Kyoto Protocol

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The Kyoto Protocol, negotiated in 1997 and into force in 2005, is a binding agreement in which industrialized nations will seek emission-reducing strategies for the future years to come.

"The Kyoto Protocol is a legally binding agreement under which industrialized countries will reduce their collective emissions of greenhouse gases by 5.2% compared to the year 1990 (but note that, compared to the emissions levels that would be expected by 2010 without the Protocol, this target represents a 29% cut). The goal is to lower overall emissions from six greenhouse gases - carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, sulfur hexafluoride, HFCs, and PFCs - calculated as an average over the five-year period of 2008-12. National targets range from 8% reductions for the European Union and some others to 7% for the US, 6% for Japan, 0% for Russia, and permitted increases of 8% for Australia and 10% for Iceland."

-- United Nations Environment Programme

The Kyoto protocol operates under 3 mechanisms:

1. Emissions trading 2. Clean development mechanism (CDM) 3. Joint implementation (JI)

These mechanisms are in place to help meet emission reduction targets in a cost-effective way, as well as help stimulate future green development through technology.


Kyoto Protocol

Kyoto mechanisms