Micro-Earthquake

Jump to: navigation, search
GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home

Exploration Technique: Micro-Earthquake

Exploration Technique Information
Exploration Group: Geophysical Techniques
Exploration Sub Group: Seismic Techniques
Parent Exploration Technique: Passive Seismic Techniques
Information Provided by Technique
Lithology:
Stratigraphic/Structural: Fault zones, permeable pathways
Hydrological: Fluid type- liquid or steam
Thermal:
Dictionary.png
Micro-Earthquake:
The micro-earthquake technique (MEQ), also known as microseismic, utilizes vibrations in the subsurface to locate permeable pathways and determine fluid phase.
Other definitions:Wikipedia Reegle



 
Use in Geothermal Exploration
Ground noise and micro-earthquakes (MEQ) may be utilized in the exploration, production and monitoring phases of the development of a geothermal field. The source of the ground vibrations can be natural and/or artificial. This technique maps active fault failure on shear zones, as well as fluid expansion/compression.

Measurement of microseismicity can aid in the management of reinjection during the production of the geothermal field. Levels of microseismicity associated with development activities can also be recorded. [1] Fluid type may be inferred from the ratio of compressional to shear wave velocities.[2] Additionally, 4-D MEQ monitoring (time-lapse) can detect changes during the production of the reservoir, such as pressure drawdown. [3]

For Enhanced Geothermal System (EGS) development, microseismic is used as a monitoring tool to detect the fracture network generated through hydraulic shearing. [4]


 
Field Procedures
See Passive Seismic Techniques

An array of geophones is installed in the vicinity of the geothermal reservoir for an extended period of time, typically a few months.[5] The geometry and number of geophones in the array is survey-specific but needs to be dense enough to characterize the reservoir. The geophones monitor vibrations in the subsurface due to naturally- and artificially-generated micro-earthquakes.
 
Environmental Mitigation Measures
See Passive Seismic Techniques

Environmental impacts associated with passive seismic monitoring are minimal.
 
Physical Properties



 
Potential Pitfalls
Wildcat as well as developed geothermal fields have experienced limited success with MEQ exploration. High cost and episodic data inhibit the utility of this risky exploration tool.[6] Generally, wildcat or unproduced areas do not generate sufficient MEQ activity to enable accurate characterization of permeable pathways.

MEQ activity is primarily associated with the development and production of a field and may be applied towards in-fill drilling.[3]









Page Area Activity Start Date Activity End Date Reference Material
Micro-Earthquake (Majer, 2003) Unspecified


Micro-Earthquake At Brady Hot Springs Geothermal Area (2011) Brady Hot Springs Geothermal Area 2011 2011


Micro-Earthquake At Chena Geothermal Area (Holdmann, Et Al., 2006) Chena Geothermal Area 2006 2007


Micro-Earthquake At Coso Geothermal Area (1974) Coso Geothermal Area 1974 1974


Micro-Earthquake At Coso Geothermal Area (1987) Coso Geothermal Area 1987 1987


Micro-Earthquake At Coso Geothermal Area (1992-1997) Coso Geothermal Area 1992 1997


Micro-Earthquake At Coso Geothermal Area (1993-1994) Coso Geothermal Area 1993 1994


Micro-Earthquake At Coso Geothermal Area (1996) Coso Geothermal Area 1996 1996


Micro-Earthquake At Coso Geothermal Area (2000) Coso Geothermal Area 2000 2000


Micro-Earthquake At Coso Geothermal Area (2002-2005) Coso Geothermal Area 2002 2005


Micro-Earthquake At Coso Geothermal Area (2005) Coso Geothermal Area 2005 2005


Micro-Earthquake At Coso Geothermal Area (2007) Coso Geothermal Area 2007 2007


Micro-Earthquake At Coso Geothermal Area (2011) Coso Geothermal Area 2011 2011


Micro-Earthquake At Desert Peak Geothermal Area (2011) Desert Peak Geothermal Area 2011 2011


Micro-Earthquake At Dixie Valley Geothermal Area (Katz & J., 1984) Dixie Valley Geothermal Area 1977 1977


Micro-Earthquake At Fenton Hill HDR Geothermal Area (Brown, 2009) Fenton Hill HDR Geothermal Area 1983 1995


Micro-Earthquake At Geysers Area (Erten & Rial, 1999) Geysers Area


Micro-Earthquake At Geysers Area (Laney, 2005) Geysers Area


Micro-Earthquake At Geysers Area (Malin, Et Al., 2004) Geysers Area


Micro-Earthquake At Geysers Geothermal Area (2011) Geysers Geothermal Area 2011 2011


Micro-Earthquake At Kilauea East Rift Geothermal Area (FURUMOTO, 1976) Kilauea East Rift Geothermal Area


Micro-Earthquake At Kilauea East Rift Geothermal Area (Gardner, Et Al., 1995) Kilauea East Rift Geothermal Area 1950 1950


Micro-Earthquake At Kilauea East Rift Geothermal Area (Kenedi, Et Al., 2010) Kilauea East Rift Geothermal Area 2006 2010


Micro-Earthquake At Kilauea East Rift Geothermal Area (Thomas, 1986) Kilauea East Rift Geothermal Area 1978 1987


Micro-Earthquake At Long Valley Caldera Geothermal Area (Foulger, Et Al., 2004) Long Valley Caldera Geothermal Area 2004


Micro-Earthquake At Long Valley Caldera Geothermal Area (Stroujkova & Malin, 2001) Long Valley Caldera Geothermal Area 2001


Micro-Earthquake At Marysville Mt Area (Blackwell) Marysville Mt Area


Micro-Earthquake At Neal Hot Springs Geothermal Area (Nichols & Cole, 2010) Neal Hot Springs Geothermal Area 2011 2011


Micro-Earthquake At New River Area (DOE GTP) New River Area


Micro-Earthquake At New York Canyon Geothermal Area (2011) New York Canyon Geothermal Area 2011 2011


Micro-Earthquake At Newberry Caldera Area (DOE GTP) Newberry Caldera Area


Micro-Earthquake At Newberry Caldera Geothermal Area (2011) Newberry Caldera Geothermal Area 2011 2011


Micro-Earthquake At North Brawley Geothermal Area (Hauksson, Et Al., 2012) North Brawley Geothermal Area 1981 2011


Micro-Earthquake At Northwest Basin and Range Geothermal Region (1976) Northwest Basin and Range Geothermal Region 1976 1976


Micro-Earthquake At Raft River Geothermal Area (1979) Raft River Geothermal Area 1979 1979


Micro-Earthquake At Raft River Geothermal Area (1982) Raft River Geothermal Area 1982 1982


Micro-Earthquake At Raft River Geothermal Area (2011) Raft River Geothermal Area 2011 2011


Micro-Earthquake At Roosevelt Hot Springs Geothermal Area (Faulder, 1991) Roosevelt Hot Springs Geothermal Area 1991 1991


Micro-Earthquake At Roosevelt Hot Springs Geothermal Area (Ward, Et Al., 1978) Roosevelt Hot Springs Geothermal Area 1978 1978


Micro-Earthquake At Roosevelt Hot Springs Geothermal Area (Zandt, Et Al., 1982) Roosevelt Hot Springs Geothermal Area 1982 1982


Micro-Earthquake At Snake River Plain Geothermal Region (1976) Snake River Plain Geothermal Region 1976 1976


Micro-Earthquake At Under Steamboat Springs Area (Warpinski, Et Al., 2002) Under Steamboat Springs Area


Micro-Earthquake At Under Steamboat Springs Area (Warpinski, Et Al., 2004) Under Steamboat Springs Area


Micro-Earthquake At Waunita Hot Springs Geothermal Area (Lange, 1981) Waunita Hot Springs Geothermal Area 1971 1972


Print PDF