Major Hydrogeochemical Processes In The Two Reservoirs Of The Yangbajing Geothermal Field, Tibet, China

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Journal Article: Major Hydrogeochemical Processes In The Two Reservoirs Of The Yangbajing Geothermal Field, Tibet, China

Abstract
The Yangbajing geothermal field with the highest reservoir temperature in China is located about 90 km northwest to Lhasa City, capital of Tibet, where high temperature geothermal fluids occur both in shallow and deep reservoirs. The geophysical survey by the INDEPTH (International Deep Profiling of Tibet and the Himalayas) project group proved the existence of magmatic heat source at Yangbajing. In the study area, the hydrochemistry of cold surface waters and groundwaters and that of thermal groundwaters from both reservoirs are distinctively different. However, analysis of the relationship between enthalpy values and Cl concentrations of cold groundwaters and geothermal fluids indicates that the geothermal fluids from the shallow reservoir were formed as a result of mixing of cold groundwaters with geothermal fluids from the deep reservoir. In other words, the geothermal fluids from the deep reservoir flowed upwards into the shallow reservoir where it was diluted by the shallow cold groundwaters to form the shallow geothermal fluids with much lower temperature. A binary mixing model with two endmembers (the cold groundwaters and the deep geothermal fluids) was proposed and the mixing ratios for the geothermal fluid from each shallow well were estimated. Using the mixing ratios, the concentrations of some constituents in shallow geothermal fluids, such as As, B, SiO2, SO42- and F, were calculated and their differences with the actual concentrations were estimated. The results show that the differences between estimated and actual concentrations of As and B are small (the average absolute values being only 1.9% and 7.9%, respectively), whereas those of SiO2, SO42- and F are much bigger, indicating that other hydrogeochemical processes are responsible for the concentrations of these constituents. It is postulated that SiO2 precipitation due to water temperature decrease, H2S oxidation and ion exchange between OH- in geothermal waters and exchangeable F- in fluoride bearing silicate minerals during the geothermal fluid upflow might be the causes for the observed concentration differences.

Authors 
Qinghai Guo, Yanxin Wang and Wei Liu








Published Journal 
Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 2007





DOI 
Not Provided
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Citation

Qinghai Guo,Yanxin Wang,Wei Liu. 2007. Major Hydrogeochemical Processes In The Two Reservoirs Of The Yangbajing Geothermal Field, Tibet, China. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research. (!) .