Horst and Graben

From Open Energy Information



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Horst and Graben:
Topographic features found in a normal fault zone forming ridges and valleys. A graben represents a block of land that has dropped down relative to the landscape and a horst represents a block of land remaining higher than the general landscape.
Other definitions:Wikipedia Reegle


Topographic Features

List of topographic features commonly encountered in geothermal resource areas:

A "horst and graben" is a crustal-extension structure, composed of a series of normal faults, typical of the Basin & Range region of the US and Turkey’s West Anatolian Extensional Province. From the surface they appear as a series of ridges (horsts) and valleys (grabens) that run perpendicular to the direction of extension.

Crustal extension results in horst and graben topography. Arrows indicate direction of extension. Image modified by Gregors for use on wikipedia, from an original U.S. Geological Survey Earthquake Glossary figure.
Extensional tectonics in the Basin and Range province cover Nevada almost entirely in horst and graben structures. They appear at the surface as a series of ridges and valleys oriented perpendicular to the direction of extension. (reference: http://www.fas.org/irp/imint/docs/rst/Sect6/Sect6_8.html)

Examples

Want to add an example to this list? Select a Geothermal Resource Area to edit its "Topographic Features" property using the "Edit with Form" option.

CSV
Geothermal
Resource
Area
Geothermal
Region
Tectonic
Setting
Host
Rock
Age
Host
Rock
Lithology
Mean
Capacity
Mean
Reservoir
Temp
Amedee Geothermal AreaWalker-Lane Transition ZoneExtensional TectonicsMesozoicgranite; granodiorite
Beowawe Hot Springs Geothermal AreaCentral Nevada Seismic Zone Geothermal RegionExtensional TectonicsOrdovicianshale; quartzite17 MW
17,000 kW
17,000,000 W
17,000,000,000 mW
0.017 GW
1.7e-5 TW
483.15 K
210 °C
410 °F
869.67 °R
Blue Mountain Geothermal AreaNorthwest Basin and Range Geothermal RegionExtensional TectonicsTriassicMetasedimentary49.5 MW
49,500 kW
49,500,000 W
49,500,000,000 mW
0.0495 GW
4.95e-5 TW
470.15 K
197 °C
386.6 °F
846.27 °R
Brady Hot Springs Geothermal AreaNorthwest Basin and Range Geothermal RegionExtensional TectonicsMesozoicmetamorphic rocks26.1 MW
26,100 kW
26,100,000 W
26,100,000,000 mW
0.0261 GW
2.61e-5 TW
455.15 K
182 °C
359.6 °F
819.27 °R
Coso Geothermal AreaWalker-Lane Transition ZoneExtensional TectonicsMesozoicgranitic300 MW
300,000 kW
300,000,000 W
300,000,000,000 mW
0.3 GW
3.0e-4 TW
571.15 K
298 °C
568.4 °F
1,028.07 °R
Desert Peak Geothermal AreaNorthwest Basin and Range Geothermal RegionExtensional TectonicsMesozoicgreenstone23 MW
23,000 kW
23,000,000 W
23,000,000,000 mW
0.023 GW
2.3e-5 TW
481.15 K
208 °C
406.4 °F
866.07 °R
Dixie Valley Geothermal AreaCentral Nevada Seismic Zone Geothermal RegionExtensional TectonicsJurassicBasalt62 MW
62,000 kW
62,000,000 W
62,000,000,000 mW
0.062 GW
6.2e-5 TW
504.15 K
231 °C
447.8 °F
907.47 °R
Fenton Hill HDR Geothermal AreaRio Grande RiftExtensional Tectonics
Rift Zone
PrecambrianCrystalline basement “pCu” (undifferentiated in map units); Biotite Granodiorite (Phase I Reservoir); Gneiss, Schist, Granodiorite, Granite, Metavolcanic Rocks (Phase II Reservoir)20 MW
20,000 kW
20,000,000 W
20,000,000,000 mW
0.02 GW
2.0e-5 TW
508.15 K
235 °C
455 °F
914.67 °R
Germencik Geothermal AreaAegean-West Anatolian Extensional RegionExtensional TectonicsMarble73.4 MW
73,400 kW
73,400,000 W
73,400,000,000 mW
0.0734 GW
7.34e-5 TW
491.15 K
218 °C
424.4 °F
884.07 °R
Gumuskoy Geothermal AreaAegean-West Anatolian Extensional RegionExtensional Tectonics
Strike-Slip
PaleozicMarble13.2 MW
13,200 kW
13,200,000 W
13,200,000,000 mW
0.0132 GW
1.32e-5 TW
413.15 K
140 °C
284 °F
743.67 °R
Kizildere Geothermal AreaAegean-West Anatolian Extensional RegionExtensional TectonicsMioceneLimestone102 MW
102,000 kW
102,000,000 W
102,000,000,000 mW
0.102 GW
1.02e-4 TW
459.15 K
186 °C
366.8 °F
826.47 °R
Lightning Dock Geothermal AreaSouthern Basin and Range Geothermal RegionExtensional TectonicsPaleozoic carbonate rocks and late Tertiary volcanic rocks4.4 MW
4,400 kW
4,400,000 W
4,400,000,000 mW
0.0044 GW
4.4e-6 TW
443.15 K
170 °C
338 °F
797.67 °R
Long Valley Caldera Geothermal AreaWalker-Lane Transition ZoneExtensional TectonicsQuaternaryBishop Tuff, Metamorphic Basement38 MW
38,000 kW
38,000,000 W
38,000,000,000 mW
0.038 GW
3.8e-5 TW
513.15 K
240 °C
464 °F
923.67 °R
Neal Hot Springs Geothermal AreaSnake River PlainExtensional TectonicsMioceneBasalt33 MW
33,000 kW
33,000,000 W
33,000,000,000 mW
0.033 GW
3.3e-5 TW
429.15 K
156 °C
312.8 °F
772.47 °R
Raft River Geothermal AreaNorthern Basin and Range Geothermal RegionExtensional Tectonics1- Archean; 2-Proterozoic1- quartz monzonite; 2-schist; quartzite13 MW
13,000 kW
13,000,000 W
13,000,000,000 mW
0.013 GW
1.3e-5 TW
468.15 K
195 °C
383 °F
842.67 °R
Salavatli Geothermal AreaAegean-West Anatolian Extensional RegionExtensional Tectonics58 MW
58,000 kW
58,000,000 W
58,000,000,000 mW
0.058 GW
5.8e-5 TW
444.15 K
171 °C
339.8 °F
799.47 °R
Salt Wells Geothermal AreaNorthwest Basin and Range Geothermal RegionExtensional Tectonics23.6 MW
23,600 kW
23,600,000 W
23,600,000,000 mW
0.0236 GW
2.36e-5 TW
466.15 K
193 °C
379.4 °F
839.07 °R
San Emidio Desert Geothermal AreaNorthwest Basin and Range Geothermal RegionExtensional Tectonics14.22 MW
14,220 kW
14,220,000 W
14,220,000,000 mW
0.0142 GW
1.422e-5 TW
426.15 K
153 °C
307.4 °F
767.07 °R
Soda Lake Geothermal AreaNorthwest Basin and Range Geothermal RegionExtensional TectonicsMiocenepumice tuff26.1 MW
26,100 kW
26,100,000 W
26,100,000,000 mW
0.0261 GW
2.61e-5 TW
452.15 K
179 °C
354.2 °F
813.87 °R
Steamboat Springs Geothermal AreaWalker-Lane Transition ZoneExtensional Tectonics1- Cretaceous; 2- Pliocene-Pleistocene1- granodiorite; 2- basaltic andesite147 MW
147,000 kW
147,000,000 W
147,000,000,000 mW
0.147 GW
1.47e-4 TW
483.15 K
210 °C
410 °F
869.67 °R
Stillwater Geothermal AreaNorthwest Basin and Range Geothermal RegionExtensional TectonicsQuaternarysandstone47.2 MW
47,200 kW
47,200,000 W
47,200,000,000 mW
0.0472 GW
4.72e-5 TW
447.15 K
174 °C
345.2 °F
804.87 °R
Takigami Geothermal AreaRyuku ArcExtensional Tectonics
Subduction Zone
TertiaryAndesite28 MW
28,000 kW
28,000,000 W
28,000,000,000 mW
0.028 GW
2.8e-5 TW
478.15 K
205 °C
401 °F
860.67 °R
Valles Caldera - Redondo Geothermal AreaRio Grande RiftExtensional Tectonics
Rift Zone
Mississippian-Pennsylvanian; Pleistocene, 1.6 to 1.25 MaLimestone-Madera Formation “MIPu”; Rhyolitic tuff-Intracaldera Bandelier Tuff (upper Tshirege “Qbt” and lower Otowi “Qbo” members); Caldera Fill Rhyolite (shallow)
Valles Caldera - Sulphur Springs Geothermal AreaRio Grande RiftExtensional Tectonics
Rift Zone
Precambrian; Mississippian-Pennsylvanian; Pleistocene, 1.6 to 1.25 Ma; Pliocene; MioceneCrystalline basement “pCu”; Limestone-Madera Formation “MIPu”; Rhyolitic tuff-Bandelier Tuff (upper Tshirege “Qbt” and lower Otowi “Qbo” members); Caldera Fill Rhyolite (shallow); Dacitic/Andesitic to Rhyolitic lavas and tuffs-Keres Group Volcanics (shallow); Santa Fe Group volcaniclastics “Tsf”
Wabuska Hot Springs Geothermal AreaWalker-Lane Transition Zone Geothermal RegionExtensional TectonicsQuaternarygravels; sands2.4 MW
2,400 kW
2,400,000 W
2,400,000,000 mW
0.0024 GW
2.4e-6 TW
403.15 K
130 °C
266 °F
725.67 °R

References