Exploration Technique: PSInSAR
|Exploration Technique Information|
|Exploration Group:||Remote Sensing Techniques|
|Exploration Sub Group:||Active Sensors|
|Parent Exploration Technique:||Radar|
|Information Provided by Technique|
|Stratigraphic/Structural:||Detect fault and ground movement|
|Hydrological:||Can give indications about subsurface geothermal fluid flow|
|Low-End Estimate (USD):|| 20.722,072 centUSD |
2.072e-8 TUSD / sq. mile
|Median Estimate (USD):|| 103.6010,360 centUSD |
1.036e-7 TUSD / sq. mile
|High-End Estimate (USD):|| 259.0025,900 centUSD |
2.59e-7 TUSD / sq. mile
|Low-End Estimate:|| 16 weeks0.307 years |
3.68 months / job
|Median Estimate:|| 54 weeks1.035 years |
12.419 months / job
|High-End Estimate:|| 120 weeks2.3 years |
27.598 months / job
|Cost/Time Dependency:||Resolution, Frequency of Collection, Monitoring Period, Level of Processing|
Persistent Scatterer Interferometric Synthetic Aperature Radar (PSInSAR) is a remote sensing method which bounces satellite radar signals off of naturally occurring permanent scattering points. Features such as roof tops, bridges, dams, water pipelines, antennae, large rock outcrops, and other prominent natural features make good persistent scatterers. The precise position of each scatterer in relation with other scatterers can be recorded. Using this technique the motion of each scaterer structure can be very precisely tracked and ground deformation can be determined.
PSInSAR is useful for monitoring and precisely measuring the movement of a geothermal area over time. Changes in the underground water levels, pressures, and temperatures due to geothermal utilization can lead to changes on the surface. Subsidence or uplift of a geothermal area before and after utilization can be monitored and for geothermal areas located in fault zones lateral movement along fault lines in the area can be monitored. With the PSInSAR method ground movement and movement rates can be calculated with millimeter accuracy. PSInSAR methods are advantageous compared to conventional GPS methods because a much larger area can be monitored and no ground equipment is needed.
PSInSAR is a useful technique for monitoring the effects of fluid injection and extraction on surface deformation at geothermal areas. This method can also be used for detection of active faults in a geothermal area. PSInSAR is an accurate and cost-effective method. It is a useful method in agricultural areas, where conventional methods fail such as in Imperial Valley. PSInSAR can be applied to geothermal exploration and the management of producing fields.
PSInSAR cannot be used in highly vegetated areas unless manmade scatterers are built. Also, time measurements are limited to the intervals in which the satellites orbit.
- Parviz Tarikhi. Synthetic Aperture Radar Persistent Scatterer Interferometry (PSInSAR) [Internet]. 2010. Tunis, Tunisia. N/A. [cited 2013/09/17]. Available from: http://parviztarikhi.files.wordpress.com/2010/05/3psinsar-i-parviz_tarikhi.pdf
- Giacomo Falorni,Jessica Morgan,Mariana Eneva. 2011. Advanced InSAR Techniques for Geothermal Exploration and Production. Geothermal Resources Council Transactions. 35(N/A):1661-1666., Giacomo Falorni,Jessica Morgan,Mariana Eneva. 2011. Advanced InSAR Techniques for Geothermal Exploration and Production. Geothermal Resources Council Transactions. (!) .
- Mariana Eneva. Surface Deformation from Satellite Data and Geothermal Assessment, Exploration and Mitigation in Imperial Valley [Internet]. 2012. N/A. N/A. [cited 2013/09/17]. Available from: http://www.energy.ca.gov/research/notices/2012-02-29_workshop/presentations/Geothermal/Eneva-Imageair_Inc_Presentation.pdf
|Page||Area||Activity Start Date||Activity End Date||Reference Material|
|PSInSAR (Laney, 2005)||Unspecified||
|PSInSAR At San Emidio Desert Area (DOE GTP)||San Emidio Desert Area|