EZ Policies for Michigan
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|Policy||Place||Policy Type||Active||Implementing Sector||Summary|
|Air Pollution Control (Michigan)||Michigan||Environmental Regulations
Siting and Permitting
|Yes||State/Province||This rule requires an annual report from a commercial, industrial, or governmental source of emission of an air contaminant if, in the judgment of the Department, information on the quantity and composition of an air contaminant emitted from the source is considered by the Department as necessary for the proper management of the air resources. In addition, other state rules and federal statutes and regulations require sources to report air emissions if certain conditions are met. The Air Quality Division (AQD) has outlined the general criteria that are used to determine if a source must report.|
|Air Pollution Control Facility, Tax Exemption (Michigan)||Michigan||Property Tax Incentive
Sales Tax Incentive
|Yes||State/Province||An application for a pollution control tax exemption certificate shall be filed with the state tax commission in a manner and in a form as prescribed by the state tax commission. The application shall contain plans and specifications of the facility, including all materials incorporated or to be incorporated in the facility and a descriptive list of all equipment acquired or to be acquired by the applicant for the purpose of pollution control, together with the proposed operating procedure for the control facility.
For the purposes of this tax exemption, “facility” means machinery, equipment, structures, or any part or accessories of machinery, equipment, or structures, installed or acquired for the primary purpose of controlling or disposing of air pollution that if released would render the air harmful or inimical to the public health or to property within this state. Facility includes an incinerator equipped with a pollution abatement device in effective operation.For the period subsequent to the effective date of the certificate and continuing as long as the certificate is in force, a facility covered by the certificate is exempt from real and personal property taxes imposed under the general property tax act Tangible personal property purchased and installed as a component part of the facility is exempt from sales tax.
|Alternative Energy Personal Property Tax Exemption (Michigan)||Michigan||Property Tax Incentive||No||State/Territory||Note: The exemption may only be taken on taxes levied between December 31, 2002 and January 1, 2013.
Alternative energy systems include: fuel cells, PV, solar thermal heating and cooling, wind energy, CHP, microturbines, miniturbines, Stirling engines, electricity storage systems, and clean fuel energy systems powered by methane, natural gas, methanol, ethanol or hydrogen. See MCL § 207.822 for a complete listing of eligible technologies. The exemption may be taken on taxes levied between December 31, 2002 and January 1, 2013.
*Public Act 38 of 2011 repealed the Michigan Business Tax (MBT) and implemented the Corporate Income Tax (CIT). Public Act 39 was passed in conjunction with the CIT and allows for credits awarded under the MBT to be retained for the duration of the agreements. Businesses receiving certain credits, including Renaissance Zone credits, may choose to either continue to file under the MBT to continue claiming their credits, or file under the CIT. No additional Renaissance Zone business tax credits will be awarded after 2011.
|Renewable Operating Permits (ROP,Title V) (Michigan)||Michigan||Fees||Yes||State/Province||The Renewable Operating Permit (ROP) is required by Title V of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990. The ROP program clarifies the requirements that apply to a facility that emits air contaminants. Any facility in Michigan that has the potential to emit 10 tons per year of any one hazardous air pollutant (HAP), 25 tons per year of any combination of HAPs, or 100 tons per year of any other regulated air contaminant is considered a "major source," and is subject to the ROP program.
The ROP pulls together all of the requirements into a single document giving the facility, state and local regulatory agencies, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA), and the public a better picture of air emissions at a facility. Thus all Permits to Install and any other applicable air quality requirements will be incorporated into one permit.A ROP does not add any new requirements; however, many facilities have to establish new monitoring systems to demonstrate compliance with emission limits and material usage limits. Once an emission source receives a ROP, the burden of proof is shifted from the regulatory agency to the emission source. It becomes the emission source's responsibility to determine whether a violation has occurred and report the findings. Therefore, facilities must track their compliance with state and federal air quality requirements and make reports to the regulatory agencies.
|Biomass Gasification and Methane Digester Property Tax Exemption (Michigan)||Michigan||Property Tax Incentive||Yes||State/Territory||Michigan exempts certain energy production related farm facilities from real and personal property taxes. Among exempted property are certain methane digesters, biomass gasification equipment, thermal depolymerization systems, and equipment used to harvest crop residues or dedicated crops used for energy production.
In order to be eligible for the exemption, methane digester equipment must be certified by the Michigan Department of Agriculture (MDA) and the farm must be verified as compliant under theMichigan Agriculture Environmental Assurance Program (MAEAP). In addition, the facility owner must allow "access for not more than 2 universities to collect information regarding the effectiveness of the methane digester and the methane digester electric generating system in generating electricity and processing animal waste and production area waste". The exemption includes equipment used to generate electricity from methane digester systems and equipment used to generate heat or electricity from biomass gasifiers.
|Capital Access Program (CAP) (Michigan)||Michigan||Loan Program||Yes||State/Province||The Capital Access Program (CAP), utilizes public resources to generate private financing for small business in Michigan seeking access to capital. Funding from the Michigan Strategic Fund is joined with private banking participants to enable more favorable loan access for small businesses. To date, the private/public ratio of funding has been approximately 28 to 1. Eligible businesses must have no more than 500 workers and the maximum loan amount which may be enrolled in CAP is $5 million.|
|City of Ann Arbor - Green Power Purchasing (Michigan)||Michigan||Green Power Purchasing||Yes||Local||In May 2006, the Ann Arbor City Council adopted a resolution that established a goal of 30% renewable energy for all municipal operations by 2010, with an associated 20% reduction in greenhouse gases. The resolution also established a goal of 20% renewable energy for the entire Ann Arbor community by 2015. In July 2009, the EPA announced that the city of Ann Arbor was among the top-20 users of on-site renewable energy in the nation. The city generates and uses roughly 8.9 million kilowatt-hours (kWh) annually from green energy sources, primarily biogas, solar, and small hydroelectric facilities. This amounts to roughly 20% of the annual electricity consumption in city facilities. The city came short of its 2010 goal, achieving 19.8% renewables by 2010. In April 2011, the City Council passed a new goal to reach 30% renewables by 2015 (compared to 2000 levels) in municipal operations, and 5% renewables community-wide. The resolution also encourages the city staff to reach this goal using long-term, fixed-rate contracts with in-state wind generation.|
|City of Grand Rapids - Green Power Purchasing Policy (Michigan)||Michigan||Green Power Purchasing||Yes||Local||In 2005, the City of Grand Rapids established a goal of purchasing 20% of its municipal power demand from renewable energy by 2008. In November 2007, the city signed a three-year agreement with a three-year renewable with Consumers Energy to purchase Green-e Certified blocks of renewable energy valued at a reduced rate. This purchase agreement is equivalent to roughly 15% of municipal electricity consumption, which, coupled with the 5% renewable-energy component of Consumer's Energy base load generation, met the 20% goal established in 2005. The city offset the additional cost of this green electricity purchase by exploring energy and cost savings opportunities in cooperation and through energy efficiency efforts with support from grant funds and capital projects. The Mayor has also established a further goal of purchasing 100% of the city's municipal electricity consumption from renewable energy by 2020. Due to significant energy efficiency efforts, and energy consumption reduction, as of November 2011, the city is purchasing 22% of its energy from renewable sources.|
|City of Lansing - Green Power Purchasing Policy (Michigan)||Michigan||Green Power Purchasing||Yes||Local||By an executive order from the Mayor's Office, City of Lansing facilities are now required to procure 10% of their energy consumption from renewable sources by 2010, escalating to 15% in 2015 and 20% in 2020. This green power purchasing policy is part of a broader initiative designed to reduce the contribution that city facilities make to greenhouse gas emissions and climate change. Several additional provisions apart from green power procurement are contained in the order, among them a goal of reducing energy use in city facilities by 10% as soon as it is practical and mandates that city facilities purchase EPA Energy Star certified appliances and hybrid/renewable fuel vehicles unless an otherwise demonstrable need exists.|
|Clean Air Interstate Rule (CAIR) Budget Permits (Michigan)||Michigan||Siting and Permitting||Yes||State/Province||Michigan implements the federal requirements of the Clean Air Interstate Rule (CAIR) through state regulations. Michigan's Rule 821 requires subject sources to obtain and operate in compliance with a CAIR Annual NOx Budget permit and/or CAIR Ozone NOx Budget permit. Rule 420 requires subject sources to obtain and operate in compliance with a CAIR SO2 Budget permit. All CAIR Budget permits must be issued and renewed in keeping with Michigan's Renewable Operating Permit program procedures.|
|Climate Action Plan (Michigan)||Michigan||Climate Policies||Yes||State/Province||On November 14, 2007, Governor Jennifer M. Granholm issued Executive Order No. 2007-42 establishing the Michigan Climate Action Council (MCAC). The Council is comprised of members representing academia, a broad base of industry, utilities, state and local government, and environmental interest groups. The Council will act in an advisory capacity to:
1) Produce an inventory and forecast of greenhouse gas sources and emissions from 1990-2020; 2) Consider potential state and multi-state actions to mitigate and adapt to climate change in various sectors including energy supply, energy efficiency and conservation, industrial process and waste management, transportation and land use, and agriculture and forestry; 3) Develop a comprehensive climate action plan with specific recommendations for reducing greenhouse gases in Michigan by business, government and the general public, and 4) Advise state and local government on measures to address climate change.
The Council is being supported by the Michigan Department of Environmental Quality, which is the lead state agency for this effort and by the Center for Climate Strategies (CCS) a nonprofit service organization that has substantial experience working directly with public officials and their stakeholders to facilitate the development of climate action plans.In addition to the Council, there will be five technical work groups that will have further input into the process by reviewing technical documents, developing and reviewing proposed policy actions and recommendations and providing feedback on priorities.
|Coldwater Board of Public Utilities - Commercial & Industrial Energy Efficiency Rebate Program (Michigan)||Michigan||Utility Rebate Program||Yes||Utility||The Coldwater Board of Public Utility, in conjunction with American Municipal Power's "Efficiency Smart" program, offers a wide range of incentives that encourage commercial and industrial to pursue energy efficient equipment and energy saving measures. Prescriptive rebates are available for efficient lighting, HVAC equipment, compressed air systems and accessories, motors, refrigeration equipment, and food service equipment. Efficiency Smart also provides a custom incentive program for energy saving projects which may not be covered by the prescriptive program. Program applications, which include rebate calculation worksheets, are available on the program web site. Consult the program's terms on the application and contact the Coldwater Board of Public Utility or the Efficiency Smart program with any questions.|
|Community Development Block Grant/Economic Development Infrastructure Financing (United States)||United States||Grant Program
|Yes||Federal||Community Development Block Grant/Economic Development Infrastructure Financing (CDBG/EDIF) provides public infrastructure financing to help communities grow jobs, enable new business startups and expansions for existing businesses. State programs help achieve the national objective of CDBG by funding projects in which at least 51 percent of the new jobs created are made available to low and moderate income individuals. The maximum amounts awarded under the program are $1 million for new businesses locating to the state and $500,000 for existing businesses expanding in the state.|
|Consumers Energy - Experimental Advanced Renewable Program (Michigan)||Michigan||Performance-Based Incentive||Yes||Utility||Note: Check the program web site for application materials and information on future solicitations. Consumers Energy is not currently accepting applications for Residential and Non-Residential EARP Solar customers. Future phases are planned into 2015 as needed to meet program capacity targets. Consumers Energy is not currently accepting applications to the Anaerobic Digestion program.
|DTE Energy - Solar Currents Program (Michigan)||Michigan||Utility Rebate Program||Yes||Utility||Note: ''''''''''Note: The Solar Currents program fulfilled phase two of their pilot program of additional 2 megawatts of customer-owned solar projects by 2015, and are no longer accepting applications. Although the program web site above links to the residential section of DTE Energy's web page, the program itself is not limited to residential customers. Other customers that meet the program requirements are also eligible to participate.
DTE Energy offers incentives through the Solar Currents program to its electric customers that install photovoltaic systems with a capacity of 1 kilowatt (kW) to 20 kW. For residential customers, the program offers both an up-front rebate of $0.20 per DC watt and a production incentive of $0.03 per kilowatt-hour (kWh) for the renewable energy credits (RECs) produced by the system through August 31, 2029. The rates for non-residential customers are $0.13/W upfront and $0.02/W for the RECs. Both new systems and existing PV systems with valid DTE Energy Net Metering and Interconnection Agreements are eligible to participate in the program. All systems must be grid-connected, net metered, and be sized not to exceed on-site energy needs.
Please consult the program web site for additional information on net metering, interconnection requirements, and further program rules.
|Dam Safety (Michigan)||Michigan||Safety and Operational Guidelines||Yes||State/Province||This rule requires that anyone who desires to construct a dam that is 6 feet or more in height and impounds 5 surface acres or more at the design flood elevation, must first obtain a permit from the Department of Environmental Quality|
|Energy Revolving Loan Fund - Clean Energy Advanced Manufacturing (Michigan)||Michigan||Industry Recruitment/Support||Yes||State/Territory||Note: This program is not currently accepting applications. Check the program web site for information regarding future solicitations.
Program information and applications are available on the program web site.
|Energy Revolving Loan Fund - Farm Energy (Michigan)||Michigan||State Loan Program||Yes||State/Territory||In January 2010, Michigan enacted the Public Act 242 of 2009, which established the Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Revolving Loan Fund Program. The Farm Energy Audit/Assessment portion of this program is available to family farms in Michigan for projects recommended through the Michigan Farm Energy Audit program. Applicants are evaluated based on minimum credit standards and face-to-face interviews. Loan recipients are required to submit quarterly reports related to energy use. Program funds cannot be used for any systems installed before the date of the loan agreement. For questions regarding farm energy audits, contact Al Go at Michigan State University.|
|Energy Revolving Loan Fund - Passive Solar (Michigan)||Michigan||State Loan Program||Yes||State/Territory||In January 2010, Michigan enacted the Public Act 242 of 2009, which established the Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Revolving Loan Fund Program. The Passive Solar Systems portion of the loan program is available to family farms and non-profits located in Michigan. Under this program, a passive solar system is defined as "a structure which can extend the growing season to ten to twelve months without additional supplemental heat or light."
Applicants are evaluated based on minimum credit standards and face-to-face interviews to determine knowledge of and interest in passive solar systems. Loan recipients will be required to attend a passive solar system workshop and are required to submit quarterly reports related to production. Program funds cannot be used for any costs incurred before the date of the loan agreement.Applications are available on the program web site.
|Energy Revolving Loan Fund - Public Entities (Michigan)||Michigan||State Loan Program||Yes||State/Territory||Note: The Michigan Economic Development Corporation is not currently accepting applications for this loan fund. Check the program web site for future solicitations.
Applications are available on the program web site and must be submitted to the Michigan Economic Development Corporation.
|Forestry Policies (Michigan)||Michigan||Environmental Regulations||Yes||State/Province||Michigan's 19 million acres of forests are managed by the Department of Natural Resources, Forestry and Water Division. The Department issued its Forest Resource Assessment and Strategy document in 2010:
The document mentions several issues with regard to better utilization of forest woody biomass resources, and the DNR has in the past submitted request for grant proposal to address issues identified in the Assessment and Strategy document: http://www.michigan.gov/documents/dnr/3000NASPFSingleRFP110110_339415_7.pdf
The DNRE issued sustainable harvesting guidelines for the state in 2010, highlighting the state's historical use of woody biomass and recommending harvesting guidelines to maintain and promote sustainable forests: http://www.michigan.gov/documents/dnr/WGBH_321271_7.pdf
Michigan State in 2011 produced the Michigan Biomass Inventory tool, under grant funding from the Michigan Biomass Energy Program: http://mibiomass.rsgis.msu.edu/Default.aspx
The Michigan Technological University has released the "Michigan Forest Biomass Information System", a web-interface tool for evaluating inventories of forest biomass resources throughout the state: http://fbis.mtu.edu/index.html
The Michigan Biomass Energy Program issues grants for biomass energy development in the state, currently under the Renewable Energy Demonstration Program:http://www.nextenergy.org/michigan-renewable-energy-demonstration-program-round-2-biomass/
|Fuel Mix and Emissions Disclosure (Michigan)||Michigan||Generation Disclosure||Yes||State/Territory||Michigan's Customer Choice and Electric Reliability Act of 2000 (P.A. 141) requires electric suppliers to disclose to customers details related to the fuel mix and emissions, in pounds per megawatt-hour (MWh) of electric generation. Electric suppliers must provide this information to customers twice annually in a standardized, uniform format. The Michigan Public Service Commission (MPSC) staff must calculate the regional electricity generation and environmental characteristics and make it available to be used by the state's generation providers. The web site above describes the methods for updating the regional generation characteristics and is updated annually by November 1st.|
|Hazardous Waste Management (Michigan)||Michigan||Safety and Operational Guidelines||Yes||State/Province||A person shall not generate, dispose, store, treat, or transport hazardous waste in this state without complying with the requirements of this article. The department, in the conduct of its duties as prescribed under this part, shall assist in encouraging, developing, and implementing methods of hazardous waste management that are environmentally sound, that maximize the utilization of valuable resources, that encourage resource conservation, including source separation, recycling, and waste reduction, and that are consistent with the plan to be provided by the department. In addition, the department, in the conduct of its duties as prescribed by this part, shall assist in implementing the policy of this state to minimize the placement of untreated hazardous waste in disposal facilities. Except as otherwise provided in this section, each owner or operator of a landfill shall pay to the department a fee assessed on hazardous waste disposed of in a landfill. The fee shall be based on the quantity of hazardous waste specified on the manifest or monthly operating report.|
|Interconnection Standards (Michigan)||Michigan||Interconnection||Yes||State/Territory||The Michigan Public Service Commission (PSC) first adopted interconnection standards for distributed generation (DG) in September 2003. The original standards provided for 5 levels of interconnection with cutoffs at 30 kilowatts (kW), 150 kW, 750 kW, and 2 megawatts (MW), but left many details of the interconnection process up to the utilities. In October 2008 Michigan enacted Public Act 295 (P.A. 295), creating a renewable portfolio standard (RPS) and authorizing the development of a mandatory, statewide net-metering program. In May 2009, the PSC issued an order formally adopting new net metering rules and revised interconnection rules to implement P.A. 295 of 2008. The rules do not apply to municipal electric utilities, which are not regulated by the PSC. In December 2012, the PSC finalized Category 1 and Category 2 (projects of less than 150 kW or less) interconnection and net metering forms, agreements, and procedures. The forms and procedures are available here. Categories 3-5 will be addressed in a future order.
The revised rules are somewhat similar to the version adopted in 2003, but offer improved detail and customer protections in some areas. Certain aspects of the newly adopted rules apply only to net metered systems, but the rules generally apply to all distributed generation. The revised rules provide for the following interconnection categories:
Certified systems are defined as those that use equipment certified by a nationally recognized testing laboratory to IEEE 1547.1 testing standards and in compliance with UL 1741. Utilities have some leeway in how they evaluate requests in that the rules are generally silent on the appropriate technical screens, engineering, and operational requirements for different categories of interconnection request. However, the rules do offer customer-generators the following protections against unreasonable requirements.
Customer-generators are not required to install an external disconnect switch, although the PSC declined to prohibit utilities from making such a requirement. Utilities are generally prohibited from establishing additional fees; requiring additional equipment or insurance; or making other requirements not specifically authorized by the standard rules.*The PSC has indicated (see March 2009 PSC Order approving revised interconnection rules) that Category 2 should be used for systems of 20 kW or less, but that are not inverter-based (and hence not eligible for Category 1 treatment).
|Interstate Oil and Gas Conservation Compact (Multiple States)||Alabama
|Environmental Regulations||Yes||State/Province||The Interstate Oil and Gas Compact Commission assists member states efficiently maximize oil and natural gas resources through sound regulatory practices while protecting the nation's health, safety and the environment.
The Commission serves as the collective voice of member governors on oil and gas issues and advocates states' rights to govern petroleum resources within their borders.
The Commission formed the Geological CO2 Sequestration Task Force, which examines the technical, policy and regulatory issues related to safe and effective storage of CO2 in the subsurface (depleted oil and natural gas fields, saline formations and coal beds).
The Commission also funds research on hydraulic fracking, reusing water used in extracting oil and gas, and makes recommendations on national energy policies and statutes for individual states.The Commission also has several associate states: North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, Tennessee, Missouri, Idaho, Oregon and Washington. In addition, it has international affiliations with the Canadian provinces of Alberta, British Columbia, New Brunswick, Newfoundland and Labrador, Nova Scotia, Saskatchewan, and the Yukon.
|Legislation: H.B. 5524 (Michigan)||Michigan||Generating Facility Rate-Making
Renewables Portfolio Standards and Goals
|Yes||State/Province||This bill was part of a package of energy bills that enacted regulatory reform, a renewable portfolio standard, renewable tax credits and an energy optimization program. Regulatory reform is addressed in H.B. 5524, including the creation of a certificate of necessity for large capital investments, which will support construction of nuclear plants. Utilities can apply for and receive a certificate of necessity for assets costing $500 million or more prior to construction or purchase that allows the MPSC to predetermine the prudence of the investment (including explicitly the need for the asset and the appropriateness of the fuel choice).The MPSC may allow interest payments on capital work in progress to be passed through in rates during construction for projects granted certificates of necessity. Equity used during construction shall be recognized and treated as allowance for funds used during construction, which means an accrued rate of return on the equity and the principal equity will be applied to rates when the asset is operational.|
|Local Option - Property Assessed Clean Energy (Michigan)||Michigan||PACE Financing||Yes||State/Territory||Note: In 2010, the Federal Housing Finance Agency (FHFA), which has authority over mortgage underwriters Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac, directed these enterprises against purchasing mortgages of homes with a PACE lien due to its senior status above a mortgage. Most residential PACE activity subsided following this directive; however, some residential PACE programs are now operating with loan loss reserve funds, appropriate disclosures, or other protections meant to address FHFA's concerns. Commercial PACE programs were not directly affected by FHFA’s actions, as Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac do not underwrite commercial mortgages. Visit PACENow for more information about PACE financing and a comprehensive list of all PACE programs across the country.
Michigan's legislation stipulates that PACE assessments for property owners with outstanding mortgages must receive written consent from mortgage holders. In addition, qualifying energy efficiency technologies may include electric vehicle charging and water reduction infrastructure costs.
|Low Level Radioactive Waste Authority (Michigan)||Michigan||Safety and Operational Guidelines||Yes||State/Province||Federal laws passed in 1980 and 1985 made each state responsible for the low-level radioactive waste produced within its borders. Act 204 of 1987 created the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Authority (LLRWA) to fulfill state responsibilities under federal law for managing and assuring disposal capacity for the low-level radioactive waste produced in Michigan. The LLRWA began a facility siting process in 1989 under the statutory limits of Act 204. The LLRWA eventually determined that it was impossible to find a site within the state which would meet all of the siting criteria set forth in Act 204, and active facility siting activities were suspended. Current program goals for the LLRWA include:
a) Monitor waste management activities by Michigan waste generators, and develop an annual report to the Legislature; b) Advise the Governor and Legislature on federal and state policies and programs concerning nuclear waste management, transportation, and disposal issues; (c) Serve as a resource for information on federal and state LLRW management and programs.The Low-Level Radioactive Waste Authority was transferred into the Department of Environmental Quality in 1996 by Executive Order 1996-2 (3-15-96).
|Michigan Business Development Program (Michigan)||Michigan||Grant Program||Yes||State/Province||The Michigan Business Development Program provides grants, loans, and other economic assistance to businesses for highly competitive projects that create jobs and/or provide investment. A minimum of 50 qualified new jobs must be created; businesses located in a rural county or which qualify as a high-technology activity must create a minimum of 25 jobs. Grants are performance-based and include flexible terms and conditions; loans are also performance-based and may include below-market interest rates, extended repayment provisions, and forgivable terms.|
|Michigan Collateral Support Program (Michigan)||Michigan||Loan Program||Yes||State/Province||The Michigan Collateral Support Program, supported by the Michigan Growth Fund, aims to supply cash collateral accounts to lenders in order to assist borrowers collateral coverage needs. To qualify for the program, businesses must be engaged with a private lender for the purpose of acquiring a commercial extension of commercial credit and must exhibit a collateral shortfall. Eligible businesses must have not more than 750 employees. The program will cover up to 49.9 percent of a new extension of commercial credit. Maximum participation is $5 million and may not be used to support extensions of commercial credit of greater than $20 million.|
|Midwest Independent System Operator (Multiple States)||Montana
|Interconnection||Yes||Non-Profit||Midwest Independent Transmission System Operator (MISO) is a Regional Transmission Organization, which administers wholesale electricity markets in all or parts of 11 U.S. states and the Canadian province of Manitoba. MISO administers electricity transmission grids across the Midwest and into Canada, and provides tools, transmission planning strategies, and integration for utilities in those markets. MISO is working with PJM Interconnection to develop complementing system operations and one robust, non-discriminatory wholesale electricity market to meet the needs of all customers and stakeholders in 23 states, the District of Columbia and the Canadian province of Manitoba. The market is being developed through an open stakeholder process and is being designed to serve residents regardless of whether they reside in states with bundled or unbundled retail rates.|
|Model Ordinance for Wind Energy Systems (Michigan)||Michigan||Solar/Wind Permitting Standards||No||State/Territory||Note: This model ordinance was designed to provide guidance to local governments that wish to develop their own siting rules for wind turbines. While it was developed as part of a cooperative effort involving several state agencies, the model itself has no legal or regulatory authority. The Michigan Energy Office no longer supports specific zoning language, but offers examples of local ordinances from throughout the state.
The Michigan Energy Office issued sample zoning language for wind energy systems in 2008 based on wind energy development guidelines released in 2005. The guidelines are designed to serve as tools for local governments that wish to amend their zoning ordinance to address wind energy systems. The model language developed by the Energy Office assumes that the local government in question already has site plan review requirements written into the existing zoning law.
The guidance recommends separate requirements for small, on-site use oriented systems and large systems designed for commercial power production. The model language includes separate sections for facilities with tower heights of than 20 meters or less and those with larger towers. The ordinance addresses on-site use systems as a use by right which does not require a special use permit. Rules for anemometer towers are included based on the same criteria. Below are brief descriptions of some of the topics addressed by the model language.
Property Setbacks: Setback should be the total height of turbine from property lines for on-site systems and the greater of the total turbine height, the property line setback of the existing law, or the roadway right-of-way setback of the existing law for large scale systems.
Sound Pressure Level: Upper limit of 55 dB(A) at the closest property line or 5 dB(A) above ambient noise level if the ambient noise level is greater than 55 dB(A). The section also contains several exceptions for exceptional circumstances.
Code Compliance: Requires compliance with all applicable codes, including state construction and electrical codes, local building permit requirements, airport regulations, etc.
Safety: Contains requirements related to guyed tower systems, generator braking systems, lightning protection, site security, waste disposal, and warning signs. Blade tip clearance to the ground should be at least 20 feet.Additional sections in the large wind ordinance address tower lighting, visual appearance, signal interference, shadow flicker, ancillary structures, environmental review requirements, road damage during construction, decommissioning, and complaint resolution. A final section addresses the content of site plan reviews for large wind facilities as part of the special use permit process.
|Net Metering (Michigan)||Michigan||Net Metering||Yes||State/Territory||The MPSC is reviewing state interconnection and net metering policies in Case U-15919.
In October 2008, Michigan enacted legislation (P.A. 295) requiring the Michigan Public Service Commission (PSC) to establish a statewide net metering program for renewable-energy systems within 180 days. On May 26, 2009 the Michigan Public Service Commission (PSC) issued an order formally adopting revised net metering and interconnection rules to implement P.A. 295 of 2008. The revised rules take the place of a prior net metering "consensus agreement" between the PSC and a number of Michigan utilities (see History section below for more information).
Michigan's net metering law applies only to rate-regulated utilities and alternative electric suppliers. The designation "rate-regulated utility" presently includes investor-owned utilities and rural electric distribution cooperatives that have not opted for member regulation. As of April 2011, only Cherryland, Alger Delta, and Tri County electric cooperatives have opted for member regulation. Municipal utility rates are not regulated by the PSC. Annual net metering reports from individual utilities and alternative electricity suppliers are contained in Case U-15787, available through the PSC E-Docket System. The PSC also prepares and annual net metering report; the 2011 report is located here.
The legislation authorizes net metering for renewable energy systems using solar, wind, biomass, geothermal, anaerobic digester gas (i.e., animal waste), landfill gas, municipal solid waste, and moving water. The definition of biomass is very broad and includes agricultural crops and crop wastes; energy crops; animal wastes; paper and pulp products; and a variety wood waste materials. Moving water technologies include those using waves, tides, and currents as well as traditional hydropower using water released through a dam. Utilities must provide net metering customers with electric service at nondiscriminatory rates that are identical to those that would be charged if the customer were not participating in net metering.
Net metering billing practices are split into two distinct categories. All qualifying customer generators up to 20 kilowatts (kW) are eligible for "true" net metering, while most systems between 20 kW and 150 kW are eligible for "modified" net metering. Methane digesters up to 550 kW are eligible for net metering -- either "true" net metering or "modified" net metering depending on their size. True net metering is available until the aggregate net metered capacity reaches 0.5% of a utility's peak load. Modified net metering is available until the aggregate net-metered capacity reaches an additional 0.25% of a utility's peak load for systems of 150 kW or less and 0.25% for systems larger than 150 kW. In general, the capacity of an individual system is limited to that which will meet their own needs. The rules describe several options a customer can use to arrive at this value.
For systems of 20 kW or less, net excess generation (NEG) during a billing period may be carried forward to the next billing period at the retail rate. Modified net metering (facilities up to 150 kW) allows NEG carry over at the power supply component of the retail rate (i.e., presumably a rate resembling avoided cost) each billing period. Customers on time-of-use rates may carry forward NEG at the applicable retail rate for each time-of-use pricing period within a billing period. The legislation does not define an annual true-up or account reconciliation period, meaning that NEG can be carried forward indefinitely. Credits associated with modified net metering may not be applied against distribution charges. Systems larger than 150 kW must pay standby charges that effectively charge the customer the retail distribution rate for all energy produced and used on-site. This practice does not meet the definition of net metering as it is generally understood, thus this summary considers only systems up to 150 kW as eligible for net metering.
Customer generators own the renewable energy credits (RECs) associated with electricity generated under the program. Net metering application fees may not exceed $25 and the combined total of net metering application and interconnection review fees may not exceed $100. Utilities serving more than 1 million customers (i.e., Consumers Energy and Detroit Edison) are required, if necessary, to supply true net metering customers with a net metering compatible meter or meters at no cost to the customer. Utilities with fewer than 1 million customers must supply the appropriate meter or meters to the customer at cost, not to exceed the incremental cost above that for meters provided by the utility to similarly situated non-net metering customers. Metering configurations and cost allocations for modified net metering customers are slightly different (see R 460.648 for details).
Finally, P.A. 295 also required the development of statewide uniform interconnection standards for eligible electric generators. Interconnection standards for systems up to 2 MW were adopted by the PSC as part of the same administrative proceeding that addressed net metering.
In December 2012, the PSC finalized Category 1 and Category 2 (projects of less than 150 kW or less) interconnection and net metering forms, agreements, and procedures. The forms and procedures are available here. Categories 3-5 will be addressed in a future order.
History In March 2005, the PSC approved a consensus agreement that implemented a voluntary statewide net-metering program for a minimum of five years. Under the agreement, systems generating electricity using solar, wind, geothermal, biomass (including waste-to-energy and landfill gas) or hydropower were eligible. The maximum size of electric generators eligible for net metering was "less than" 30 kilowatts (kW), unless a utility voluntarily set its limit at less than 150 kW (to match size categories established by the state's interconnection rules). However, utilities were permitted to use a variety of billing options under the consensus agreement, and most utilities' billing practices did not actually constitute "true" net metering. Not surprisingly, this led to a low participation level.The following utilities participated in the consensus program: Detroit Edison (DTE Energy), Northern States Power Company (Xcel Energy), Indiana Michigan Power (AEP), We Energies, Consumers Energy, Wisconsin Public Service Corporation, Alger Delta CEA, HomeWorks Tri-County Electric Cooperative, Cloverland Electric Cooperative, Great Lakes Energy, Ontonagon County Rural Electrification Association, Presque Isle Electric and Gas Cooperative, Thumb Electric Cooperative, Upper Peninsula Power Company, and Alpena Power Company.
|Nonrefundable Business Activity Tax Credit (Michigan)||Michigan||Industry Recruitment/Support||Yes||State/Territory||Note: Public Act 38 of 2011 repealed the Michigan Business Tax (MBT) and implemented the Corporate Income Tax (CIT). Public Act 39 was passed in conjunction with the CIT and allows for certain credits awarded under the MBT to be retained for the duration of the agreements. Businesses receiving certain credits, including Renaissance Zone credits, may choose to either continue to file under the MBT to continue claiming their credits, or file under the CIT. Certain Renaissance Zone credits will not be awarded after 2011; Michigan can still award Renewable Energy Renaissance Zone Credits.
NextEnergy is a comprehensive economic-development plan to position Michigan as a world leader in the research, development, commercialization and manufacture of alternative-energy technologies. NextEnergy was created to address the risks of continued dependence on foreign energy resources, to mitigate increasing environmental concerns, and to prepare for the possibility of technologies that may replace the internal combustion engine. Please contact the NextEnergy Center for more information on these activities.
|PJM Interconnection (Multiple States)||Delaware
District of Columbia
|Interconnection||Yes||Non-Profit||PJM (originally Pennsylvania, Jersey, Maryland) Interconnection is a Regional Transmission Organization (RTO) that coordinates the movement of wholesale electricity in all or parts of Delaware, Illinois, Indiana, Kentucky, Maryland, Michigan, New Jersey, North Carolina, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Tennessee, Virginia, West Virginia and the District of Columbia. The PJM region has an area of 214,000 square miles, a population of about 60 million and a peak demand of 163,848 megawatts.|
|Permits to Install,New Source Review (PTI,NSR) (Michigan)||Michigan||Siting and Permitting||Yes||State/Province||Rule 201 of the Michigan Air Pollution Control Rules requires a person to obtain an approved Permit to Install for any potential source of air pollution unless the source is exempt from the permitting process.|
|Pure Michigan Venture Match Fund (Michigan)||Michigan||Grant Program||Yes||State/Province||This program is currently not accepting applications. The last application period ended on February 28, 2013. The Pure Michigan Venture Match Fund provides early stage innovative businesses that have recently received an equity investment commitment from a qualified venture fund for commercialization and growth with a project match. Qualified investments may be matched up to 50% (or $500,000).|
|Qualifying RPS State Export Markets (Michigan)||Michigan||Renewables Portfolio Standards and Goals||Yes||State/Province||This entry lists the states with Renewable Portfolio Standard (RPS) policies that accept generation located in Michigan as eligible sources towards their RPS targets or goals. For specific information with regard to eligible technologies or other restrictions which may vary by state, see the RPS policy entries for the individual states, shown below in the Authority listings. Typically energy must be delivered to an in-state utility or Load Serving Entity, and often only a portion of compliance targets may be met by out-of-state generation. In addition to geographic and energy delivery requirements, ownership, registry, and other requirements may apply, such as resource eligibility, generator vintage and capacity limitations, as well as limits on Renewable Energy Certificate (REC) vintage. The listing applies to RPS Main Tiers only, and excludes solar or distributed generation that may require interconnection only within the RPS state. This assessment is based on energy delivery requirements and reasonable transmission availability. Acceptance of unbundled RECs varies. There may be additional sales opportunities in RPS states outside the Eastern Interconnection. REC prices in markets with voluntary goals (North Dakota, South Dakota, Virginia) may be lower.|
|Refundable Payroll Tax Credit (Michigan)||Michigan||Industry Recruitment/Support||Yes||State/Territory||Note: '''Public Act 38 of 2011 repealed the Michigan Business Tax (MBT) and implemented the Corporate Income Tax (CIT). Public Act 39''' was passed in conjunction with the CIT and allows for certain credits awarded under the MBT to be retained for the duration of the agreements. Businesses receiving certain credits, including Renaissance Zone credits, may choose to either continue to file under the MBT to continue claiming their credits, or file under the CIT. No additional Renaissance Zone credits will be awarded after 2011.
The Michigan Strategic Fund designated the NextEnergy Zone a Renaissance Zone in 2002. Businesses located within this zone may also be eligible for additional tax benefits. Contact the NextEnergy Center for more information. The NextEnergy Zone, located in Detroit at Wayne State University Research and Technology Park, is home of the 40,000-square-foot NextEnergy Center. The center includes laboratory facilities, business incubator space, collaborative meeting space and other facilities that will support Michigan’s alternative-energy industry.
|Refundable Photovoltaic Manufacturing Tax Credit (Michigan)||Michigan||Industry Recruitment/Support||No||State/Territory||Note: Public Act 38 of 2011 repealed the Michigan Business Tax (MBT) and implemented the Corporate Income Tax (CIT). Public Act 39 was passed in conjunction with the CIT and allows for credits awarded under the MBT to be retained for the duration of the agreements. Businesses receiving certain credits, including MEGA credits, may choose to either continue to file under the MBT to continue claiming their credits, or file under the CIT. No additional MEGA credits will be awarded after 2011.
In September 2008, Michigan enacted legislation allowing businesses engaged in the development and manufacturing of photovoltaic (PV) energy, PV systems or other PV technologies to claim a tax credit against the Michigan Business Tax. The law was amended in 2009 to expand the availability of tax credits and extend a prior deadline associated with claiming the incentive. The law now allows an eligible taxpayer or a qualified taxpayer that constructs a qualifying PV manufacturing facility to claim a credit against the Michigan Business Tax, equal to 25% of the capital investment made in the new facility during the tax year, up to $15 million. In order to qualify for the tax credit, the business must enter into an agreement with the Michigan Economic Growth Authority (MEGA) by December 31, 2011 to build a qualifying facility. The MEGA is permitted to enter into an agreement with one eligible taxpayer for a tax credit of greater than $15 million but not more than $25 million.
The total amount of tax credits allowed is limited to $75 million. The definitions of eligible taxpayer and qualified taxpayer are distinct, and contain different qualifying criteria related to capital investment and job creation. As highlighted above, this has ramifications for determining the maximum amount of the tax credit that might be claimed. A qualified taxpayer must enter an agreement with the MEGA to create at least 500 new jobs and make a minimum capital investment of $50 million, of which $25 million must take place prior to the issuance of a tax credit certificate. An eligible taxpayer must enter an agreement with the MEGA to create at least 250 qualified new jobs and make a minimum capital investment of $100 million, of which $25 million must take prior to the issuance of a tax credit certificate. The tax credit may generally be taken over two years in equal installments, although the MEGA may enter into one agreement that allows a taxpayer to take the full $15 million tax credit in the same year in which a tax credit certificate is issued. Credits that exceed the taxpayer's tax liability for a given year are refundable.Originally, this credit allowed a business that made a capital investment in a qualified facility of at least $50 million and with the expectation of creating at least 700 new jobs to claim a tax credit of 50% of the capital costs associated with building the facility up to $25 million. However, a business was required to enter into an agreement to build such a facility with the Michigan Economic Growth Authority by November 1, 2008. Thus, it appears that the law was originally intended as an incentive for a specific manufacturer that had already expressed interest in building a PV manufacturing facility.
|Renewable Energy Program Grants (Michigan)||Michigan||State Grant Program||Yes||State/Territory||Note: Specific funding opportunities may change from year to year depending on the focus area for that year.
Those interested in participating should contact Tania Howard at the MEDC’s Michigan Energy Office for additional grant and application details
|Renewable Energy Renaissance Zones (Michigan)||Michigan||Industry Recruitment/Support||Yes||State/Territory||In 2006, Michigan enacted legislation allowing for the creation of Renewable Energy Renaissance Zones (RERZ). Renaissance zones offer significant tax benefits to facilities located within their boundaries. Facilities within a renaissance zone do not pay the Michigan Business Tax*, state education tax, personal and real property taxes, or local income taxes (where applicable). These taxes may be abated for up to 15 years, with the abatements being phased out in 25% increments over the last three years of the zone designation. For residents of renaissance zones designated before 2012, taxpayers are exempt from paying certain income taxes, if they have been a resident of the renaissance zone for 183 consecutive days.
For the purposes of renaissance zone designation, “renewable energy facility” means a facility that creates energy, fuels, or chemicals directly from the wind, the sun, trees, grasses, biosolids, algae, agricultural commodities, processed products from agricultural commodities, or residues from agricultural processes, wood or forest processes, food production and processing, or the paper products industry. Renewable energy facility also includes a facility that creates energy, fuels, or chemicals from solid biomass, animal wastes, or landfill gases. Renewable energy facility also includes a facility that focuses on research, development, or manufacturing of systems or components of systems used to create energy, fuel, or chemicals from the items described in this subdivision. Renewable energy facility also includes a facility that focuses on research, development, or manufacturing of systems or components of systems that involve the conversion of chemical energy for advanced battery technology.
* Public Act 38 of 2011 repealed the Michigan Business Tax (MBT) and implemented the Corporate Income Tax (CIT). Public Act 39 was passed in conjunction with the CIT and allows for credits awarded under the MBT to be retained for the duration of the agreements. Businesses receiving certain credits, including Renaissance Zone credits, may choose to either continue to file under the MBT to continue claiming their credits, or file under the CIT.
|Renewable Energy Standard (Michigan)||Michigan||Renewables Portfolio Standard||Yes||State/Territory||Note: The Michigan Public Service Commission (MPSC) created a temporary order (U-15800) in December of 2008 to address implementation issues for renewable energy and energy optimization plans arising from the passage of PA 295. In March of 2010 the MPSC was granted informal approval of its RPS governing rules by the Michigan State Office of Administrative Hearings and Rules (SOAHR) and the Legislative Service Bureau (LSB). Per Docket U-15900, the draft administrative rules were submitted for public comment at a hearing in June of 2010, with the comment period closing in July of 2010. As of November 2011, the MPSC is in the process of finalizing the administrative rules governing the renewable energy and energy optimization standards.
In October 2008, Michigan enacted the Clean, Renewable, and Efficient Energy Act, Public Act 295, requiring the state's investor-owned utilities, alternative retail suppliers, electric cooperatives and municipal electric utilities to generate 10% of their retail electricity sales from renewable energy resources by 2015. In addition to renewables, the standard allows utilities to use energy optimization (energy efficiency) and advanced cleaner energy systems to meet a limited portion of the requirement. The state's two largest investor-owned utilities, Detroit Edison and Consumers Energy, have additional obligations beyond those of other utilities.
Eligible RPS Technologies
Energy Optimization and Efficiency
The existing renewable energy portfolio is determined by the amount of qualifying electricity produced or obtained by an electric provider during the one-year period preceding the effective date of the act (October 6, 2008). The existing portfolio also includes certain renewable electricity production associated with PURPA qualifying facilities (QFs)** during the same time period. For the purpose of determining the 10% target for a given year, a utility may calculate total retail sales using average retail sales during the previous three years or using weather-normalized sales from the previous year.
After the law was enacted, all utilities were required to file a proposed plan for meeting the renewable energy standard. The MPSC reviews these plans every 2 years. Each utility's plan can be found here.
Utilities may substitute energy optimization credits (EOCs) or advanced cleaner energy credits (ACECs) for renewable energy credits with approval of the PSC, although approval is not required for ACECs generated using industrial cogeneration. No more than 10% of a utility's obligation may be met using a combination of both types of credits, and no more than 70% of the 10% limit may be met using advanced energy systems in existence on or before January 1, 2008. EOCs may be substituted at a 1:1 ratio to RECs, while most ACECs are substituted at a ratio of 10 ACECs:1 REC. Exceptions to this are industrial cogeneration and plasma arc gasification, which are credited at a 1:1 ratio.
Utilities and alternative suppliers are required to submit plans for complying with the standard to the PSC (details vary by utility type). They are permitted to recover their compliance costs through an itemized charge beginning 90 days after the PSC approves their renewable energy plan. Rate impact cost ceilings have been set at $3.00 per month for residential customers, $16.58 per month for secondary commercial customers and $187.50 per month for primary commercial and industrial customers. The program website has information on the plans filed by Michigan utilities.
Energy Efficiency Resource Standard
*In reviewing Detroit Edison's renewable energy plan, the PSC determined that scrap tires do not qualify as municipal solid waste, but that the utility could request ACECs for energy produced using scrap tires.
**The renewable energy standard addresses ownership rights of renewable energy credits (RECs) produced by PURPA QFs. In synopsis, the law upholds PURPA contracts that address REC ownership as they are written, while it specifies REC ownership in situations where REC ownership is addressed as part of a separate contract or is not addressed at all. The existing component of a utility's renewable portfolio includes RECs it would have had title to under the new law had it existed during the time period for which the existing renewable baseline is calculated.
*In reviewing Detroit Edison's renewable energy plan, the PSC determined that scrap tires do not qualify as municipal solid waste, but that the utility could request ACECs for energy produced using scrap tires.a separate contract or is not addressed at all. The existing component of a utility's renewable portfolio includes RECs it would have had title to under the new law had it existed during the time period for which the existing renewable baseline is calculated.
|Small Business Clean Air Assistance (Michigan)||Michigan||Training/Technical Assistance||Yes||State/Province||The program shall develop adequate mechanisms for all of the following:
(a) Developing, collecting, and coordinating information on compliance methods and technologies for small businesses. (b) Encouraging lawful cooperation among small businesses and other persons to further compliance with the clean air act. (c) Assisting small business with information regarding pollution prevention and accidental release detection and prevention, including, but not limited to, providing information concerning alternative technologies, process changes, and products and methods of operation that help reduce air pollution. (d) Establishing a compliance assistance program that assists small businesses in determining applicable requirements for compliance and the procedures for obtaining permits efficiently in a timely manner. (e) Providing mechanisms and access to information so that small businesses receive notification of their rights in a manner and form that assures reasonably adequate time for small businesses to evaluate their compliance methods or applicable proposed or final rules or standards under the clean air act. (f) Informing small businesses of their obligations under the clean air act, including mechanisms for referring small businesses to qualified auditors or to the state if the state elects to provide audits to determine compliance with the clean air act. To the extent permissible by state and federal law, audits shall be separate from the formal inspection and compliance program.(g) Providing information on how to obtain consideration from the department on requests from small businesses for modifications of any work practice, technological method of compliance, or the schedule of milestones for reductions of emissions preceding an applicable compliance date.
|Solid Waste Management (Michigan)||Michigan||Siting and Permitting||Yes||State/Province||This Act encourages the Department of Environmental Quality and Health Department representatives to develop and encourage methods for disposing solid waste that are environmentally sound, that maximize the utilization of valuable resources, and that encourage resource conservation including source reduction and source separation. It is the Department's responsibility to certify, collect reports and issue permits to solid waste processors.|
|Standards for Protection Against Radiation (Michigan)||Michigan||Safety and Operational Guidelines||Yes||State/Province||This rule establishes standards for protection against radiation hazards. In addition to complying with requirements set forth, every reasonable effort should be made to maintain radiation levels in unrestricted areas and releases of radioactive materials in effluents to unrestricted areas, as far below the limits specified in this rule as practicable. The article states permissible levels and concentrations of radioactive material for air and water above ground. It also lists instructions for workers, details about inspections by the department and precautionary procedures for handling radioactive material and hazardous waste.|
|Strategic Growth Initiative (Michigan)||Michigan||Grant Program||Yes||State/Province||A joint venture between Michigan Department of Agriculture and Rural Development (MDARD) and the Michigan Economic Development Corporation (MEDC), the Strategic Growth Initiative Grant Program was designed to leverage business development and growth for the state's $91.4 billion food and agriculture industry. The grant program aims to remove barriers inhibiting growth in the state's food and agriculture industry, fostering economic opportunities for Michigan-based food processors, agribusiness and those involved in agricultural production.
The initiative stems from Gov. Rick Snyder's 2011 summit on production agriculture, and recommendations from a legislative committee tasked with fostering growth in farm processing. At that time the governor announced his goal of seeing the sector's annual economic impact grow beyond the $100 billion mark.
To achieve that goal, more than 30 farm commodity organizations, processor groups and MFB collaborated in designing the Strategic Growth Initiative to maximize industry expansion, create jobs and explore new processing opportunities. MDARD and MEDC will coordinate and cooperate with universities and research organizations to bring the latest technology and information to improve Michigan's food and farm sector.Grant applications will be evaluated through a competitive scoring process. Applicants will be asked to describe how their project potentially impacts and produces measurable outcomes for the food and agriculture industry and/or the public—rather than a single organization, institution or individual. Applications must be received by 3 p.m. Oct. 2, 2013.
|Water Pollution Control Facilities, Tax exemption (Michigan)||Michigan||Property Tax Incentive||Yes||State/Province||The Water Pollution Control Exemption, PA 451 of 1994, Part 37, as amended, affords a 100% property and sales tax exemption to facilities that are designed and operated primarily for the control, capture and removal of industrial waste from the water. After review by the Property Services Division and the Department of Environmental Quality, a recommendation is made to the State Tax Commission (STC) regarding the qualification of the application. The STC is responsible for final approval and issuance of certificates. Exemptions are not effective until approved by the STC.|
|Groundwater Discharge and Water Resources Protection (Michigan)||Michigan||Fees
Siting and Permitting
|Yes||State/Province||The Groundwater Program regulates discharge to groundwater under Part 31, Water Resources Protection, of the Natural Resources and Environmental Protection Act, 1994 PA 451 and Part 22 Rules. Groundwater staff review applications for authorizations to discharge wastes and wastewaters to the ground or groundwaters of the state. Authorizations include permits, self-certifications, and exemptions. Upon completion of an application review, staff make recommendations leading to the determination of appropriate action including issuance or denial of an authorization to discharge.|
|Water Use Permitting (Wisconsin)||Wisconsin||Siting and Permitting||Yes||Local||Withdrawers in the Great Lakes Basin who withdraw water in quantities that average 100,000 gallons per day or more in any 30-day period are required to get a water use permit. Two types of water use permits exist: a general permit is required for withdrawals that average 100,000 gallons per day or more in any 30-day period but do not equal at least 1,000,000 gallons per day for 30 consecutive days. An individual permit is required for withdrawals that equal at least 1,000,000 gallons per day for 30 consecutive days. There are no permit application fees.|