Integrated MARKAL-EFOM System (TIMES)

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TIMES (The Integrated MARKAL-EFOM System) is a bottom-up optimization model generator that allows accurate energy and environmental policy analysis at the local, national or multi-regional level. This tools combines a technical engineering approach and an economic approach to represent technologies, fuels, emissions and their effect on all economic sectors.

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This tool is included in the Development Impacts Assessment (DIA) Toolkit from the LEDS Global Partnership.


TIMES is defined as a bottom-up technology rich optimisation model generator. The model generator combines two systematic approaches to modeling energy: a technical engineering approach and an economic approach. The model encompasses all the steps from primary resources through the chain of processes that transform, transport, distribute and convert energy into the supply of energy services demanded by energy consumers. Once all the inputs, constraints and scenarios have been put in place, the model will attempt to solve and determine the energy system that meets the energy service demands over the entire time horizon at least cost. Energy and environmental policies can be represented and analysed with accuracy.

When to Use This Tool

This tool is most useful for development impacts assessments focused on:

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Learn more about the topics for assessing the impacts of low-emission development strategies (LEDS).

Key Outputs

The main output are energy system configurations, which meet the end-use energy service demands at least cost while also adhering to the various constraints (e.g 80% emissions reduction, 40% renewable electricity penetration). Other model outputs include energy flows, energy commodity prices, GHG emissions, capacities of technologies, energy costs and marginal emissions abatement costs.

How to Use This Tool

Training Available
Training and introductory courses offered at:

Level of Expertise

Key Inputs

All TIMES models are constructed from three basic entities: Technologies, commodities and commodity flows. Different scenarios are generated by imposing one or more policy constraints in the model. Need to say what inputs by the user in order to use the model.

Case Studies

Examples of how Integrated MARKAL-EFOM System (TIMES) has helped people assessing the impacts of low-emission development strategies in countries and regions:

Available at: