|Primary Organization||Aquamarine Power|
|Project(s) where this technology is utilized|| •MHK Projects/40MW Lewis project|
•MHK Projects/Brough Head Wave Farm
•MHK Projects/Oyster 1 Project
•MHK Projects/Oyster 800 Project
| Technology Resource
| Technology Type
|Oscillating Wave Surge Converter|
| Technology Readiness Level
|TRL 7/8: Open Water System Testing & Demonstration & Operation|
|Technology Description||Oyster is a nearshore hydroelectric wave energy converter. The Oyster wave energy converter comprises a buoyant, bottom-hinged flap. Incoming waves cause the flap to oscillate backwards and forwards. This oscillating action drives double-acting hydraulic cylinders which pump fresh water through a high-pressure pipeline to an onshore hydroelectric power plant. The pressurised water drives a Pelton wheel turbine connected to an electrical generator. Multiple Oyster devices can feed through a pipe manifold into a single onshore hydroelectric system.|
|Designed to Operate with Shore Connection?||Yes|
|Mooring Configuration||Rocky seabed: Monopile foundation, 4m diameter, drilled and grouted to a depth of approximately 13m below the rock level. Sandy seabed: Either a pile-driven monopile or an alternative solution such as a suction caisson foundation, depending on the outcome of detailed site investigation and analysis.|
|Technology Nameplate Capacity (MW)||0.8MW – 1MW (Farms of multiple machines will be deployed with installed capacity of circa 20MW)ultiple machines will be deployed with installed capacity of circa 20MW|
|Have Key Components Been Fabricated and Tested in the Lab?||Yes|
|Scale Test||•Integrated System Testing of Oyster 1 at full scale onshore at the New and Renewable Energy Centre Narec including mechanical hydraulic structural and electrical systems testing|
|Lab Test||•Extensive scale model testing of Oyster at 1 25 and 1 40 scale ongoing since 2005|
|Full-Scale Test||•315kW Oyster 1 proof of concept device operated at sea at the European Marine Energy Centre EMEC in northern Scotland between 2009 and 2011 and was connected to a grid operated by utility Scottish Hydro Electric Power Distribution Second generation 800kW Oyster 800 began operation testing at sea in June 2012 when it produced first electrical power to the grid Oyster 800 has a 20 year design life Third generation Oyster 801 machine scheduled for installation at sea in 2013|
|Do Records of Operation of System Prove Reliable Performance?||Yes|
|If Yes, Please Explain||Oyster 1 delivered in excess of 6000 operational hours offshore, as well as survival through winter seasons in line with its two-year design life.|
|Relevant Technical Publications|| •01 (Whittaker T., Folley M. (2012): “Nearshore Oscillating Wave Surge Converters and the Development of Oyster”, Phil. Trans. R. Soc. A. 370, 345-364.),|
•02 - Abdulla K., Skelton S., Doherty K., O’Kane P., Doherty R., Bryans G.. (2011) “Statistical Availability Analysis of Wave Energy Converters”, In Proc. 21st Int. Offshore & Polar Engng. Maui, Hawaii, 1, 572-577.
•03 - Doherty K., Folley M., Doherty R., Whittaker T. (2011) “Extreme Value Analysis of Wave Energy Converters”, In Proc. 21st Int. Offshore & Polar Engng. Maui, Hawaii, 1, 557-564.
•04 - Henry, K. Doherty, L. Cameron, T.J.T. Whittaker, & R. Doherty, (2010): ‘Advances in the Design of the Oyster Wave Energy Converter’, RINA Marine & Offshore Renewable Energy, London.
•05 - L. Cameron, R. Doherty, A. Henry, K. Doherty, J. Van ’t Hoff, D. Kaye and D. Naylor, S. Bourdier, T. Whittaker, (2010): ‘Design of the Next Generation of the Oyster Wave Energy Converter’, 3rd International Conference on Ocean Energy, Bilbao.
•06 - Howard D., Whittaker T., Doherty K., (2009) “Foundation Load Analysis of Oyster using a Five Degree of Freedom Load Transducer”, In Proc. 8th European Wave & Tidal Energy Conference, Uppsala, Sweden.
•07 - M. Folley, B. Elsaesser, & T.J.T. Whittaker, (2009): ‘Analysis of the Wave energy resource at the European Marine Energy Centre’, ICE Coasts, Marine Structures and Breakwaters.
•08 - M. Folley & T.J.T. Whittaker, T.J.T., (2009): ‘Analysis of the Nearshore Wave Energy resource’, Renewable Energy 34, 1709-1715.
•09 - Collier D., Whittaker T., Crowley M., (2008): “The Construction of Oyster – A Nearshore Surging Wave Energy Converter”, 2nd International Conference on Ocean Energy, Brest, France.
•010 - T.J.T. Whittaker, D. Collier, M. Folley, M. Osterreid, A. Henry, M. Crowley, (2007): ‘The Development of Oyster – A Shallow Water Surging Wave Energy Converter’, 7th European Wave & Tidal Energy Conference, Portugal.
•011 - M. Folley, T.J.T. Whittaker & J. Van’t Hoff, (2007): ‘The Design of Small Seabed-Mounted Bottom Hinged Wave Energy Converters’, 7th European Wave & Tidal Energy Conference, Porto.
•012 - M. Folley, T.J.T. Whittaker & A. Henry, (2007): ‘The Effect of Water Depth on the Performance of a Small Surging Wave Energy Converter’, Ocean Engineering 34, 1265–1274.
•013 - T.J.T. Whittaker & M. Folley, (2005): ‘Optimisation of wave power devices towards economic wave power systems’, World Renewable Energy Congress, Aberdeen, UK, 927-932, 2005.
|Collaborators|| •SSE (Scottish & Southern Energy plc)|
•Queen’s University Belfast
•Brough Head Wave Farm Limited
•Lewis Wave Power Limited