Fumaroles

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Fumaroles:
An opening in the earth’s crust, typically near a volcano, in which steam and hot sulfurous gasses are discharged.
Other definitions:Wikipedia Reegle



A fumarole is evidence of geothermal activity as it’s an opening in the Earth’s crust which emits steam and gases such as carbon dioxide, sulfur dioxide, hydrogen chloride, or hydrogen sulfide. If the vent emits sulfur rich gas it may be referred to as a solfatara.

Examples

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CSV
Geothermal
Resource
Area
Geothermal
Region
Control
Structure
Host
Rock
Age
Host
Rock
Lithology
Mean
Capacity
Mean
Reservoir
Temp
Akita Geothermal FieldNortheast Honshu ArcMajor Normal FaultTertiaryDacite88.3 MW
88,300 kW
88,300,000 W
88,300,000,000 mW
0.0883 GW
8.83e-5 TW
548.15 K
275 °C
527 °F
986.67 °R
Aluto-Langano Geothermal AreaEast African Rift System - Ethiopian Rift ValleyMajor Normal FaultBasalt7.5 MW
7,500 kW
7,500,000 W
7,500,000,000 mW
0.0075 GW
7.5e-6 TW
561.15 K
288 °C
550.4 °F
1,010.07 °R
Amatitlan Geothermal AreaCentral American Volcanic Arc Chain25 MW
25,000 kW
25,000,000 W
25,000,000,000 mW
0.025 GW
2.5e-5 TW
513.15 K
240 °C
464 °F
923.67 °R
Bouillante Geothermal AreaLesser Antilles Volcanic ArcFault Intersection
Major Normal Fault
Chlorite15 MW
15,000 kW
15,000,000 W
15,000,000,000 mW
0.015 GW
1.5e-5 TW
528.15 K
255 °C
491 °F
950.67 °R
Brady Hot Springs Geothermal AreaNorthwest Basin and Range Geothermal RegionAccommodation ZoneMesozoicmetamorphic rocks26.1 MW
26,100 kW
26,100,000 W
26,100,000,000 mW
0.0261 GW
2.61e-5 TW
455.15 K
182 °C
359.6 °F
819.27 °R
Cerro Prieto Geothermal AreaGulf of California Rift Zone Geothermal RegionSandstone720 MW
720,000 kW
720,000,000 W
720,000,000,000 mW
0.72 GW
7.2e-4 TW
588.15 K
315 °C
599 °F
1,058.67 °R
Dixie Valley Geothermal AreaCentral Nevada Seismic Zone Geothermal RegionMajor Normal Fault
Stepover or Relay Ramp in Normal Fault Zones
JurassicBasalt62 MW
62,000 kW
62,000,000 W
62,000,000,000 mW
0.062 GW
6.2e-5 TW
504.15 K
231 °C
447.8 °F
907.47 °R
Eburru Geothermal AreaEast African Rift System - Kenya RiftBasalt2.5 MW
2,500 kW
2,500,000 W
2,500,000,000 mW
0.0025 GW
2.5e-6 TW
578.15 K
305 °C
581 °F
1,040.67 °R
Fukushima Geothermal AreaNortheast Honshu ArcMajor Normal Fault65 MW
65,000 kW
65,000,000 W
65,000,000,000 mW
0.065 GW
6.5e-5 TW
579.15 K
306 °C
582.8 °F
1,042.47 °R
Germencik Geothermal AreaAegean-West Anatolian Extensional RegionFault IntersectionMarble73.4 MW
73,400 kW
73,400,000 W
73,400,000,000 mW
0.0734 GW
7.34e-5 TW
491.15 K
218 °C
424.4 °F
884.07 °R
Geysers Geothermal AreaHolocene MagmaticPull-Apart in Strike-Slip Fault ZoneMesozoicmetamorphosed sandstone1,585 MW
1,585,000 kW
1,585,000,000 W
1,585,000,000,000 mW
1.585 GW
0.00159 TW
551.15 K
278 °C
532.4 °F
992.07 °R
Gunun-Salak Geothermal AreaSunda Volcanic ArcMajor Normal Fault345 MW
345,000 kW
345,000,000 W
345,000,000,000 mW
0.345 GW
3.45e-4 TW
548.15 K
275 °C
527 °F
986.67 °R
Java - Darajat Geothermal AreaSunda Volcanic ArcMajor Normal FaultVolcanics255 MW
255,000 kW
255,000,000 W
255,000,000,000 mW
0.255 GW
2.55e-4 TW
518.15 K
245 °C
473 °F
932.67 °R
Java - Dieng Geothermal AreaSunda Volcanic ArcLavas60 MW
60,000 kW
60,000,000 W
60,000,000,000 mW
0.06 GW
6.0e-5 TW
598.15 K
325 °C
617 °F
1,076.67 °R
Java - Kamojang Geothermal AreaSunda Volcanic ArcMajor Normal Fault200 MW
200,000 kW
200,000,000 W
200,000,000,000 mW
0.2 GW
2.0e-4 TW
518.15 K
245 °C
473 °F
932.67 °R
Java-Wayang Windu Geothermal AreaSunda Volcanic ArcMajor Normal Fault227 MW
227,000 kW
227,000,000 W
227,000,000,000 mW
0.227 GW
2.27e-4 TW
558.15 K
285 °C
545 °F
1,004.67 °R
Kagoshima Geothermal AreaRyuku ArcFault IntersectionNeogene to recentVolcanic Rocks, Andesite0.1 MW
100 kW
100,000 W
100,000,000 mW
1.0e-4 GW
1.0e-7 TW
512.15 K
239 °C
462.2 °F
921.87 °R
Kizildere Geothermal AreaAegean-West Anatolian Extensional RegionFault IntersectionMioceneLimestone102 MW
102,000 kW
102,000,000 W
102,000,000,000 mW
0.102 GW
1.02e-4 TW
459.15 K
186 °C
366.8 °F
826.47 °R
Krafla Geothermal AreaMid Atlantic RidgeBasalt60 MW
60,000 kW
60,000,000 W
60,000,000,000 mW
0.06 GW
6.0e-5 TW
538.15 K
265 °C
509 °F
968.67 °R
Lahendong Geothermal AreaMinahasa Volcanic ZoneFault IntersectionMioceneAndesite80 MW
80,000 kW
80,000,000 W
80,000,000,000 mW
0.08 GW
8.0e-5 TW
578.15 K
305 °C
581 °F
1,040.67 °R
Las Tres Virgenes Geothermal AreaBaja Peninsula Geothermal RegionGranodiorite10 MW
10,000 kW
10,000,000 W
10,000,000,000 mW
0.01 GW
1.0e-5 TW
553.15 K
280 °C
536 °F
995.67 °R
Leyte Geothermal AreaPhilippine Island ArcAndesite714.9 MW
714,900 kW
714,900,000 W
714,900,000,000 mW
0.715 GW
7.149e-4 TW
553.15 K
280 °C
536 °F
995.67 °R
Los Azufres Geothermal AreaTransmexican Volcanic BeltMiocene-PlioceneAndesite188 MW
188,000 kW
188,000,000 W
188,000,000,000 mW
0.188 GW
1.88e-4 TW
448.15 K
175 °C
347 °F
806.67 °R
Mutnovskaya Geothermal AreaKuril-Kamchatka ArcFault IntersectionOligocene62 MW
62,000 kW
62,000,000 W
62,000,000,000 mW
0.062 GW
6.2e-5 TW
507.15 K
234 °C
453.2 °F
912.87 °R
Ogiri Geothermal AreaRyuku ArcMajor Normal FaultQuaternaryAndesite30 MW
30,000 kW
30,000,000 W
30,000,000,000 mW
0.03 GW
3.0e-5 TW
533.15 K
260 °C
500 °F
959.67 °R
Pailas Geothermal AreaCentral American Volcanic Arc ChainAndesite35 MW
35,000 kW
35,000,000 W
35,000,000,000 mW
0.035 GW
3.5e-5 TW
Pauzhetskaya Geothermal AreaKuril-Kamchatka ArcTuff27 MW
27,000 kW
27,000,000 W
27,000,000,000 mW
0.027 GW
2.7e-5 TW
468.15 K
195 °C
383 °F
842.67 °R
Pico Vermelho-Ribeira Grande Geothermal AreaMid Atlantic RidgeBasalt28.5 MW
28,500 kW
28,500,000 W
28,500,000,000 mW
0.0285 GW
2.85e-5 TW
511.15 K
238 °C
460.4 °F
920.07 °R
Roosevelt Hot Springs Geothermal AreaNorthern Basin and Range Geothermal Region1- Tertiary; 2- Precambrian1- granite; 2- metamorphic34 MW
34,000 kW
34,000,000 W
34,000,000,000 mW
0.034 GW
3.4e-5 TW
533.15 K
260 °C
500 °F
959.67 °R
San Jacinto Geothermal AreaCentral American Volcanic Arc Chain87 MW
87,000 kW
87,000,000 W
87,000,000,000 mW
0.087 GW
8.7e-5 TW
543.15 K
270 °C
518 °F
977.67 °R
Steamboat Springs Geothermal AreaWalker-Lane Transition ZoneFault Intersection1- Cretaceous; 2- Pliocene-Pleistocene1- granodiorite; 2- basaltic andesite147 MW
147,000 kW
147,000,000 W
147,000,000,000 mW
0.147 GW
1.47e-4 TW
483.15 K
210 °C
410 °F
869.67 °R
Sumatra-Sibayak Geothermal AreaSunda Volcanic Arc - Great Sumatra Fault ZoneFault IntersectionTertiarySandstone; Limestone12 MW
12,000 kW
12,000,000 W
12,000,000,000 mW
0.012 GW
1.2e-5 TW
543.15 K
270 °C
518 °F
977.67 °R
Valles Caldera - Redondo Geothermal AreaRio Grande RiftCaldera Rim Margins
Fault Intersection
Stratigraphic Boundaries
Mississippian-Pennsylvanian; Pleistocene, 1.6 to 1.25 MaLimestone-Madera Formation “MIPu”; Rhyolitic tuff-Intracaldera Bandelier Tuff (upper Tshirege “Qbt” and lower Otowi “Qbo” members); Caldera Fill Rhyolite (shallow)
Valles Caldera - Sulphur Springs Geothermal AreaRio Grande RiftCaldera Rim Margins
Fault Intersection
Stratigraphic Boundaries
Precambrian; Mississippian-Pennsylvanian; Pleistocene, 1.6 to 1.25 Ma; Pliocene; MioceneCrystalline basement “pCu”; Limestone-Madera Formation “MIPu”; Rhyolitic tuff-Bandelier Tuff (upper Tshirege “Qbt” and lower Otowi “Qbo” members); Caldera Fill Rhyolite (shallow); Dacitic/Andesitic to Rhyolitic lavas and tuffs-Keres Group Volcanics (shallow); Santa Fe Group volcaniclastics “Tsf”
Yamagawa Geothermal AreaRyuku ArcNeogene to RecentVolcanics30 MW
30,000 kW
30,000,000 W
30,000,000,000 mW
0.03 GW
3.0e-5 TW
Yangbajain Geothermal AreaHimalayan Mountain RangeFault Intersection24 MW
24,000 kW
24,000,000 W
24,000,000,000 mW
0.024 GW
2.4e-5 TW
478.15 K
205 °C
401 °F
860.67 °R
Zunil Geothermal AreaCentral American Volcanic Arc ChainGranite; Volcanics28 MW
28,000 kW
28,000,000 W
28,000,000,000 mW
0.028 GW
2.8e-5 TW
532.15 K
259 °C
498.2 °F
957.87 °R

References