Extreme Alteration By Hyperacidic Brines At Kawah Ijen Volcano, East Java, Indonesia- I, Textural And Mineralogical Imprint

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Journal Article: Extreme Alteration By Hyperacidic Brines At Kawah Ijen Volcano, East Java, Indonesia- I, Textural And Mineralogical Imprint

Abstract
Kawah Ijen volcano, located on the eastern tip of Java and renowned for its large hyperacidic crater lake, poses significant volcanic and environmental hazards to its immediate surroundings. Crater lake brines seep through the flanks of the volcano to form the Banyu Pahit river, which is used in irrigation downstream, resulting in extensive pollution, sharply reduced crop yields and health problems. The impact on the environment comes mainly from the high element load, which is derived from leaching of rocks by the acid fluids and transported downstream. Our detailed study of water-rock interaction in different parts of the Kawah Ijen system indicates that there are three settings for this alteration; the crater lake and Banyu Pahit riverbed, the hydrothermal system below the lake, and the solfatara of the active rhyolite dome. In all three settings, the silicates are leached and altered to amorphous silica in the order olivine + glass > An-rich plagioclase > ortho-pyroxene > clino-pyroxene > Ab-rich plagioclase. In contrast, the alteration of titanomagnetite is characterised by dissolution in the surficial setting, replacement by pyrite and Ti-oxide in the hydrothermal system and pyritisation + Ti-mobility in the fumarole conduits. Alteration progresses along crystallographically controlled planes in all phases, and shows strong compositional control in plagioclase and titanomagnetite. No secondary minerals develop, except for minor barite, cristobalite, pyrite and jarosite. This indicates that, despite its high element load, the waters are undersaturated with respect to most secondary minerals typically produced during alteration of these magmatic rocks by acid chloride-sulphate brines, and that water-rock interaction at Kawah Ijen is not a sink of elements, but rather contributes to the element load transported downstream.

Authors 
Vincent van Hinsberg, Kim Berlo, Manfred van Bergen and Anthony Williams-Jones








Published Journal 
Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 2010





DOI 
Not Provided
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Citation

Vincent van Hinsberg,Kim Berlo,Manfred van Bergen,Anthony Williams-Jones. 2010. Extreme Alteration By Hyperacidic Brines At Kawah Ijen Volcano, East Java, Indonesia- I, Textural And Mineralogical Imprint. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research. (!) .