5,822 MW. The Kot Addu Power Company (KAPCO) and the Hub Power Company (HUBCO) are the two largest IPPs, with 1,466 MW and 1,292 MW respectively.
Households in Pakistan accounted for about half of total electricity consumption in 2008. Lighting and air conditioning in the summer are the main drivers of peak loads. Inefficient household and commercial appliances cause a huge burden on the already strained supply. Demand-side energy savings potential in FY2008 was estimated at 6.1 MTOE which corresponds to 15.4% of all energy consumed in the country .Agriculture accounts for 11.5% of the demand for electricity (0.690 MTOE) and 94.5% of the demand for light diesel oil (LDO) (0.12 MTOE) in the country. High-speed diesel (HSD) consumption in Pakistan corresponds to 13.90% (1.1 MTOE) of overall fuel consumption in the transportation sector. According to agricultural experts and manufacturers of high efficiency pumps, motors, and engines, approximately 38% of the electricity consumed by electric pumps in the agriculture sector can be saved by replacing existing electric motors and pumps with more efficient ones available locally. Similarly, LDO and HSD consumption can be reduced by up to 50% by replacing the low efficiency pump sets used in the tube wells .
Pakistan’s energy sector is in a state of crisis and over the past few years has negatively impacted the social and economic development of the country. Primary energy consumption in Pakistan has grown by almost 80% over the past 15 years, from 34 million tons oil equivalent (TOEs) in 1994/95 to 61 million TOEs in 2009/10 and has supported an average GDP growth rate in the country of about 4.5% per annum. However since 2006/07 energy supply has been unable to meet the country’s demand leading to shortages. Meanwhile per capita energy consumption in Pakistan at under 0.5 TOEs/capita remains only one-third of world average .The current electricity production in Pakistan is around 11,500 MW per day, whereas the electricity demand had jumped from 15,000 MW per day to 20,000 MW per day in the year 2010. This massive increase in demand suggests that the looming energy crisis in Pakistan will become even more severe in the near future .The government-controlled power sector in Pakistan, one of the largest consumers of primary energy, is facing growing problems due to an unrealistic power tariff, high inefficiencies, low payment recovery and the inability of the government to manage its subsidies mechanism. This has led to a serious “circular debt” issue which is becoming a barrier for future energy sector investments . Extended periods of blackouts persisted in 2010 and “circular debt” is increasing. Despite investments in generation capacity, electricity demand continues to exceed supply, with blackouts as long as 8–10 hours per day in cities and sometimes double that in rural areas, and is widely recognized as a severe obstacle to growth and poverty reduction .
Various government institutions have been established over the past 30 years to promote the implementation of RETs. The National Institute of Silicon Technology (NIST) was founded for research and development (R&D) in the field of solar energy in 1981. The Pakistan Council for Appropriate Technology (PCAT) was also established four years later. This group aimed to promote hydropower, biogas and small-scale wind energy. The two institutions were merged, forming the Pakistan Council of Renewable Energy Technology (PCRET), in 2002. The goal of the PCRET is to organise, coordinate and promote R&D within the field of RE . PCRET has performed research and development activities in various fields of RETs. These fields include photovoltaics (PV), solar thermal energy (STE), wind energy (WE), biogas and biomass (BG/BM), micro-hydro power generation (MPG), fuel-saving technologies (FST), etc.The Alternative Energy Development Board (AEDB) was established in 2003 to act as the central national body on the renewable energy sector and its responsibility is to implement various policies, programs and projects in the field of renewable energy technologies, mainly promoting wind, solar and small-scale hydro power projects . AEDB is responsible for developing national RE policy and establishing short, medium and long-term policy goals for renewable energy technologies in the country. AEDB also act as a one-window facility for processing RE power generation projects in order to ensure smooth execution and implementation of RE projects by private sector and foreign investors. In order to facilitate RE projects AEDB has drafted standard power purchase agreement and other project implementation agreements The National Engineering and Science Commission (NESCOM) and the Solar Energy Centre (SEC) are two other organisations working in solar energy. The NESCOM and the SEC mostly concentrate on the production of photovoltaic panels, and designing solar thermal appliances, respectively. The SEC is an attached department of the Pakistan Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (PCSIR), and designed and developed solar flat-plate water heating system in the 1980s. The SEC has installed a 500 gallon per day capacity solar desalination system near Gwader, Balochistan Province, for disinfection and the purification of drinking water .
Electricity Market The power sector is a mix of hydro and thermal units dominated by two (in generation, transmission and distribution) utilities, the Water and Power Development Authority (WAPDA, www.wapda.gov.pk) and the privatized Karachi Electric Supply Corporation (KESC, www.kesc.com.pk). In addition, there are two nuclear power plants, KANUPP and CHANUPP, and a number of IPPs and small power producers (SPPs) established since 1994. Since October 2007, the state-owned WAPDA has become two distinct entities i.e. the WAPDA and the Pakistan Electric Power Company (PEPCO, www.pepco.gov.pk). The WAPDA is responsible for water and hydropower development, whereas the PEPCO is responsible for the management of the WAPDA’s 14 public limited companies in thermal power generation, transmission, distribution and billing. The PEPCO supplies electricity through its nine Distribution Companies (DISCOs); the Lahore Electric Supply Company (LESCO, www.lesco.gov.pk), the Gujranwala Electric Power Company (GEPCO, www.gepco.com.pk), the Faisalabad Electric Supply Company (FESCO, www.fesco.com.pk), the Islamabad Electric Supply Company (IESCO, www.iesco.com.pk), the Multan Electric Power Company (MEPCO, www.mepco.com.pk), the Peshawar Electric Power Company (PESCO, www.pesco.gov.pk), the Hyderabad Electric Supply Company (HESCO, www.hesco.gov.pk), the Quetta Electric Supply Company (QESCO), and the Tribal Electric Supply Company (TESCO), to all sectors in the country.Oil and gas marketPakistan State Oil (www.psopk.com) is a state-owned enterprise, responsible for the majority of the marketing, distribution and sale of petroleum products in the country. Pakistan Petroleum Limited (PPL, www.ppl.com.pk) is the majority-state-owned organisation responsible for the exploration and development of oil and natural gas products in Pakistan.
Degree of independence
Initially, the NEPRA was established as an autonomous body without any administrative control from the government. However, for the sake of interaction with Federal and Provincial Governments, it was initially attached to the Ministry of Water and Power. Later it was linked to the Ministry of Law and Justice. However, in June 2000, the NEPRA was directly attached with the Cabinet Division. The Authority consists of a Chairman and four members (one from each province), all appointed by the government. Funding for the Authority is derived from grants from the federal government, and fees and levies accrued through services provided to the sector .
Pakistan is part of the South Asian Regional Initiative for Energy under USAID (SARI/E), a program that promotes energy security in South Asia through three focus areas :(1) cross border energy trade,(2) energy market formation, and(3) regional clean energy development.Through these activities SARI/E facilitates more efficient regional energy resource utilisation, works toward transparent and profitable energy practices, mitigates the environmental impacts of energy production, and increases regional access to energy. SARI/E countries also include: Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, the Maldives, Sri Lanka, and Nepal .
During the mid-80s, Pakistan made its first move towards exploring renewable energy options. The government invested 14 million rupees towards feasibility studies for solar energy and biogas production between 1983 and 1988. However, no significant project developments resulted from this investment .New energy policies were also instituted in 1994, 1998 and 2002. The 2002 Power Policy, currently still in place, encouraged the use of local resources, including renewable energy. This policy aimed to develop approximately 500 MW of renewable (non-hydro) power generation by 2015, and roughly 1,000 MW by 2020. Although various energy policies implemented between 1985 and 2002 stressed the need for employing renewable energy resources, none provided a framework for the implementation of such projects. RE development was virtually non-existent, as these policies failed to attract private sector confidence and investment .The Alternative Energy Development Board (AEDB) introduced the Policy for Development of Renewable Energy for Power Generation Employing Small Hydro, Wind, and Solar Technologies in 2006. This is Pakistan’s first energy policy aimed specifically at the promotion of RE power projects. The goal under this policy is for RETs to provide 10% of Pakistan’s energy supply mix by 2015. The policy focuses on solar energy, wind energy and small-scale hydropower projects. The policy objectives are to :increase the deployment of RETs (thereby diversifying the energy supply mix and increasing energy security);promote private sector investment in RETs through incentives and by developing RE markets;develop measures to mobilise financing;facilitate the development of a domestic RET manufacturing industry (lowering costs, improving service, generating employment and improving local technical skills);increase per capita energy consumption and social welfare, especially in remote and rural areas, where poverty can be alleviated and the burden on women collecting biomass fuel can be reduced; andpromote environmental protection and awareness.Realising the importance of biodiesel, the AEDB has initiated the National Biodiesel Programme, and formulated a policy for the use of biodiesel as an alternate fuel in Pakistan. The policy is primarily aimed at reducing the country’s fuel import bill, promoting the demand for biodiesel raw material, which will be the primary commodity for biodiesel production. One of the salient features of the policy is to achieve a minimum biodiesel share of 5% by volume of total diesel consumption in the country by the year 2015, and 10% by 2025 .The Pakistan National Energy Policy was announced on April 22, 2010, by Prime Minister of Pakistan, Yousaf Raza Gillani in response to growing power shortages in the country. The announcement was made after a three day conference in Islamabad that discussed the causes of the power crisis in Pakistan and possible steps to relieve it. Measures were aimed at cutting consumption by 500 MW. The official weekend was extended from one to two days. Neon signs and decorative lights were banned. Power was cut to government offices by 50%, and air conditioners were only allowed to be switched on after 11 am. Street markets were asked to close early.. The government would pay off its USD1.38 billion debt to power producers allowing them to pay fuel suppliers. Power supply to Pakistan's commercial capital Karachi was decreased by 300 MW in order to allow fairer distribution of power to the remaining parts of the country.] Tube wells were not allowed to operate from 7 pm to 11 pm.
At present Pakistan meets 75% of its energy needs through domestic resources, including gas, oil and hydroelectricity production. Pakistan imported 20.22 MtoE of energy in 2009.In Pakistan almost 20% of the foreign exchange is spent on import of fossil fuels. Approximately USD 7 billion on imports of conventional energy resources were spent equivalent to 40% of total imports by Pakistan .Since October 2002, Pakistan has been importing electricity from Iran. Further, Pakistan has planned to import 1,100 MW of electricity from Iran for supply to Gwadar and other coastal areas of Balochistan .
Role of the government
Ministry of Water and Power The Ministry of Water and Power (http://22.214.171.124/wps/portal/Mowp), responsible for development of water and power resources in Pakistan, handles all issues related to power generation, transmission and distribution, pricing, regulation, and consumption, and exercises this function through respective organisations. It also performs specific functions, such as coordinating and planning the power sector, formulating policy and specific incentives, and liaising with provincial governments on all related issues.National Economic Council (NEC) The overall planning of the electricity system is under the control of the NEC. The NEC is the supreme body responsible for ensuring balanced development of the country. It was created in December 1962 under Article 145 of the Constitution of Pakistan. The NEC is headed by the Head of the Government. Its members are some of Federal Ministers, the Governors/Chief Ministers of the provinces, and the Deputy Chairman of the Planning Commission. The Planning Commission is the chief instrument for formulating the national plans. The Energy Wing of the Planning Commission estimates the energy demand on the basis of information obtained from all concerned entities, and formulates unified short- and long-term national energy plans. The NEC approves all plans and policies relating to energy/electricity sectors development.Executive Committee of the National Economic Council (ECNEC) The ECNEC supervises the implementation of energy policy laid down by the government, and approves any energy sector project to be built by the public sector. The planning and development of nuclear power is the responsibility of the Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC, www.paec.gov.pk).
The AEDB has developed policies and established criteria for the determination of tariffs for power purchase generated from wind energy, in consultation with the NEPRA. Licensing procedures for RE projects have been simplified to lower the cost of the regulatory process for the developers. The AEDB has prepared a standard implementation agreement, and a standard power purchase agreement for wind energy projects, and a schedule for power purchase agreements. The Ministry of Water and Power, working with the help of the Board, issued the “Guidelines for Determination of Tariff for Wind Power Generation” in early 2006. Finally in December 2006, the government approved the long-awaited “Policy for Development of Renewable Energy for Power Generation” .
The total installed capacity of all different renewable technologies in Pakistan is 41.5 MW as of July 2010, including 247 kilowatts (kW) of solar photo-voltaic installations, 210 kW of micro wind turbines, 80 kW of mini hydro, 6 MW Zorlu Wind farm (total project of 50 MW) and 35 MW biomass power. The main reasons for current low capacity levels are :a lack of focus on a selection of key renewable resources;standard power purchase agreements that are not bankable;the current requirements to file a tariff petition and undergo standard tariff procedures that are not suitable for small-scale renewable energy projects; andthe cost-plus mechanism that does not guarantee the developer a revenue scheme.
The establishment of the National Electric Power Regulatory Authority (NEPRA, www.nepra.org.pk) took effect under the NEPRA Act 1997, the main role of which was to ensure transparent and judicious economic regulation in the power sector . Oil and Gas Sector: the Oil & Gas Regulatory Authority (OGRA) regulates the Oil and Gas sector in Pakistan (www.ogra.org.pk)
Pakistan's current electricity generation mix has a growing and ultimately unsustainable reliance on imported gas and fuel oil. Imported energy is in the range of 30% of the total energy mix and has increased each year for the past 5 years. Pakistan has a huge RE potential (50,000MW from hydropower, 40,000 MW from wind energy). Solar energy too offers opportunities .Solar Energy Pakistan lies in a region of high solar irradiance; as such, it is ideally suited for solar energy projects. Pakistan receives about 15.5x1014 kWh of solar irradiance each year, with most regions receiving approximately 8 to 10 sunlight hours per day. The potential installed capacity of solar photovoltaic power is estimated to be 1,600 GW per year, providing approximately 3.5 PWh of electricity (approximately 41 times current power generation in the country). Current utilisation is still at a developmental stage, with several pilot projects being implemented.Wind Energy Wind energy also has strong technical potential in Pakistan, particularly in the southern regions of Sindh and Balochistan. Pakistan has approximately 1,000 km of coastline with steady average wind speeds ranging between 5 and 7 m/s. The projected installed capacity for wind energy is estimated at 122.6 GW per year, providing approximately 212 TWh of electricity (approximately 2.5 times the current power generation level). The Alternative Energy Development Board (AEDB) has awarded 19 contracts to IPPs for construction of wind power plants, all with capacities exceeding 50 MW.Biomass Energy Biomass availability in Pakistan is also widespread. Approximately 50,000 tonnes of solid waste, 225,000 tonnes of crop residue and over 1 million tonnes of animal manure are produced daily. It is estimated that potential production of biogas from livestock residues is 8.8 to 17.2 billion meters3 of gas per year (equivalent to 55 to 106 TWh of energy). Large sugar industry in Pakistan also generates electricity from biomass energy for utilization in sugar mills. Annual electricity production from bagasse is estimated at 5,700 GWh – about 6% of Pakistan’s current power generation level . In the present electricity crisis recently government allowed sugar mills to supply their surplus power up to a limit of 700 MW to the national grid. It is estimated that sugarcane bagasse can potentially be used to generate 2000 MW of electric power. However presently it is difficult to obtain more electricity from sugar mills due to grid limitations because most of the sugar mills are located in remote rural areas which are not even connected to the national grid. Integration of electricity generated from biomass energy to the national grid can ease the electricity shortage in the country.Hydropower Presently, large hydro power dams are the only major renewable energy sources in Pakistan for electricity generation. In some cases construction of large hydro dams results in major relocation of people and changes in land use for the areas in which the dams are built. These projects have become controversial in Pakistan in recent years due to significant impact on rivers, ecosystems, and surrounding communities. . Currently, Pakistan has installed hydropower capacity of approximately 6.6 GW. This is 16% of total hydropower potential, which is estimated to be roughly 41.5 GW . Biogas A total biogas generation potential of 14.25 million m3/day is available. The Pakistan Council of Renewable Energy Technologies is designing, developing and disseminating biogas plants. During the last 3 years, more than 1600 plants, mostly of 5 m3/day capacity, have been installed by the PCRET. NGOs and private sector companies have performed similar numbers of installations. This means that a total of 0.016 million m3/day of biogas capacity was utilised during the last 3 years, with an annual exploitation factor of 0.374 x 10-3. The working status of biogas plants installed before the last 3 years is uncertain, as there are no repair and maintenance services.Geothermal EnergyPakistan has considerable potential for geothermal energy (80,000 MW) as there are numerous fumaroles and hot springs. However, the extent of the commercial potential is not known, and further studies are needed.
- Pakistan-Technical Assistance to PDMA Punjab in Incorporating Climate Compatibility Considerations into Reconstruction and Village Development Planning
- Pakistan-The Mitigation Action Implementation Network (MAIN)
- Pakistan-GTZ Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Promotion
- International Centre for Integrated Mountain Development (ICIMOD)
- South Asia Regional Initiative for Energy Cooperation and Development (SARI/Energy)
- view all
- Geospatial Toolkit
- Ecofys-Country Fact Sheets
- Asian Development Outlook 2010
- Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC)-Fossil Fuel CO2 Emissions
- Energy Efficient Cities Initiative Project Database
- view all
0 Energy Organizations
0 Clean Energy Companies
0 Research Institutions