Mineral Saturation And Scaling Tendencies Of Waters Discharged From Wells (Greater Than 150 Sc) In Geothermal Areas Of Turkey

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Journal Article: Mineral Saturation And Scaling Tendencies Of Waters Discharged From Wells (Greater Than 150 Sc) In Geothermal Areas Of Turkey

Abstract
Aqueous species distribution was calculated from the chemical composition of water discharges from 27 selected production wells, with reservoir temperatures >150 sC, in seven geothermal areas including KIzIldere, SalavatlI, Germencik, KavaklIdere-Sazdere, Salihli-Caferbeyli, Simav, and Tuzla. Twenty-five of the water compositions are relatively dilute with electroconductivity values of 1826 to 7200 μS/cm and are dominated by Na (410 to 2027 mg/kg), Cl (45 to 1882 mg/kg), and alkalinity-CO2 (491 to 2312 mg/kg). Two water samples from Tuzla are highly saline connate waters with Cl of 35 273 to 44 140 mg/kg and Na of 18 200 to 22 250 mg/kg. Mineral equilibrium modeling indicates that the aquifer waters in these selected geothermal wells, with some exceptions, are oversaturated with respect to calcite, aragonite, and celestite, but undersaturated with respect to gypsum, anhydrite, fluorite, Ca-montmorillonite, anorthite, albite-low, gibbsite, illite, kaolinite, and K-feldspar. The waters are at near saturation with respect to chalcedony, quartz, amorphous silica, dolomite, and strontianite. Calculation of mineral saturation states, geochemical studies, and field observations show that carbonate minerals (calcite, aragonite, and dolomite), amorphous silica, and sulfate minerals (celestite and anhydrite) are most likely to be precipitated as scales in geothermal wells. Assessment of calcite and amorphous silica scaling tendencies for selected well waters indicates that hot injection is favorable for Tuzla well T-2 (~50-170 sC) and for KIzIldere wells R-1 and KD-6 (around 100 sC). For the other wells, cold injection (<50 sC) is favored if calcite and amorphous silica accumulation is to be avoided in injection wells.

Author 
Gultekin Tarcan








Published Journal 
Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 2005





DOI 
Not Provided
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Citation

Gultekin Tarcan. 2005. Mineral Saturation And Scaling Tendencies Of Waters Discharged From Wells (Greater Than 150 Sc) In Geothermal Areas Of Turkey. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research. (!) .