This project page is dedicated to an effort to expand definitions for terms related to energy technologies as well as scientific concepts related to energy.
As a start, the terms in need of definitions are from the list of requested pages. However, the list will continue to expand. Once a proper workflow is established, term definitions can be added directly to the wiki where needed.
Other Energy-related Organizations
- Danish Wind Industry Association
- Energy Future Coalition - Biofuels
- NERC terms
- Reegle Glossary
- EIA Glossary
- Fulbright & Jaworski L.L.P. Alternative Energy Glossary and Reference Guide
Requested Pages on OpenEI
|Biofuel|| Biomass converted to liquid or gaseous fuels such as ethanol, methanol, methane, and hydrogen.
Wikipedia: Biofuel is a type of fuel which is in some way derived from biomass.
|Algae Fuel|| Some algal strains are capable of doubling their mass several times per day. In some cases, more than half of that mass consists of lipids or triacylglycerides—the same material found in vegetable oils. These bio-oils can be used to produce such advanced biofuels as biodiesel, green diesel, green gasoline, and green jet fuel.
Wikipedia: Algae fuel might be an alternative to fossil fuel and uses algae, or, sometimes, to use a more up-to-date term, cyanobacteria, as its source of natural deposits. Several companies and government agencies are funding efforts to reduce capital and operating costs and make algae fuel production commercially viable. The production of biofuels from algae does not reduce atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2), because any CO2 taken out of the atmosphere by the algae is returned when the biofuels are burned - except where flue gas emissions are captured and recycled as feedstock in an enclosed growth system such as that under development at 3 coal fired power stations in Australia. They also potentially reduce the introduction of new CO2 by displacing fossil hydrocarbon fuels.
|Bioethanol|| When ethanol is fermented from glucose from some natural source, the result is the production bioethanol. Bioethanol is another biofuel capable of providing enough energy when burnt to be used as a fuel for transport.
Wikipedia: Bioethanol is an alcohol made by fermenting the sugar components of plant materials and it is made mostly from sugar and starch crops. With advanced technology being developed, cellulosic biomass, such as trees and grasses, are also used as feedstocks for ethanol production. Ethanol can be used as a fuel for vehicles in its pure form, but it is usually used as a gasoline additive to increase octane and improve vehicle emissions. Bioethanol is widely used in the USA and in Brazil.
|Carbon Sequestration||The uptake and storage of carbon. Trees and plants, for example, absorb carbon dioxide, release the oxygen and store the carbon. Fossil fuels were at one time biomass and continue to store the carbon until burned.
Wikipedia: Carbon sequestration is the capture of carbon dioxide (CO2) and may refer specifically to: The process of removing carbon from the atmosphere and depositing it in a reservoir. When carried out deliberately, this may also be referred to as carbon dioxide removal, which is a form of geoengineering. The process of carbon capture and storage, where carbon dioxide is removed from flue gases, such as on power stations, before being stored in underground reservoirs. Natural biogeochemical cycling of carbon between the atmosphere and reservoirs, such as by chemical weathering of rocks.
|Post Combustion||Post-combustion CO2 control systems separate CO2 from the flue gas produced by conventional coal combustion in air. The flue gas is at atmospheric pressure and has a CO2 concentration of 10-15 volume percent.
Wikipedia: Post combustion capture refers to the removal of CO2 from power station flue gas prior to its compression, transportation and storage in suitable geological formations, as part of carbon capture and storage. A number of different techniques are applicable, almost all of which are adaptations of acid gas removal processes used in the chemical and petrochemical industries. Many of these techniques existed before World War II and, consequently, post combustion capture is the most developed of the various carbon capture methodologies.
|Pre Combustion||Pre-combustion capture involves removal of CO2 prior to combustion, to produce hydrogen.
|Oxy-Fuel Combustion||Oxy-fuel combustion is being developed for both turbine power cycles, and for pulverized coal plants. The products of oxy-fuel combustion are just carbon dioxide, and water. The water is easily separated, producing a stream of CO2 ready for sequestration.
Wikipedia: Oxy-fuel refers to technology that burns oxygen with gaseous fuel. As compared to air, which contains 20.95% oxygen, higher temperatures can be reached using pure oxygen. Approximately the same total energy is produced when burning a fuel with oxygen as compared to with air; the difference is the lack of temperature diluting inert gases. The most common fuel burned in a torch with oxygen is acetylene; even though it presents special handling problems, it has the greatest heat output.
|Coal||A black or brownish black solid, combustible substance formed by the partial decomposition of vegetable matter without access to air. The rank of coal, which includes anthracite, bituminous coal, subbituminous coal, and lignite, is based on fixed carbon, volatile matter, and heating value. Coal rank indicates the progressive alteration, or coalification, from lignite to anthracite.
Wikipedia: Coal is a combustible black or brownish-black sedimentary rock normally occurring in rock strata in layers or veins called coal beds or coal seams. The harder forms, such as anthracite coal, can be regarded as metamorphic rock because of later exposure to elevated temperature and pressure. Coal is composed primarily of carbon along with variable quantities of other elements, chiefly hydrogen, with smaller quantities of sulfur, oxygen and nitrogen.
|Clean Coal||Coal that is washed, ground into fine particles, then chemically treated to remove sulfur, ash, silicone, and other substances; usually briquetted and coated with a sealant made from coal.
Wikipedia: Clean coal is an umbrella term used primarily to describe technologies that may reduce emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2) and other greenhouse gas that arise from the burning of coal for electrical power. Typically, clean coal is used by coal companies in reference to carbon capture and storage, which pumps and stores CO2 emissions underground, and to plants using an Integrated gasification combined cycle which gasifies coal to reduce CO2 emissions.
|Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC)|| gasification (a thermo-chemical process) breaks down coal - or virtually any carbon-based feedstock - into its basic chemical constituents. In a modern gasifier, coal is typically exposed to steam and carefully controlled amounts of air or oxygen under high temperatures and pressures. Under these conditions, molecules in coal break apart, initiating chemical reactions that typically produce a mixture of carbon monoxide, hydrogen and other gaseous compounds.
Wikipedia: An integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) is a technology that turns coal into gas—synthesis gas (syngas). It then removes impurities from the coal gas before it is combusted and attempts to turn any pollutants into re-usable byproducts. This results in lower emissions of sulfur dioxide, particulates and mercury. Excess heat from the primary combustion and generation is then passed to a steam cycle, similarly to a combined cycle gas turbine. This then also results in improved efficiency compared to conventional pulverized coal.
|Peak Coal||Wikipedia: the point in time at which the maximum global coal production rate is reached, after which, according to the theory, the rate of production will enter to a terminal decline.||peak coal|
|Electrical Grid||A common term referring to an electricity transmission and distribution system.||electrical grid|
|Smart Grid||The Smart Grid is an automated electric power system that monitors and controls grid activities, ensuring the two-way flow of electricity and information between power plants and consumers and all points in between.
Wikipedia: Smart grid is a type of electrical grid which attempts to predict and intelligently respond to the behaviour and actions of all electric power users connected to it - suppliers, consumers and those that do both – in order to efficiently deliver reliable, economic, and sustainable electricity services.
|Hydropower||Electrical energy produced by falling or flowing water.
Wikipedia: Hydropower, hydraulic power or water power is power that is derived from the force or energy of moving water, which may be harnessed for useful purposes.
|Natural Gas||A hydrocarbon gas obtained from underground sources, often in association with petroleum and coal deposits. It generally contains a high percentage of methane, varying amounts of ethane, and inert gases; used as a heating fuel.
Wikipedia: Natural gas is a gas consisting primarily of methane, typically with 0–20% higher hydrocarbons (primarily ethane). It is found associated with other hydrocarbon fuel, in coal beds, as methane clathrates, and is an important fuel source and a major feedstock for fertilizers.
|Oil Shale||Underground formation of a fine-grained sedimentary rock containing varying amounts of kerogen, a solid, waxy mixture of hydrocarbon compounds. Heating the rock to high temperatures converts the kerogen to a vapor, which can be condensed to form a slow flowing heavy oil called shale oil.
Wikipedia: Oil shale, an organic-rich fine-grained sedimentary rock, contains significant amounts of kerogen (a solid mixture of organic chemical compounds) from which liquid hydrocarbons called shale oil can be produced.
|Peak Gas||Wikipedia: the point in time at which the maximum global natural gas production rate is reached, after which the rate of production enters its terminal decline.||peak gas|
|Peak Oil||Wikipedia: is the point in time when the maximum rate of global petroleum extraction is reached, after which the rate of production enters terminal decline.||peak oil|
|Energy Storage||Wikipedia: accomplished by devices or physical media that store some form of energy to perform some useful operation at a later time. A device that stores energy is sometimes called an accumulator.||energy storage|
|Fuel Cell||An electrochemical device that converts chemical energy directly into electricity.
Wikipedia: A fuel cell is an electrochemical cell that converts chemical energy from a fuel into electric energy. Electricity is generated from the reaction between a fuel supply and an oxidizing agent. The reactants flow into the cell, and the reaction products flow out of it, while the electrolyte remains within it. Fuel cells can operate continuously as long as the necessary reactant and oxidant flows are maintained.
|Electrical Battery||Wikipedia: An electrical battery is one or more electrochemical cells that convert stored chemical energy into electrical energy||electrical battery|
|Fly Wheel Effect||The damping of interior temperature fluctuations by massive construction.
Wikipedia: A flywheel is a mechanical device with a significant moment of inertia used as a storage device for rotational energy. Flywheels resist changes in their rotational speed, which helps steady the rotation of the shaft when a fluctuating torque is exerted on it by its power source such as that caused by a piston-based (reciprocating) engine, or when an intermittent load, such as the motion of a piston pump, is placed on it.
|Transportation||Wikipedia: the movement of people and goods from one location to another. Modes of transport include air, rail, road, water, cable, pipeline, and space.||transportation|
|Electric Vehicle||A battery-powered electrically driven vehicle.
Wikipedia: An electric vehicle (EV), also referred to as an electric drive vehicle, uses one or more electric motors or traction motors for propulsion. Electric vehicles include electric cars, electric trains, electric lorries, electric aeroplanes, electric boats, electric motorcycles and scooters and electric spacecraft.
|Hybrid Electric Vehicle||Both technologies come together in hybrid electric vehicles, also known as HEVs or hybrids. Present-day hybrids are equipped with ICEs and electric motors. A hybrid's ICE engine, as in any ICE-powered car, produces power through continuous, controlled explosions that push down pistons connected to a rotating crankshaft. That rotating force (torque) is ultimately transmitted to the vehicle's wheels. A hybrid's electric motor is energized by a battery, which produces power through a chemical reaction. The battery is continuously recharged by a generator that—like the alternator of a conventional car—is driven by the ICE.
Wikipedia: A hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) is a type of hybrid vehicle and electric vehicle which combines a conventional internal combustion engine (ICE) propulsion system with an electric propulsion system. The presence of the electric powertrain is intended to achieve either better fuel economy than a conventional vehicle, or better performance. A variety of types of HEV exist, and the degree to which they function as EVs varies as well. The most common form of HEV is the hybrid electric car, although hybrid electric trucks (pickups and tractors) and buses also exist.
|Hybrid Electric vehicles|
|Hydrogen Vehicle||Hydrogen-powered vehicles use the same basic technology as gasoline-powered engines, but run on hydrogen fuel instead.
Wikipedia: A hydrogen vehicle is a vehicle that uses hydrogen as its onboard fuel for motive power. Hydrogen vehicles include hydrogen fueled space rockets, as well as automobiles and other transportation vehicles. The power plants of such vehicles convert the chemical energy of hydrogen to mechanical energy either by burning hydrogen in an internal combustion engine, or by reacting hydrogen with oxygen in a fuel cell to run electric motors.
|Natural Gas Vehicle||Dedicated natural gas vehicles (NGVs) are designed to run only on natural gas; bi-fuel NGVs have two separate fueling systems that enable the vehicle to use either natural gas or a conventional fuel (gasoline or diesel). In general, dedicated NGVs demonstrate better performance and have lower emissions than bi-fuel vehicles because their engines are optimized to run on natural gas. In addition, the vehicle does not have to carry two types of fuel, thereby increasing cargo capacity and reducing weight.
Wikipedia: A natural gas vehicle or NGV is an alternative fuel vehicle that uses compressed natural gas (CNG) or, less commonly, liquefied natural gas (LNG) as a clean alternative to other automobile fuels.
|natural gas vehicle|
|Corporate Average Fuel Economy||Wikipedia: The Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) are regulations in the United States, first enacted by US Congress in 1975, and intended to improve the average fuel economy of cars and light trucks (trucks, vans and sport utility vehicles) sold in the US in the wake of the 1973 Arab Oil Embargo.||C.A.F.E.|
|Direct Normal Irradiance||The amount of solar radiation received per unit area by a surface that is always held perpendicular (or normal) to the rays that come in a straight line from the direction of the sun at its current position in the sky. Typically, the amount of irradiance received by a surface can be maximized by keeping it normal to incoming radiation. This quantity is of particular interest to concentrating solar thermal installations and installations that track the position of the sun throughout the day.
|3Tier Support DNI|
|Global Horizontal Irradiance||The total amount of shortwave radiation (solar resource) received from above by a surface horizontal to the Earth's surface. This value relates to photovoltaic installations and includes Direct Normal Irradiance (DNI) and Diffuse Horizontal Irradiance (DIF).
|Latitude Tilt Irradiance||Represents the solar resource available to a flat plate collector toward the equator at an angle from horizontal equal to the latitude of the collector location, which is often the optimal collection orientation for fixed flat-plate collectors.
|Diffuse Horizontal Irradiance||The amount of radiation received per unit area by a surface (not subject to any shade or shadow) that does not arrive on a direct path from the sun, but has been scattered by molecules and particles in the atmosphere and comes equally from all directions.
Wikipedia: Diffuse sky radiation is solar radiation reaching the Earth's surface after having been scattered from the direct solar beam by molecules or suspensoids in the atmosphere.
|Concentrated Solar Power||The process of concentrating solar energy on a single focal point. The concentrated energy is used to heat fluid, which produces steam and activates turbines in order to produce electricity. Focusing the solar energy can be met by a number of techniques, the most common being linear concentrator systems, dish engine systems, and power tower systems. CSP may also be used to provide combined heat and power.
Wikipedia: Concentrated solar power (CSP) systems, also known as concentrated solar thermal (CST) systems, are systems that use mirrors or lenses to concentrate a large area of sunlight, or solar thermal energy, onto a small area. Electrical power is produced when the concentrated light is converted to heat which drives a heat engine (usually a steam turbine) connected to an electrical power generator.
|Insolation||Direct or diffused shortwave solar radiation which reaches a unit horizontal area of the Earth's surface.
Wikipedia: Insolation is a measure of solar radiation energy received on a given surface area in a given time. It is commonly expressed as average irradiance in watts per square meter (W/m2) or kilowatt-hours per square meter per day (kW•h/(m2•day)) (or hours/day). In the case of photovoltaics it is commonly measured as kWh/(kWp•y) (kilowatt hours per year per kilowatt peak rating).
|Irradiance||The radiant power received by unit area of a surface.
Wikipedia: Irradiance, radiant emittance, and radiant exitance are radiometry terms for the power of electromagnetic radiation per unit area at a surface. "Irradiance" is used when the electromagnetic radiation is incident on the surface. "Radiant exitance" or "radiant emittance" is used when the radiation is emerging from the surface. The SI units for all of these quantities are watts per square meter (W/m2), while the cgs units are ergs per square centimeter per second (erg•cm−2•s−1, often used in astronomy). These quantities are sometimes called intensity, but this usage leads to confusion with radiant intensity, which has different units.
|Active Solar||Active solar energy technologies convert sunlight into space heating, hot water or electricity by utilizing an energy transfer fluid such as water or air.
Wikipedia: Active solar technologies are employed to convert solar energy into usable light, heat, cause air-movement for ventilation or cooling, or store heat for future use. Active solar uses electrical or mechanical equipment, such as pumps and fans, to increase the usable heat in a system. Solar energy collection and utilization systems that do not use external energy, like a solar chimney, are classified as passive solar technologies. Solar hot water systems, except those based on the thermosiphon, use pumps or fans to circulate water, an anti-freeze mixture, or air through solar collectors, and are therefore classified under active solar technology. The solar collectors can be nonconcentrating or 'flat-plate', or of various concentrating designs. Most solar-thermal collectors have fixed mounting, but can have a higher performance if they track the path of the sun through the sky. Solar trackers, used to orient photovoltaic arrays or daylighting, may be driven by either passive or active technology.
|Passive Solar||Passive solar energy makes use of the benefits of sunlight through clever construction designs, like well-placed and sized windows and appropriate shades.
Wikipedia: Passive solar technologies are means of using sunlight for useful energy without use of active mechanical systems (as contrasted to active solar). Such technologies convert sunlight into usable heat (water, air, thermal mass), cause air-movement for ventilating, or future use, with little use of other energy sources. A common example is a solarium on the equator-side of a building. Passive cooling is the use of the same design principles to reduce summer cooling requirements. Technologies that use a significant amount of conventional energy to power pumps or fans are active solar technologies. Some passive systems use a small amount of conventional energy to control dampers, shutters, night insulation, and other devices that enhance solar energy collection, storage, use, and reduce undesirable heat transfer. Passive solar technologies include direct and indirect solar gain for space heating, solar water heating systems based on the thermosiphon, use of thermal mass and phase-change materials for slowing indoor air temperature swings, solar cookers, the solar chimney for enhancing natural ventilation, and earth sheltering. More widely, passive solar technologies include the solar furnace and solar forge, but these typically require some external energy for aligning their concentrating mirrors or receivers, and historically have not proven to be practical or cost effective for widespread use. 'Low-grade' energy needs, such as space and water heating, have proven, over time, to be better applications for passive use of solar energy.
|Tidal Power||The power available from the rise and fall of ocean tides. A tidal power plant works on the principal of a dam or barrage that captures water in a basin at the peak of a tidal flow, then directs the water through a hydroelectric turbine as the tide ebbs.
Wikipedia:Tidal power, also called tidal energy, is a form of hydropower that converts the energy of tides into electricity or other useful forms of power. The first large-scale tidal power plant started operation in 1966. Although not yet widely used, tidal power has potential for future electricity generation. Tides are more predictable than wind energy and solar power. Among sources of renewable energy, tidal power has traditionally suffered from relatively high cost and limited availability of sites with sufficiently high tidal ranges or flow velocities, thus constricting its total availability. However, many recent technological developments and improvements, both in design and turbine technology, are suggesting that the total availability of tidal power may be much higher than previously assumed, and that economic and environmental costs may be brought down to competitive levels. Historically, tide mills have been used, both in Europe and on the Atlantic coast of North America. The earliest occurrences date from the Middle Ages, or even from Roman times.
|Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion||The process or technologies for producing energy by harnessing the temperature differences (thermal gradients) between ocean surface waters and that of ocean depths. Warm surface water is pumped through an evaporator containing a working fluid in a closed Rankine-cycle system. The vaporized fluid drives a turbine/generator. Cold water from deep below the surface is used to condense the working fluid. Open-Cycle OTEC technologies use ocean water itself as the working fluid. Closed-Cycle OTEC systems circulate a working fluid in a closed loop. A working 10 kilowatt, closed-cycle prototype was developed by the Pacific International Center for High Technology Research in Hawaii with U.s. Department of Energy funding, but was not commercialized.
Wikipedia: Ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) uses the difference between cooler deep and warmer shallow or surface ocean waters to run a heat engine and produce useful work, usually in the form of electricity.
|Wave Power||The concept of capturing and converting the energy available in the motion of ocean waves to energy.
Wikipedia: Wave power is the transport of energy by ocean surface waves, and the capture of that energy to do useful work — for example, electricity generation, water desalination, or the pumping of water (into reservoirs).
|Cogeneration|| The generation of electricity or shaft power by an energy conversion system and the concurrent use of rejected thermal energy from the conversion system as an auxiliary energy source.
Wikipedia: Cogeneration (also combined heat and power, CHP) is the use of a heat engine or a power station to simultaneously generate both electricity and useful heat.
|Cooling Degree Days||A measure of how warm a location is over a period of time relative to a base temperature, most commonly specified as 65 degrees Fahrenheit. The measure is computed for each day by subtracting the base temperature (65 degrees) from the average of the day's high and low temperatures, with negative values set equal to zero. Each day's cooling degree-days are summed to create a cooling degree-day measure for a specified reference period. cooling degree-days are used in energy analysis as an indicator of air conditioning energy requirements or use.
Wikipedia: cooling degree day' (CDD), reflects the amount of energy used to cool a home or business.
|Heating Degree Days||A measure of how cold a location is over a period of time relative to a base temperature, most commonly specified as 65 degrees Fahrenheit. The measure is computed for each day by subtracting the average of the day's high and low temperatures from the base temperature (65 degrees), with negative values set equal to zero. Each day's heating degree-days are summed to create a heating degree-day measure for a specified reference period. heating degree-days are used in energy analysis as an indicator of space heating energy requirements or use.
Wikipedia: Heating degree day (HDD) is a measurement designed to reflect the demand for energy needed to heat a home or business. It is derived from measurements of outside air temperature. The heating requirements for a given structure at a specific location are considered to be directly proportional to the number of HDD at that location.
|Pulverized Coal|| is a coal that has been crushed to a fine dust in a grinding mill. It is blown into the combustion zone of a furnace and burns very rapidly and efficiently.
Wikipedia: Pulverized coal, or coal dust is a fine powdered form of coal, which is created by the crushing, grinding, or pulverizing of coal. Because of the brittle nature of coal, coal dust can be created during mining, transportation, or by mechanically handling coal.
|Combined Cycle|| An electric generating technology in which electricity is produced from otherwise lost waste heat exiting from one or more gas (combustion) turbines. The exiting heat is routed to a conventional boiler or to a heat recovery steam generator for utilization by a steam turbine in the production of electricity. This process increases the efficiency of the electric generating unit.
Wikipedia:In electric power generation a combined cycle is an assembly of heat engines that work in tandem off the same source of heat, converting it into mechanical energy, which in turn usually drives electrical generators. The principle is that the exhaust of one heat engine is used as the heat source for another, thus extracting more useful energy from the heat, increasing the system's overall efficiency. This works because heat engines are only able to use a portion of the energy their fuel generates (usually less than 50%).
|Radiant Energy||Energy that transmits away from its source in all directions.
Wikipedia:Radiant energy is the energy of electromagnetic waves. The quantity of radiant energy may be calculated by integrating radiant flux (or power) with respect to time and, like all forms of energy, its SI unit is the joule. The term is used particularly when radiation is emitted by a source into the surrounding environment. Radiant energy may be visible or invisible to the human eye.
|Solar Thermal Collector|| Solar energy systems that collect or absorb solar energy for useful purposes. Can be used to generate high temperature heat (for electricity production and/or process heat), medium temperature heat (for process and space/water heating and electricity generation), and low temperature heat (for water and space heating and cooling).
Wikipedia: A solar thermal collector is a solar collector designed to collect heat by absorbing sunlight. The term is applied to solar hot water panels, but may also be used to denote more complex installations such as solar parabolic, solar trough and solar towers or simpler installations such as solar air heat. The more complex collectors are generally used in solar power plants where solar heat is used to generate electricity by heating water to produce steam which drives a turbine connected to an electrical generator. The simpler collectors are typically used for supplemental space heating in residential and commercial buildings. A collector is a device for converting the energy in solar radiation into a more usable or storable form. The energy in sunlight is in the form of electromagnetic radiation from the infrared (long) to the ultraviolet (short) wavelengths. The solar energy striking the Earth's surface depends on weather conditions, as well as location and orientation of the surface, but overall, it averages about 1,000 watts per square meter under clear skies with the surface directly perpendicular to the sun's rays.
|Energy Recycling||Wikipedia:Energy recycling is the energy recovery process of utilizing energy that would normally be wasted, usually by converting it into electricity or thermal energy. Undertaken at manufacturing facilities, power plants, and large institutions such as hospitals and universities, it significantly increases efficiency, thereby reducing energy costs and greenhouse gas pollution simultaneously. The process is noted for its potential to mitigate global warming profitably. This work is usually done in the form of combined heat and power (also called cogeneration) or waste heat recovery.||energy recycling|
|Solar Radiation||A general term for the visible and near visible (ultraviolet and near-infrared) electromagnetic radiation that is emitted by the sun. It has a spectral, or wavelength,distribution that corresponds to different energy levels; short wavelength radiation has a higher energy than long-wavelength radiation.
|Solar Cell||Also know as a photovoltaic cell-- An electronic device consisting of layers of semiconductor materials fabricated to form a junction (adjacent layers of materials with different electroniccharacteristics) and electrical contacts and being capable of converting incident light directly into electricity (direct current).
Wikipedia: A solar cell (also called photovoltaic cell or photoelectric cell) is a solid state electrical device that converts the energy of light directly into electricity by the photovoltaic effect.
|Fossil Fuel|| An energy source formed in the Earth RSQUO's crust from decayed organic material. The common Fossil Fuels are petroleum, coal, and natural gas.
Wikipedia: Fossil fuels are fuels formed by natural processes such as anaerobic decomposition of buried dead organisms. The age of the organisms and their resulting fossil fuels is typically millions of years, and sometimes exceeds 650 million years. The fossil fuels, which contain high percentages of carbon, include coal, petroleum, and natural gas. Fossil fuels range from volatile materials with low carbon:hydrogen ratios like methane, to liquid petroleum to nonvolatile materials composed of almost pure carbon, like anthracite coal. Methane can be found in hydrocarbon fields, alone, associated with oil, or in the form of methane clathrates. It is generally accepted that they formed from the fossilized remains of dead plants by exposure to heat and pressure in the Earth's crust over millions of years.
|Greenhouse Gas|| Those gases, such as water vapor, carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, methane, hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), perfluorocarbons (PFCs) and sulfur hexafluoride, that are transparent to solar (short-wave) radiation but opaque to long-wave (infrared) radiation, thus preventing long-wave radiant energy from leaving Earth's atmosphere. The net effect is a trapping of absorbed radiation and a tendency to warm the planet's surface.
Wikipedia:A greenhouse gas (sometimes abbreviated GHG) is a gas in an atmosphere that absorbs and emits radiation within the thermal infrared range. The primary greenhouse gases in the Earth's atmosphere are water vapor, carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, and ozone. Greenhouse gases greatly affect the temperature of the Earth; without them, Earth's surface would be on average about 33 °C (59 °F)colder than at present.
|Absorption air conditioning|
|Air-water heat pumps|
|Alkaline fuel cells|
|Automatic active solar trackers|
|Barrage tidal power|
|Base load modes|
|Bay power plants|
|Bioenergy power plants|
|Brine-water heat pumps|
|Buffer storage tanks|
|CIGS Solar cells|
|CdTe Solar cells|
|Circulating fluidized-bed combustion|
|Coal partial oxidations|
|Combined-cycle power plants|
|Compact flourescent lights|
|Concentrated solar power|
|Cross-flow heat exchanger|
|Darrieus wind turbines|
|Decentralized power plants|
|Densified biomass fuel|
|Diesel partial oxidations|
|Direct borohydride fuel cells|
|Direct carbon fuel cells|
|Direct ethanol fuel cells|
|Direct formic acid fuel cells|
|Drag device wind turbines|
|Electric compressor engines|
|electro-galvanic fuel cells|
|Enzymatic biofuel cells|
|External heat exchangers|
|Framed solar panels|
|Fuel cell cars|
|Gorlov helical turbines|
|Greenhouse gas emissions|
|Grid-connected photovoltaic systems|
|Grid-connected wind power systems|
|Heat exchange systems|
|Heat Pipe Collectors|
|High effiency boilers|
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