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Geothermal Power Plants

Binary power system equipment and cooling towers at the ORMAT Ormesa Geothermal Power Complex in Southern California.
This is the Krafla Geothermal Power Station in Iceland.


Geothermal Power Plants discussion


Electricity Generation

Converting the energy from a geothermal resource into electricity is achieved by producing steam from the heat underground to spin a turbine which is connected to a generator to produce electricity. The type of energy conversion technology that is used depends on whether the resource is predominantly water or steam, the temperature of the resource, and the chemical composition of the fluid.

The 3 conventional methods that are used are Dry Steam, Flash Steam, and Binary Cycle power plants.

Steam from hydrothermal reservoirs is withdrawn from below the Earth's surface via a production well and goes directly to a turbine; the turbine drives a generator that produces electricity. This is the oldest type of geothermal power plant, and in use at the largest single source of geothermal power: The Geysers (in northern California)[1].
Flash steam power plants are the most common type geothermal power plants. They generally require the use of hydrothermal fluids above in the range of 300 - 700°F[2]. The fluid is vaporized, and the vapor drives the turbine, which then drives the generator[1]."
Both moderate-temperature (below 400°F) water and a secondary, or "binary", fluid with a much lower boiling point than water are used in binary-cycle power plants. The secondary fluid vaporizes (caused by the heat from the geothermal fluid), which drives the turbine, which drives the generator. Since moderate-temperature water is the more common geothermal resource, and this technology is expected to be used in many geothermal plants in the future[1].


Cooling Technologies

In closed loop steam systems steam is condensed and cooled prior to re-injection. In the Binary cycle the heat gained in the working fluid must be rejected in order to make continuous power. The 3 typical methods of heat rejection that are used are:

Water cooling is commonly defined as a method of using water as a heat conduction to remove heat from an object, machine, or other substance by passing cold water over or through it. In energy generation, water cooling is typically used to cool steam back into water so it can be used again in the generation process.
Air cooling is commonly defined as rejecting heat from an object by flowing air over the surface of the object, through means of convection. Air cooling requires that the air must be cooler than the object or surface from which it is expected to remove heat. This is due to the second law of thermodynamics, which states that heat will only move spontaneously from a hot reservoir (the heat sink) to a cold reservoir (the air).
An evaporative cooler is a device that cools air through the evaporation of water. Evaporative cooling works by employing water's large enthalpy of vaporization. The temperature of dry air can be dropped significantly through the phase transition of liquid water to water vapor (evaporation), which can cool air using much less energy than refrigeration. Evaporative cooling requires a water source, and must continually consume water to operate.


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Please be sure the power plant does not already exist (perhaps under a different name) in the list below before adding.
Number of geothermal plants listed: 252

 
Owner

Facility
Type

Capacity
(MW)

Commercial
Online
Date

Geothermal
Area

Geothermal
Region
Ahuachapan Geothermal Power Plant LaGeo SA de CV Single Flash; Double Flash 1975 Ahuachapan Geothermal Area Central American Volcanic Arc Chain
Ahuachapan No. 2 LaGeo Single Flash 1976 Ahuachapan Geothermal Area Central American Volcanic Arc Chain
Ahuachapan No. 3 LaGeo Double Flash 1981 Ahuachapan Geothermal Area Central American Volcanic Arc Chain
Aidlin Geothermal Facility Calpine Geothermal Steam Power Plant 20 MW20,000 kW
20,000,000 W
20,000,000,000 mW
0.02 GW
2.0e-5 TW
1989 Geysers Geothermal Area Holocene Magmatic
Altheim Geothermal Power Plant Binary Cycle Power Plant, ORC 1994 Altheim Geothermal Area Upper Austrian Molasse Basin
Aluto-Langano Geotermal Power Plant Ethiopian Electric Power Corporation Binary Cycle Power Plant, ORC 7.3 MW7,300 kW
7,300,000 W
7,300,000,000 mW
0.0073 GW
7.3e-6 TW
1999 Aluto-Langano Geothermal Area East African Rift System - Ethiopian Rift Valley
Amatitlan Geothermal Power Plant Empresa de Generacion de Energia Electrica del INDE Back Pressure Steam, Binary 20 MW20,000 kW
20,000,000 W
20,000,000,000 mW
0.02 GW
2.0e-5 TW
2007 Amatitlan Geothermal Area Central American Volcanic Arc Chain
Amedee Geothermal Facility Amedee Geothermal Venture Binary 1.6 MW1,600 kW
1,600,000 W
1,600,000,000 mW
0.0016 GW
1.6e-6 TW
1988 Amedee Geothermal Area Walker-Lane Transition Zone
BLM Geothermal Facility Coso Operating Co. Double Flash 90 MW90,000 kW
90,000,000 W
90,000,000,000 mW
0.09 GW
9.0e-5 TW
1989 Coso Geothermal Area Walker-Lane Transition Zone
Bacman 1 GEPP Energy Development Corporation Single Flash 110 MW110,000 kW
110,000,000 W
110,000,000,000 mW
0.11 GW
1.1e-4 TW
1993 Bac-Man Laguna Geothermal Area Philippine Island Arc
Bacman 2 GEPP Energy Development Corporation Single Flash 40 MW40,000 kW
40,000,000 W
40,000,000,000 mW
0.04 GW
4.0e-5 TW
1993 Bac-Man Laguna Geothermal Area Philippine Island Arc
Bacman LowLoad GEPP Single Flash 0 MW0 kW
0 W
0 mW
0 GW
0 TW
1998 Leyte Geothermal Area Philippine Island Arc
Bagnore 3 Geothermal Power Station Single Flash 1998 Mount Amiata Geothermal Area Italy Geothermal Region
Bear Canyon Geothermal Facility Calpine Geothermal Steam Power Plant 20 MW20,000 kW
20,000,000 W
20,000,000,000 mW
0.02 GW
2.0e-5 TW
1988 Geysers Geothermal Area Holocene Magmatic
Bellavista Geothermal Power Station Geothermal Steam Power Plant 1987 Mount Amiata Geothermal Area Italy Geothermal Region
Beowawe Geothermal Facility Beowawe Power LLC Double Flash 16.6 MW16,600 kW
16,600,000 W
16,600,000,000 mW
0.0166 GW
1.66e-5 TW
1985 Beowawe Hot Springs Geothermal Area Central Nevada Seismic Zone Geothermal Region
Berlín Geothermal Power Plant Empresa Transmisora de El Salvador (ETESAL) Single Flash, Binary 1992 Berlín Geothermal Area Central American Volcanic Arc Chain
Big Geysers Geothermal Facility Calpine Geothermal Steam Power Plant 97 MW97,000 kW
97,000,000 W
97,000,000,000 mW
0.097 GW
9.7e-5 TW
1980 Geysers Geothermal Area Holocene Magmatic
Birdsville Geothermal Power Station Ergon Energy Binary Cycle Power Plant, ORC 1992 Birdsville Geothermal Area Australia - Great Artesian Basin
Bjarnaflag Geothermal Power Plant Reykjavík Energy Back Pressure Steam 1969 Bjarnaflag Geothermal Area Mid Atlantic Ridge
Blumau GEPP Orkuveita Reykjavikur Binary Cycle Power Plant 0.2 MW200 kW
200,000 W
200,000,000 mW
2.0e-4 GW
2.0e-7 TW
2001 Bad Blumau Geothermal Area Styrian Basin
Blundell 1 Geothermal Facility PacificCorp Energy Single Flash 36 MW36,000 kW
36,000,000 W
36,000,000,000 mW
0.036 GW
3.6e-5 TW
1984 Roosevelt Hot Springs Geothermal Area Northern Basin and Range Geothermal Region
Blundell 2 Geothermal Facility PacificCorp Binary 12 MW12,000 kW
12,000,000 W
12,000,000,000 mW
0.012 GW
1.2e-5 TW
2007 Roosevelt Hot Springs Geothermal Area Northern Basin and Range Geothermal Region
Bouillante 1 Geothermal Power Plant CFG Services; Électricité de France Développement Environnement Double Flash 1996 Bouillante Geothermal Area Lesser Antilles Volcanic Arc
Bouillante 2 Geothermal Power Plant CFG Services; Électricité de France Développement Environnement Double Flash 2003 Bouillante Geothermal Area Lesser Antilles Volcanic Arc
Brady Hot Springs I Geothermal Facility Ormat Double Flash, Binary 12 MW12,000 kW
12,000,000 W
12,000,000,000 mW
0.012 GW
1.2e-5 TW
1992 Brady Hot Springs Geothermal Area Northwest Basin and Range Geothermal Region
Bruchsal GEPP Municipality Germany Binary Cycle Power Plant 1 MW1,000 kW
1,000,000 W
1,000,000,000 mW
1.0e-3 GW
1.0e-6 TW
2009 Bruchsal Geothermal Area Upper Rhine Valley
CE Turbo Geothermal Facility CalEnergy Generation Single Flash 10 MW10,000 kW
10,000,000 W
10,000,000,000 mW
0.01 GW
1.0e-5 TW
2000 Salton Sea Geothermal Area Gulf of California Rift Zone
Calistoga Geothermal Facility Calpine Geothermal Steam Power Plant 80 MW80,000 kW
80,000,000 W
80,000,000,000 mW
0.08 GW
8.0e-5 TW
1984 Geysers Geothermal Area Holocene Magmatic
Carboli 1 Geothermal Power Station Geothermal Steam Power Plant 1998 Larderello Geothermal Area Italy Geothermal Region
Carboli 2 Geothermal Power Station Geothermal Steam Power Plant 1997 Larderello Geothermal Area Italy Geothermal Region
Cerro Prieto Geothermal Power Station Compania Federal de Electricidad Single Flash; Double Flash 1973 Cerro Prieto Geothermal Area Gulf of California Rift Zone Geothermal Region
Chena Hot Springs Geothermal Facility Chena Hot Springs Binary 0.45 MW450 kW
450,000 W
450,000,000 mW
4.5e-4 GW
4.5e-7 TW
2006 Chena Geothermal Area Alaska Geothermal Region
Cibuni Geothermal Power Plant PLN 2014 Pengalengan Geothermal Area West Java
Cobb Creek Geothermal Facility Calpine Geothermal Steam Power Plant 110 MW110,000 kW
110,000,000 W
110,000,000,000 mW
0.11 GW
1.1e-4 TW
1979 Geysers Geothermal Area Holocene Magmatic
Cornia 2 Geothermal Power Station Geothermal Steam Power Plant 1994 Larderello Geothermal Area Italy Geothermal Region
Cove Fort Geothermal Power Plant Enel Green Power Binary 2013 Roosevelt Hot Springs Road , Milford, UT 84751
Darajat Geothermal Power Plant PLN 260 MW260,000 kW
260,000,000 W
260,000,000,000 mW
0.26 GW
2.6e-4 TW
1994 Java - Darajat Geothermal Area Sunda Volcanic Arc
Del Ranch (Hoch) Geothermal Facility CalEnergy Generation Double Flash 38 MW38,000 kW
38,000,000 W
38,000,000,000 mW
0.038 GW
3.8e-5 TW
1989 Salton Sea Geothermal Area Gulf of California Rift Zone
Deniz Geothermal Power Plant MAREN Binary Cycle Power Plant, ORC 24 MW24,000 kW
24,000,000 W
24,000,000,000 mW
0.024 GW
2.4e-5 TW
2012 Germencik Geothermal Area Aegean-West Anatolian Extensional Region
Desert Peak II Geothermal Facility Ormat Binary 11 MW11,000 kW
11,000,000 W
11,000,000,000 mW
0.011 GW
1.1e-5 TW
2006 Desert Peak Geothermal Area Northwest Basin and Range Geothermal Region
Dieng Geothermal Power Plant Geodipa Single Flash 60 MW60,000 kW
60,000,000 W
60,000,000,000 mW
0.06 GW
6.0e-5 TW
1998 Java - Dieng Geothermal Area Sunda Volcanic Arc
Dixie Valley Geothermal Facility Terra-Gen Operating Co. Double Flash 67.2 MW67,200 kW
67,200,000 W
67,200,000,000 mW
0.0672 GW
6.72e-5 TW
1988 Dixie Valley Geothermal Area Central Nevada Seismic Zone Geothermal Region
Don A. Cambell Geothermal Power Plant Ormat Binary 2013 Wild Rose Geothermal Area Walker-Lane Transition Zone Geothermal Region
Dora-1 Geothermal Energy Power Plant Menderes Geothermal Binary Cycle Power Plant, ORC 7.9 MW7,900 kW
7,900,000 W
7,900,000,000 mW
0.0079 GW
7.9e-6 TW
2006 Salavatli Geothermal Area Aegean-West Anatolian Extensional Region
Dora-2 Geothermal Power Plant Menderes Geothermal Binary Cycle Power Plant, ORC 9.5 MW9,500 kW
9,500,000 W
9,500,000,000 mW
0.0095 GW
9.5e-6 TW
2010 Salavatli Geothermal Area Aegean-West Anatolian Extensional Region
Dora-3 Geothermal Power Plant Menderes Geothermal Binary Cycle Power Plant, ORC 17 MW17,000 kW
17,000,000 W
17,000,000,000 mW
0.017 GW
1.7e-5 TW
2013 Salavatli Geothermal Area Aegean-West Anatolian Extensional Region
ENEL Salt Wells Geothermal Facility Enel North America Binary 23.6 MW23,600 kW
23,600,000 W
23,600,000,000 mW
0.0236 GW
2.36e-5 TW
2009 Salt Wells Geothermal Area Northwest Basin and Range Geothermal Region
Eagle Rock Geothermal Facility Calpine Geothermal Steam Power Plant 110 MW110,000 kW
110,000,000 W
110,000,000,000 mW
0.11 GW
1.1e-4 TW
1975 Geysers Geothermal Area Holocene Magmatic
Eburru Geothermal Power Plant KenGen Single Flash 2.4 MW2,400 kW
2,400,000 W
2,400,000,000 mW
0.0024 GW
2.4e-6 TW
2011 Eburru Geothermal Area East African Rift System - Kenya Rift
… further results

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Geothermal Regulations and Permitting for Power Plants

For information about regulations and permitting related to geothermal power plants, see the Regulatory and Permitting Information Desktop Toolkit.

Document # Analysis
Type
Applicant Lead
Agency
District
Office
Field
Office
Mineral
Manager
Surface
Manager
Techniques
BLM-NV-WN-ES-08-01-1310, NV-020-08-01 EA Nevada Geothermal Power BLM BLM Winnemucca District Office BLM Humboldt River Field Office BLM BLM Development Drilling
Downhole Techniques
Drilling Techniques
Well Testing Techniques
CA-96062042 EIS Calpine Corporation USFS
DOE-EA-1116 EA Exergy, Inc. DOE DOE Golden Field Office DOE Golden Field Office
DOE-EA-1621 EA Oregon Institute of Technology United States Department of Energy DOE Golden Field Office DOE Golden Field Office
DOE-EA-1676 EA US Geothermal Inc United States Department of Energy
DOE-EA-1849 EA Ormat Technologies Inc United States Department of Energy DOE Golden Field Office BLM
DOE-EIS-0298 EIS CalEnergy Generation Bonneville Power Admin
BLM
USFS
United States Department of Energy
BLM BLM
DOI-BLM-CA-017-P006-60 EIS Pacific Energy BLM BLM Central California District Office BLM Bishop Field Office Development Drilling
DOI-BLM-CA-ES-2013-002+1793-EIS EIS ORNI 50 LLC BLM BLM Central California District Office BLM Bishop Field Office BLM United States Forest Service
DOI-BLM-NV-063-EA08-091 EA Ormat Technologies Inc Bureau of Land Management BLM Battle Mountain District Office Bureau of Land Management Bureau of Land Management Production Wells
DOI-BLM-NV-B010-2011-0015-EA EA Ormat Technologies Inc Bureau of Land Management BLM Battle Mountain District Office Bureau of Land Management Bureau of Land Management Drilling Techniques
Well Testing Techniques
Production Wells
DOI-BLM-NV-C010-2010-0016-EA EA Vulcan Power Company Bureau of Land Management BLM Carson City District Office BLM Stillwater Field Office Bureau of Land Management Bureau of Reclamation
Nevada
Airborne Electromagnetic Survey
DOI-BLM-NV-C010-2011-0001-EA EA Terra-Gen Power LLC Bureau of Land Management BLM Carson City District Office BLM Stillwater Field Office Bureau of Land Management Bureau of Land Management Exploration Drilling
Observation Wells
Well Testing Techniques
DOI-BLM-NV-C010-2012--044-DNA DNA Ormatt Nevada, Inc BLM Nevada State Office BLM Carson City District Office BLM Stillwater Field Office BLM Drilling Methods
DOI-BLM-NV-C010-2012-0050-EA EA Ormat Technologies Inc Bureau of Land Management BLM Carson City District Office BLM Stillwater Field Office Bureau of Land Management Bureau of Land Management Development Drilling
Drilling Techniques
DOI-BLM-NV-CC-ES-11-10-1793 EIS Ormat Technologies Inc, Gradient Resources (formerly Vulcan Power), Sierra Pacific Power Co, BLM BLM Carson City District Office BLM Stillwater Field Office BLM Bureau of Land Management
Bureau of Reclamation
Development Drilling
DOI-BLM-NV-W010–2012–0005–EA EA Terra-Gen Power LLC BLM BLM Winnemucca District Office BLM Humboldt River Field Office BLM BLM Development Drilling
Downhole Techniques
DOI-BLM-OR-V040-2009-0059-EA EA US Geothermal Inc United States Department of Energy BLM BLM
DOI-BLM-UT-C010-2010-0042-EA EA ENEL Green Power North America Bureau of Land Management BLM Color Country District Office BLM BLM
United States Forest Service
NEPA Process for Geothermal Power Plants in the Deschutes National Forest EIS Cal Energy USFS
BLM
Exploration Drilling
Exploratory Boreholes
Production Wells
Thermal Gradient Holes
NV-020-03-26 EA ORNI 3, LLC BLM BLM Winnemucca District Office BLM BLM
San Emido Geothermal Energy North Project EA USG Nevada LLC BLM BLM Winnemucca District Office BLM BLM Production Wells


References

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2  "US DOE EERE Geothermal Technologies Program, Hydrothermal Power Systems"
  2.  "Geothermal Education Office website"