From Exploration To Systematic Investigation- Development Of Geocryology In 19Th-And Early-20Th-Century Russia
Journal Article: From Exploration To Systematic Investigation- Development Of Geocryology In 19Th-And Early-20Th-Century Russia
AbstractPermafrost occupies 25% of the terrestrial surface of the Northern Hemisphere, but approximately 70% of Russia. Thus, it is not surprising that Russian researchers pioneered its scientific investigation. The first written accounts of perennially frozen ground in Russia appeared in the 17th century during a time of exploration and settlement of remote areas of Siberia. Nineteenth century investigations emphasized mapping, measuring, and describing permafrost and its thermal regime, primarily for reasons of scientific interest. About the turn of the 20th century, construction of the Trans-Siberian Railroad and other issues related to the large migration of people to Siberia instigated a trend toward more applied investigations. In his 1927 book on permafrost research, Sumgin Subdivided the history of Russian permafrost studies into three periods, designated the initial accumulation of facts, the academic period, and the utilitarian period. Although these periods are not separated by precise temporal bounds, it remains a useful scheme for presenting this overview of the history of Russian permafrost studies emphasizing the 19th and early 20th centuries. Developments in geothermal observations, permafrost modeling and mapping, ground-ice investigations, and the organization of observational networks remain important research topics because of their relationships to climate change in the Arctic.
- N. I. Shiklomanov
- Published Journal
- Physical Geography, 2005
- Not Provided
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N. I. Shiklomanov. 2005. From Exploration To Systematic Investigation- Development Of Geocryology In 19Th-And Early-20Th-Century Russia. Physical Geography. (!) .