Horst and Graben

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Horst and Graben

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Horst and Graben:
Topographic features found in a normal fault zone forming ridges and valleys. A graben represents a block of land that has dropped down relative to the landscape and a horst represents a block of land remaining higher than the general landscape.
Other definitions:Wikipedia Reegle


Topographic Features

List of topographic features commonly encountered in geothermal resource areas:

A "horst and graben" is a crustal-extension structure, composed of a series of normal faults, typical of the Basin & Range region of the US and Turkey’s West Anatolian Extensional Province. From the surface they appear as a series of ridges (horsts) and valleys (grabens) that run perpendicular to the direction of extension.

Crustal extension results in horst and graben topography. Arrows indicate direction of extension. Image modified by Gregors for use on wikipedia, from an original U.S. Geological Survey Earthquake Glossary figure.
Extensional tectonics in the Basin and Range province cover Nevada almost entirely in horst and graben structures. They appear at the surface as a series of ridges and valleys oriented perpendicular to the direction of extension. (reference: http://www.fas.org/irp/imint/docs/rst/Sect6/Sect6_8.html)

Examples

Want to add an example to this list? Select a Geothermal Resource Area to edit its "Topographic Features" property using the "Edit with Form" button.

CSV
Geothermal
Resource
Area
Geothermal
Region
Tectonic
Setting
Host
Rock
Age
Host
Rock
Lithology
Mean
Capacity
Mean
Reservoir
Temp
Amedee Geothermal Area Walker-Lane Transition Zone Extensional Tectonics Mesozoic granite; granodiorite
Beowawe Hot Springs Geothermal Area Central Nevada Seismic Zone Geothermal Region Extensional Tectonics Ordovician shale; quartzite 17 MW17,000 kW
17,000,000 W
17,000,000,000 mW
0.017 GW
1.7e-5 TW
483.15 K210 °C
410 °F
869.67 °R
Blue Mountain Geothermal Area Northwest Basin and Range Geothermal Region Extensional Tectonics Triassic Metasedimentary 49.5 MW49,500 kW
49,500,000 W
49,500,000,000 mW
0.0495 GW
4.95e-5 TW
470.15 K197 °C
386.6 °F
846.27 °R
Brady Hot Springs Geothermal Area Northwest Basin and Range Geothermal Region Extensional Tectonics Mesozoic metamorphic rocks 26.1 MW26,100 kW
26,100,000 W
26,100,000,000 mW
0.0261 GW
2.61e-5 TW
455.15 K182 °C
359.6 °F
819.27 °R
Coso Geothermal Area Walker-Lane Transition Zone Extensional Tectonics Mesozoic granitic 300 MW300,000 kW
300,000,000 W
300,000,000,000 mW
0.3 GW
3.0e-4 TW
571.15 K298 °C
568.4 °F
1,028.07 °R
Desert Peak Geothermal Area Northwest Basin and Range Geothermal Region Extensional Tectonics Mesozoic greenstone 23 MW23,000 kW
23,000,000 W
23,000,000,000 mW
0.023 GW
2.3e-5 TW
481.15 K208 °C
406.4 °F
866.07 °R
Dixie Valley Geothermal Area Central Nevada Seismic Zone Geothermal Region Extensional Tectonics Jurassic Basalt 62 MW62,000 kW
62,000,000 W
62,000,000,000 mW
0.062 GW
6.2e-5 TW
504.15 K231 °C
447.8 °F
907.47 °R
Fenton Hill HDR Geothermal Area Rio Grande Rift Rift Zone
Extensional Tectonics
Precambrian Crystalline basement “pCu” (undifferentiated in map units); Biotite Granodiorite (Phase I Reservoir); Gneiss, Schist, Granodiorite, Granite, Metavolcanic Rocks (Phase II Reservoir) 20 MW20,000 kW
20,000,000 W
20,000,000,000 mW
0.02 GW
2.0e-5 TW
508.15 K235 °C
455 °F
914.67 °R
Germencik Geothermal Area Aegean-West Anatolian Extensional Region Extensional Tectonics Marble 73.4 MW73,400 kW
73,400,000 W
73,400,000,000 mW
0.0734 GW
7.34e-5 TW
491.15 K218 °C
424.4 °F
884.07 °R
Gumuskoy Geothermal Area Aegean-West Anatolian Extensional Region Extensional Tectonics
Strike-Slip
Paleozic Marble 13.2 MW13,200 kW
13,200,000 W
13,200,000,000 mW
0.0132 GW
1.32e-5 TW
413.15 K140 °C
284 °F
743.67 °R
Kizildere Geothermal Area Aegean-West Anatolian Extensional Region Extensional Tectonics Miocene Limestone 102 MW102,000 kW
102,000,000 W
102,000,000,000 mW
0.102 GW
1.02e-4 TW
459.15 K186 °C
366.8 °F
826.47 °R
Lightning Dock Geothermal Area Southern Basin and Range Geothermal Region Extensional Tectonics Paleozoic carbonate rocks and late Tertiary volcanic rocks 4.4 MW4,400 kW
4,400,000 W
4,400,000,000 mW
0.0044 GW
4.4e-6 TW
443.15 K170 °C
338 °F
797.67 °R
Long Valley Caldera Geothermal Area Walker-Lane Transition Zone Extensional Tectonics Quaternary Bishop Tuff, Metamorphic Basement 38 MW38,000 kW
38,000,000 W
38,000,000,000 mW
0.038 GW
3.8e-5 TW
513.15 K240 °C
464 °F
923.67 °R
Neal Hot Springs Geothermal Area Snake River Plain Extensional Tectonics Miocene Basalt 33 MW33,000 kW
33,000,000 W
33,000,000,000 mW
0.033 GW
3.3e-5 TW
429.15 K156 °C
312.8 °F
772.47 °R
Raft River Geothermal Area Northern Basin and Range Geothermal Region Extensional Tectonics 1- Archean; 2-Proterozoic 1- quartz monzonite; 2-schist; quartzite 13 MW13,000 kW
13,000,000 W
13,000,000,000 mW
0.013 GW
1.3e-5 TW
468.15 K195 °C
383 °F
842.67 °R
Salavatli Geothermal Area Aegean-West Anatolian Extensional Region Extensional Tectonics 58 MW58,000 kW
58,000,000 W
58,000,000,000 mW
0.058 GW
5.8e-5 TW
444.15 K171 °C
339.8 °F
799.47 °R
Salt Wells Geothermal Area Northwest Basin and Range Geothermal Region Extensional Tectonics 23.6 MW23,600 kW
23,600,000 W
23,600,000,000 mW
0.0236 GW
2.36e-5 TW
466.15 K193 °C
379.4 °F
839.07 °R
San Emidio Desert Geothermal Area Northwest Basin and Range Geothermal Region Extensional Tectonics 14.22 MW14,220 kW
14,220,000 W
14,220,000,000 mW
0.0142 GW
1.422e-5 TW
426.15 K153 °C
307.4 °F
767.07 °R
Soda Lake Geothermal Area Northwest Basin and Range Geothermal Region Extensional Tectonics Miocene pumice tuff 26.1 MW26,100 kW
26,100,000 W
26,100,000,000 mW
0.0261 GW
2.61e-5 TW
452.15 K179 °C
354.2 °F
813.87 °R
Steamboat Springs Geothermal Area Walker-Lane Transition Zone Extensional Tectonics 1- Cretaceous; 2- Pliocene-Pleistocene 1- granodiorite; 2- basaltic andesite 147 MW147,000 kW
147,000,000 W
147,000,000,000 mW
0.147 GW
1.47e-4 TW
483.15 K210 °C
410 °F
869.67 °R
Stillwater Geothermal Area Northwest Basin and Range Geothermal Region Extensional Tectonics Quaternary sandstone 47.2 MW47,200 kW
47,200,000 W
47,200,000,000 mW
0.0472 GW
4.72e-5 TW
447.15 K174 °C
345.2 °F
804.87 °R
Takigami Geothermal Area Ryuku Arc Extensional Tectonics
Subduction Zone
Tertiary Andesite 28 MW28,000 kW
28,000,000 W
28,000,000,000 mW
0.028 GW
2.8e-5 TW
478.15 K205 °C
401 °F
860.67 °R
Valles Caldera - Redondo Geothermal Area Rio Grande Rift Rift Zone
Extensional Tectonics
Mississippian-Pennsylvanian; Pleistocene, 1.6 to 1.25 Ma Limestone-Madera Formation “MIPu”; Rhyolitic tuff-Intracaldera Bandelier Tuff (upper Tshirege “Qbt” and lower Otowi “Qbo” members); Caldera Fill Rhyolite (shallow)
Valles Caldera - Sulphur Springs Geothermal Area Rio Grande Rift Rift Zone
Extensional Tectonics
Precambrian; Mississippian-Pennsylvanian; Pleistocene, 1.6 to 1.25 Ma; Pliocene; Miocene Crystalline basement “pCu”; Limestone-Madera Formation “MIPu”; Rhyolitic tuff-Bandelier Tuff (upper Tshirege “Qbt” and lower Otowi “Qbo” members); Caldera Fill Rhyolite (shallow); Dacitic/Andesitic to Rhyolitic lavas and tuffs-Keres Group Volcanics (shallow); Santa Fe Group volcaniclastics “Tsf”
Wabuska Hot Springs Geothermal Area Walker-Lane Transition Zone Geothermal Region Extensional Tectonics Quaternary gravels; sands 2.4 MW2,400 kW
2,400,000 W
2,400,000,000 mW
0.0024 GW
2.4e-6 TW
403.15 K130 °C
266 °F
725.67 °R

References