Geothermometry

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Exploration Technique: Geothermometry

Exploration Technique Information
Exploration Group: Geochemical Techniques
Exploration Sub Group: Geochemical Data Analysis
Parent Exploration Technique: Geochemical Data Analysis
Information Provided by Technique
Lithology:
Stratigraphic/Structural:
Hydrological:
Thermal: used to estimate reservoir temperatures
Cost Information
Low-End Estimate (USD): 30.003,000 centUSD
0.03 kUSD
3.0e-5 MUSD
3.0e-8 TUSD
/ sample
Median Estimate (USD): 30.003,000 centUSD
0.03 kUSD
3.0e-5 MUSD
3.0e-8 TUSD
/ sample
High-End Estimate (USD): 30.003,000 centUSD
0.03 kUSD
3.0e-5 MUSD
3.0e-8 TUSD
/ sample
Dictionary.png
Geothermometry:
Chemical geothermometers are used to estimate reservoir temperatures for most of the systems. The geothermometers are based on temperature- dependent, water-rock reactions which control the chemical and isotopic composition of the thermal water. This method is applicable only to hot-water systems because the common chemical constituents of thermal water (SiO2, Na, K, Ca, Mg, Cl, HCO3, and CO3) are soluble in liquid water but lack significant solubility in steam.
Other definitions:Wikipedia Reegle



 
Use in Geothermal Exploration
Some experts stated that the factor that changes the risk assessment of a prospect the fastest is obtaining attractive chemical confirmation (geothermometry, gas analyses) that a prospect exists in that location. As in all geothermal exploration methods for both hidden and conventional systems, geochemistry interpretations are more reliable when integrated in a conceptual model consistent with other data.



 
Data Access and Acquisition
In the United States, geochemical analyses have been performed and cataloged for most places that have accessible surface waters (e.g. the U.S. Geological Survey GEOTHERM geochemistry database,[1] University of Nevada, Reno’s geochemistry database for the Great Basin[2]). As the resource areas with the most easily interpreted chemistry are developed, the uncertainty in the interpretation of the data from the surface manifestations of the remaining prospects becomes a greater challenge. For hidden systems, a strategy is needed to get a suitable water sample at low enough cost from a slim hole, a water well, or a core hole drilled for mineral exploration.
 
Best Practices

  • The best practice in using geothermometers is to apply them with caution. Understand what is being asked. Understand the system in which they are being applied. Understand the assumptions. Use correction factors, if available, or develop new correction factors, if possible. Use geothermometers that are not solute dependent, if available.
  • To accurately use geothermometry data, it is important to consider the reaction kinetics, thermodynamics, mineral suites, and reaction or fluid paths that are involved and to keep in mind that the components of the liquid geothermometers are not sufficiently soluble in steam, and are, therefore, applicable only to water systems.[3]
  • Gas geothermometers may be more applicable to boiling systems, although they are sometimes more difficult to interpret.
  • For example, in many low-temperature Great Basin geothermal prospects, the silica geothermometer has been considered the most applicable geothermometer, because its thermodynamics have been studied in greater detail than other geothermometers. The fact that there are multiple phases of silica, however, impacts the ability to interpret geothermometry data. Silica geothermometry data can give erroneous results due to the:
    • Presence of high salinity fluids, which alter quartz solubility.
    • Effects of steam separation, which can concentrate the fluid causing early precipitation of silica.
    • Effects of precipitation after sampling, since the rate of quartz precipitation increases drastically as temperature drops.
    • Effect of pH on quartz solubility.
    • Effects of dilution due to cold water mixing.[4]
  • Other geothermometer systems (e.g. K-Mg), have been developed through the collection, cataloging and mapping of these data in known geothermal systems. For example, the fundamental assumption of the Na-K-Ca geothermometer is that these cations are in equilibrium with feldspars at depth. In the Basin and Range Region, geothermal fluids often flow through Na-K-Ca rich rocks and alluvium on its way to the surface, which can alter the fluid chemistry and complicate the interpretation. Without additional information about a hydrothermal system (e.g., pH, TDS, and dissolved gases), it is unclear how widespread these geothermometers can be applied, though they appear to be less affected by mixing and boiling than silica geothermometers.[5]

 
Potential Pitfalls

  • Some commonly used geothermometers (e.g. silica, Na-K) were developed in high-temperature (>200°F) magmatic-volcanic geothermal systems, so trying to apply them to other regions—like the Basin and Range—can give misleading and discordant results.[6]
  • Cation geothermometers are still incorrectly applied to low-pH fumarole condensates where the cation equilibration is dominated by leaching under acid conditions yielding anomalously and unreasonably high geothermometer estimates.


 
Additional References






Page Area Activity Start Date Activity End Date Reference Material
Geothermometry (Bayram, 2001) Unspecified


Geothermometry (Benjamin, Et Al., 1983) Unspecified


Geothermometry (Fouillac & Michard, 1981) Unspecified


Geothermometry (Fournier, 1977) Unspecified


Geothermometry (Fournier, 1979) Unspecified


Geothermometry (Klein, 2007) Unspecified


Geothermometry (Powell and Cumming, 2010) Any


Geothermometry At Akutan Fumaroles Area (Kolker, Et Al., 2010) Akutan Fumaroles Area


Geothermometry At Alum Area (DOE GTP) Alum Geothermal Area


Geothermometry At Blackfoot Reservoir Area (Hutsinpiller & Parry, 1985) Blackfoot Reservoir Area


Geothermometry At Blue Mountain Geothermal Area (Casteel, Et Al., 2010) Blue Mountain Geothermal Area 2010 2010


Geothermometry At Buffalo Valley Hot Springs Area (Laney, 2005) Buffalo Valley Hot Springs Area


Geothermometry At Central Nevada Seismic Zone Region (Laney, 2005) Central Nevada Seismic Zone Geothermal Region


Geothermometry At Central Nevada Seismic Zone Region (Shevenell & De Rocher, 2005) Central Nevada Seismic Zone Geothermal Region


Geothermometry At Chena Geothermal Area (Kolker, 2008) Chena Geothermal Area 1973 1974


Geothermometry At Clear Lake Area (Thompson, Et Al., 1992) Clear Lake Area


Geothermometry At Columbus Salt Marsh Area (Shevenell, Et Al., 2008) Columbus Salt Marsh Area


Geothermometry At Coso Geothermal Area (1978) Coso Geothermal Area 1978 1978


Geothermometry At Coso Geothermal Area (1980) Coso Geothermal Area 1980 1980


Geothermometry At Desert Queen Area (Garchar & Arehart, 2008) Desert Queen Area


Geothermometry At Fenton Hill HDR Geothermal Area (Grigsby, Et Al., 1989) Fenton Hill HDR Geothermal Area 1989


Geothermometry At Fish Lake Valley Area (DOE GTP) Fish Lake Valley Area


Geothermometry At Fish Lake Valley Area (Deymonaz, Et Al., 2008) Fish Lake Valley Area


Geothermometry At Fort Bliss Area (DOE GTP) Fort Bliss Area


Geothermometry At Gabbs Alkali Flat Area (Kratt, Et Al., 2008) Gabbs Alkali Flat Area


Geothermometry At Geyser Bight Area (Motyka, Et Al., 1993) Geyser Bight Area


Geothermometry At Haleakala Volcano Area (Thomas, 1986) Haleakala Volcano Area


Geothermometry At Honokowai Area (Thomas, 1986) Honokowai Area


Geothermometry At Hot Springs Ranch Area (Szybinski, 2006) Hot Springs Ranch Area


Geothermometry At International Geothermal Area, Mexico (Fournier, 1979) International Geothermal Area Mexico


Geothermometry At International Geothermal Area, New Zealand (Fournier, 1979) International Geothermal Area New Zealand


Geothermometry At International Geothermal Area, Turkey (Bayram, 2001) International Geothermal Area Turkey


Geothermometry At Kawaihae Area (Thomas, 1986) Kawaihae Area


Geothermometry At Kilauea East Rift Geothermal Area (Thomas, 1986) Kilauea East Rift Geothermal Area 1978 1987


Geothermometry At Lahaina-Kaanapali Area (Thomas, 1986) Lahaina-Kaanapali Area


Geothermometry At Lassen Volcanic National Park Area (Janik & Mclaren, 2010) Lassen Volcanic National Park Area


Geothermometry At Lassen Volcanic National Park Area (Thompson, 1985) Lassen Volcanic National Park Area


Geothermometry At Lightning Dock Area (Norman, Et Al., 2002) Lightning Dock Area


Geothermometry At Long Valley Caldera Geothermal Area (Farrar, Et Al., 2003) Long Valley Caldera Geothermal Area 2000 2001


Geothermometry At Long Valley Caldera Geothermal Area (Mariner & Willey, 1976) Long Valley Caldera Geothermal Area 1976


Geothermometry At Long Valley Caldera Geothermal Area (McKenzie & Truesdell, 1977) Long Valley Caldera Geothermal Area 1976 1977


Geothermometry At Long Valley Caldera Geothermal Area (Sorey, Et Al., 1991) Long Valley Caldera Geothermal Area 1985 1988


Geothermometry At Lualualei Valley Area (Thomas, 1986) Lualualei Valley Area


Geothermometry At Mauna Loa Northeast Rift Area (Thomas, 1986) Mauna Loa Northeast Rift Area


Geothermometry At Mt Princeton Hot Springs Geothermal Area (Pearl, Et Al., 1976) Mt Princeton Hot Springs Geothermal Area 1976 1976


Geothermometry At Mt St Helens Area (Shevenell & Goff, 1995) Mt St Helens Area


Geothermometry At Neal Hot Springs Geothermal Area (U.S. Geothermal Inc., 2008) Neal Hot Springs Geothermal Area 2008 2008


Geothermometry At Nevada Test And Training Range Area (Sabin, Et Al., 2004) Nevada Test And Training Range Area


Geothermometry At New River Area (DOE GTP) New River Area


Geothermometry At Northern Basin & Range Region (Cole, 1983) Northern Basin and Range Geothermal Region


Geothermometry At Northern Basin & Range Region (Laney, 2005) Northern Basin and Range Geothermal Region


Geothermometry At Nw Basin & Range Region (Laney, 2005) Northwest Basin and Range Geothermal Region


Geothermometry At Nw Basin & Range Region (Shevenell & De Rocher, 2005) Northwest Basin and Range Geothermal Region


Geothermometry At Olowalu-Ukumehame Canyon Area (Thomas, 1986) Olowalu-Ukumehame Canyon Area


Geothermometry At Raft River Geothermal Area (1973) Raft River Geothermal Area 1973 1973


Geothermometry At Raft River Geothermal Area (1980) Raft River Geothermal Area 1980 1980


Geothermometry At Reese River Area (Henkle & Ronne, 2008) Reese River Area


Geothermometry At Rhodes Marsh Area (Coolbaugh, Et Al., 2006) Rhodes Marsh Area


Geothermometry At Rhodes Marsh Area (Shevenell, Et Al., 2008) Rhodes Marsh Area


Geothermometry At Roosevelt Hot Springs Geothermal Area (Faulder, 1991) Roosevelt Hot Springs Geothermal Area 1982 1982


Geothermometry At Roosevelt Hot Springs Geothermal Area (Petersen, 1975) Roosevelt Hot Springs Geothermal Area 1975 1975


Geothermometry At Roosevelt Hot Springs Geothermal Area (Ward, Et Al., 1978) Roosevelt Hot Springs Geothermal Area 1978 1978


Geothermometry At Salt Wells Area (Coolbaugh, Et Al., 2006) Salt Wells Geothermal Area 2005 2005


Geothermometry At Salt Wells Area (Edmiston & Benoit, 1984) Salt Wells Geothermal Area 1980 1984


Geothermometry At Salt Wells Area (Henkle, Et Al., 2005) Salt Wells Geothermal Area 2004 2005


Geothermometry At Silver Peak Area (DOE GTP) Silver Peak Area


Geothermometry At Socorro Mountain Area (Armstrong, Et Al., 1995) Socorro Mountain Area


Geothermometry At Socorro Mountain Area (Owens, Et Al., 2005) Socorro Mountain Area


Geothermometry At Teels Marsh Area (Coolbaugh, Et Al., 2006) Teels Marsh Area


Geothermometry At Teels Marsh Area (Shevenell, Et Al., 2008) Teels Marsh Area


Geothermometry At The Needles Area (DOE GTP) The Needles Area


Geothermometry At U.S. Midwest Region (Vugrinovich, 1987) U.S. Midwest Region


Geothermometry At Upper Hot Creek Ranch Area (Benoit & Blackwell, 2006) Upper Hot Creek Ranch Area


Geothermometry At Walker-Lane Transitional Zone Region (Laney, 2005) Walker-Lane Transition Zone Geothermal Region


Geothermometry At Walker-Lane Transitional Zone Region (Shevenell & De Rocher, 2005) Walker-Lane Transition Zone Geothermal Region


Geothermometry At Yellowstone Region (Fournier, 1979) Yellowstone Caldera Geothermal Region


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