Mineral Equilibria And Geothermometry Of The Dalaman-Koycegiz Thermal Springs, Southern Turkey
Journal Article: Mineral Equilibria And Geothermometry Of The Dalaman-Koycegiz Thermal Springs, Southern Turkey
AbstractThe Dalaman and Koycegiz thermal springs are from karstic limestones belonging to Upper Cretaceous to Burdigalian BeydaglarI autochthon and Carboniferous to Lutetian Lycian nappes. They have measured temperatures of 24- 41°C, specific electrical conductivities of 14,310-45,600 μS/cm, and are dominated by Na (1550-8500 mg/kg) and Cl (2725-15,320 mg/kg). The heat source of the geothermal systems of the area is tectonic related and the occurrence of the thermal springs is related to the young normal faults. Meteoric waters and seawaters recharge the reservoir rocks, are heated at depth with increasing geothermal gradient, and move up to the surface through the fractures and faults by convection trend and emerge as thermal springs. While thermal waters move up to the surface, they mix with different proportions of seawater and cold fresh waters. The seawater contribution to the thermal waters varies from 24% to 78%. Lake waters in the area are connected with thermal waters. Consequently, their chemical composition is influenced by the chemistry of thermal waters. Chemical equilibrium modelling based on measured outlet temperatures and measured pH shows that all the waters are oversaturated with respect to quartz and K-mica and undersaturated with respect to Al(OH)3, anorthite, gypsum, siderite and SiO2(a). Albite, alunite, aragonite, Ca-montmorillonite, calcite, chalcedony, chlorite, dolomite, Fe(OH)3(a), fluorite, gypsum, illite, K-feldspar, kaolinite and sepiolite minerals are mostly oversaturated or undersaturated. Mineral saturation studies of the thermal springs indicate that dolomite, chalcedony and quartz are most likely to cause scaling at outlet conditions. Assessments from various chemical geothermometers, and Na-K-Mg ternary and mineral equilibrium diagrams suggest that the reservoir temperature is around 65-90°C. The temperatures obtained from quartz, quartz-steam loss, Mg/Li geothermometers and mineral equilibrium diagrams give the most reasonable results.
- Ali Gokgoz and Gultekin Tarcan
- Published Journal
- Applied Geochemistry, 2006
Ali Gokgoz,Gultekin Tarcan. 2006. Mineral Equilibria And Geothermometry Of The Dalaman-Koycegiz Thermal Springs, Southern Turkey. Applied Geochemistry. (!) .