Global Relationship Assessment to Protect the Environment (GRAPE)

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A model consisting of five modules dealing with issues on energy, climate, land use, macroeconomics and environmental impacts. The model uses a nonlinear dynamic intertemporal optimization methodology maximizing regional utilities, which are functions of macroeconomic consumption and population.

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This tool is included in the Development Impacts Assessment (DIA) Toolkit from the LEDS Global Partnership.


Emissions or radiative forcing data are given to obtain global average surface atmospheric temperature change and sea level rise. Model accounts for anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions, cumulative emissions, atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations, temperature rise (global mean surface air temperature), and sea level rise by thermal expansion.

When to Use This Tool

This tool is most useful for development impacts assessments focused on:

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Learn more about the topics for assessing the impacts of low-emission development strategies (LEDS).

Key Outputs

The model consists of five modules: energy, climate, land use, macroeconomics, and environmental impacts.

How to Use This Tool

Training Available
None specified.

Level of Expertise

Key Inputs

Economic and energy data