Water and energy studies

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This page tracks studies, reports and analyses of the Energy-Water Nexus. When adding a study, report or publication to this list, please observe the following guidelines:

  • It should substantively address some aspect of the energy-water nexus.
  • It should be publicly accessible online, and/or be published in a refereed technical journal.

Please include a link to a publicly accessible URL where the study, report or publication can be downloaded. Please also include a brief set of keywords summarizing the topic area.

Topic area definitions

  • "Water intensity of electricity generation" relates to the amount of water withdrawn and/or consumed in the generation of electricity (generally thermal power plants, but also including other electricity-generation technologies"
  • "Water intensity of energy production" relates to the amount of water withdrawn and/or consumed in the production of fuels, including oil, gas, and agricultural feedstocks for biofuels
  • "Produced water" relates to the amount and/or impact of produced water during fossil energy extraction.
  • "Energy intensity of water" relates to the amount of energy used in the treatment and movement of water, including pumping, desalination, and wastewater treatment
  • "Methodology" relates to methods to analyze/measure water and/or energy impacts
  • "Planning" relates to integrated water/energy planning

Studies

Author Year Title External reference Topic
World Bank/D. Rodriguez, et al. 2013 Thirsty Energy Working Paper Quantifying the tradeoffs and finding the synergies between energy and water.
PNNL/E. Venteris 2013 A GIS Cost Model to Assess the Availability of Freshwater, Seawater, and Saline Groundwater for Algal Biofuel Production in the United States Environ. Sci. Technol., 47,4840 Water intensity of biofuels
Ceres/M. Freyman 2013 Hydraulic Fracturing & Water Stress: Growing Competitive Pressures for Water Report Water intensity of energy
UT Austin/C. King 2013 Coherence Between Water and Energy Policies Nat. Res. Journal, Spring 2013 (vol. 53, p. 117) Water intensity of energy, energy intensity of water
UC Berkeley/M. Kiparsky 2013 Regulation of Hydraulic Fracturing in California: A Wastewater and Water Quality Perspective Report Hydraulic fracturing
EPRI/Revis James,R. Breckenridge 2013 Water Management Technology (P185) Program Overview Program overview Water management, electric power plants
IEA/Coal Industry Advisory Board 2013 21st Century Coal: Advanced Technology and Global Energy Solution Report Coal energy water use
CRS/K. Bracmort 2013 Hydropower: Federal and Nonfederal Investment R42579 Hydropower
ANL/C. Harto 2013 Geothermal Energy: The Energy-Water Nexus 38th Workshop on Geothermal Reservoir Engineering Water intensity of energy
U. Alberta/Evan G.R. Davies 2013 An integrated assessment of global and regional water demands for electricity generation to 2095 ADVANCES IN WATER RESOURCES 52 (2013) Energy intensity of water, water intensity of energy, planning
CPUC/R. White 2013 Rethinking the Water Energy Nexus: Moving toward Portfolio Management of the Nexus Report Energy intensity of water, water intensity of energy, planning
Carbon Disclosure Project 2012 Collective responses to rising water challenges Report Energy intensity of water, water intensity of energy, planning
Pacific Institute 2012 Hydraulic Fracturing and Water Resources: Separating the Frack from the Fiction Report Hydraulic fracturing
Chinese Academy of Sciences/J. Wang 2012 China's water–energy nexus: greenhouse-gas emissions from groundwater use for agriculture Environ. Res. Lett. 7 014035 Energy intensity of water
PNNL/R. Skaggs 2012 Climate and Energy-Water-Land System Interactions: Technical Report to the U.S. Department of Energy in Support of the National Climate Assessment PNNL-21185 Planning
AGU 2012 Water-Energy Nexus: Solutions to Meet a Growing Demand Report Water intensity of energy, energy intensity of water
California Sustainability Alliance 2012 Eastern Municipal Water District: A Case Study of Best-In-Class Water-Energy Programs and Practices Report Energy intensity of water
ISAWWA 2012 Water-Energy Nexus Survey Summary Report Report Energy intensity of water
GEI Consultants 2012 California’s Water-Energy Nexus: Pathways to Implementation Report Energy intensity of water, water intensity of energy, planning
Gas Technology Institute 2012 Barnett and Appalachian Shale Water Management and Reuse Technologies Report 08122-05 Produced Water
OECD 2012 OECD Environmental Outlook to 2050: The Consequences of Inaction Report Energy intensity of water, water intensity of energy, planning
EPA 2012 Study of the Potential Impacts of Hydraulic Fracturing on Drinking Water Resources: PROGRESS REPORT Report Water intensity of energy
UT Austin/Emily A. Grubert 2012 Can switching fuels save water? A life cycle quantification of freshwater consumption for Texas coal- and natural gas-fired electricity ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH LETTERS 7 (2012) Water intensity of electricity
INL/D. Craig Cooper 2012 Sustainability and Energy Development: Influences of Greenhouse Gas Emission Reduction Options on Water Use in Energy Production Environmental Science & Technology (2012) Water intensity of electricity
ANL/Y. Demissie 2012 Assessing regional hydrology and water quality implications of large-scale biofuel feedstock production in the Upper Mississippi river basin Environmental Science & Technology 46, p 9174(2012) Energy intensity of water, water intensity of energy, planning
ANL/M. Wu 2012 Assessing county-level water footprints of different cellulosic-biofuel feedstock pathways Environmental Science & Technology 46 p 9155 (2012) Energy intensity of water, water intensity of energy, planning
ANL/M. Wu 2012 Simulated impact of future biofuel production on water quality and water cycle dynamics in the Upper Mississippi river basin BIOMASS AND BIOENERGY 41(2012) Energy intensity of water, water intensity of energy, planning
Australian National University/K. Hussey 2012 The Energy–Water Nexus: Managing the Links between Energy and Water for a Sustainable Future Ecology and Society 17(1): 31 All
EPA 2012 National Water Program 2012 Strategy: Response to Climate Change Report Energy intensity of water
NREL/J. Daw 2012 Energy Efficiency Strategies for Municipal Wastewater Treatment Facilities NREL/TP-7A30-53341 Energy intensity of water
Western Resource Advocates 2012 A Powerful Thirst: Managing the Electricity Sector’s Water Needs and the Risk of Drought Report Water intensity of electricity
Water Environment Federation 2012 Driving Water and Wastewater Utilities to More Sustainable Energy Management WEF Energy Roadmap 1.0 Energy intensity of water
CRS/Nicole Carter 2012 Desalination and Membrane Technologies: Federal Research and Adoption Issues R40477 Energy intensity of water
Pacific Institute/H. Cooley 2012 Implications of Future Water Supply Sources for Energy Demands Report Water intensity of energy
River Network 2012 Burning Our Rivers: The Water Footprint of Electricity Report Water intensity of electricity
Atlantic Council 2012 Impact of Municipal, Industrial, and Commercial Water Needs on the Energy Water Nexus: Challenges, Solutions, and Recommendations Report Energy intensity of water
UT Austin/Saunders 2012 Evaluating the energy consumed for water use in the United States Environ. Res. Lett. 7 (2012) 034034 Energy intensity of water
U. of Illinois/Dastgheib 2012 Reuse of Produced Water from CO2 Enhanced Oil Recovery, Coal-Bed Methane, and Mine Pool Water by Coal-Based Power Plants DE-NT0005343 Water intensity of Energy
GAO 2012 Energy-Water Nexus: Coordinated Federal Approach Needed to Better Manage Energy and Water Tradeoffs GAO-12-880 Planning
Alliance to Save Energy 2012 Alliance Research Report: Blending Energy and Water Efficiency for Big Gains Report Energy intensity of water
Civil Society Institute/Synapse Energy Economics 2012 The Hidden Costs of Electricity: Comparing the Hidden Costs of Power Generation Fuels Report Water intensity of electricity
EPRI 2012 Tradeoffs Between Once-Through Cooling and Closed-Cycle Cooling for Nuclear Power Plants Report 1025006 Water intensity of electricity
Office of Rep. Ed Markey 2012 Energy and Water: Connection and Conflict Report Water intensity of energy, Energy intensity of water
GAO 2012 Energy Water Nexus: Information on the Quantity, Quality, and Management of Water Produced during Oil and Gas Production GAO-12-156 Water intensity of energy production
Colorado State U./Stephen Goodwin 2012 Lifecycle Analysis of Water Use and Intensity of Noble Energy Oil and Gas Recovery in the Wattenberg Field of Northern Colorado Oil & Gas Journal, May 7 2012 Water intensity of energy production
PNNL/Richard Skaggs 2012 Climate and Energy-Water-Land System Interactions: Technical Report to the U.S. Department of Energy in Support of the National Climate Assessment PNNL-21185 Energy intensity of water, water intensity of energy, planning
ORNL/Tom Wilbanks 2012 Climate Change and Energy Supply and Use: Technical Report for the U.S. Department of Energy in Support of the National Climate Assessment Report Energy intensity of water, water intensity of energy, planning
Atlantic Council 2012 Fueling America and the Energy Water Nexus: How and Why it Impacts the Nexus and What Next Report Water intensity of energy, planning
SNL/V. Tidwell 2011 Biofuel Impacts on Water SAND2011-0168 Water intensity of energy
SNL/V. Tidwell 2011 Energy-Water Analysis of the 10-Year WECC Transmission Planning Study Cases SAND2011-7281 Planning
Great Lakes Commission 2011 Integrating Energy and Water Resources Decision Making in the Great Lakes Basin: An Examination of Future Power Generation Scenarios and Water Resource Impacts Report Planning
U. Twente/W. Gerbens-Leenes 2011 The water footprint of sweeteners and bio-ethanol Env. Int'l 40,202 Water intensity of ethanol
LLNL/C. Smith 2011 Estimated Water Flows in 2005: United States LLNL-TR-475772 Water intensity
NETL/B. Carney 2011 Institutional Impediments to Using Alternative Water Sources in Thermoelectric Power Plants DOE/NETL-2011/1506 Alternative water use power plants
SNL/V. Tidwell 2011 Energy and Water in the Great Lakes Report Planning
SNL/V. Tidwell 2011 Multi-stakeholder Engagement Along the Water, Energy, Security Nexus Presentation Planning
Vanderbilt University/D. Perrone 2011 Gaining Perspective on the Water−Energy Nexus at the Community Scale Environ. Sci. Technol., 45, pp 4228 Planning
U. Arizona/C. Scott 2011 Policy and institutional dimensions of the water–energy nexus Energy Policy 39, 6622 Water intensity of energy
World Policy Institute 2011 The Water-Energy Nexus: Adding Water to the Energy Agenda Report Water intensity of energy, energy intensity of water
LBNL 2011 A Systems Framework for Assessing Plumbing Products-Related Water Conservation LBNL-5286E Energy intensity of water, Methodology
USGS 2011 A Hydrological Network Supporting Spatially Referenced Regrssion Modeling in the Chesapeake Bay Watershed USGS in Journal of the American Water Resources Assoc Water intensity of energy
U.S. Bureau of Reclamation/Katie Guerra 2011 Oil and Gas Produced Water Management and Beneficial Use in the Western United States Science and Technology Program Report No. 157 Water intensity of energy
NETL/Erik Shuster 2011 Estimating Freshwater Needs to Meet Future Thermoelectric Generation Requirements - 2011 Update NETL/DOE-2011/1523 Water intensity of electricity
NETL/Barbara Carney 2011 Reducing Water Freshwater Consumption at Coal-Fired Power Plants: Approaches Used Outside the United States DOE/NETL-2011/1493 Water intensity of electricity
ANL/C.E. Clark 2011 Water Resource Assessment of Geothermal Resources and Water Use in Geopressured Geothermal Systems ANL/EVS/R-11/10 Water intensity of electricity
ANL/C.E. Clark 2011 Water Use in the Development and Operation of Geothermal Power Plants ANL/EVS/R-10/5 Water intensity of electricity
DHS, DOE 2011 Dams and Energy Sectors Interdependency Study Report Water intensity of electricity
EPRI/Stuart Dalton 2011 Testimony to the US House of Reps on Advancing Coal R&D testimony p62,QFR responses p117 R&D gaps for Improved water management at power plants
Synapse Energy Economics/Jeremy Fisher 2011 The Water-Energy Nexus in the Western States: Projections to 2100 Report Energy intensity of water, water intensity of energy
National Petroleum Council Environmental & Regulatory Subgroup 2011 Water/Energy Nexus Paper #2-1 Water intensity of energy production
NETL/Barbara Carney 2011 Reducing Freshwater Consumption at Coal-Fired Power Plants: Approaches Used Outside the United States DOE/NETL-2011/1493 Water intensity of electricity
U.T. Austin/Cynthia Folsom Murphy 2011 Energy-Water Nexus for Mass Cultivation of Algae Environ. Sci. Technol., 2011, 45 (13), pp 5861–5868 Water intensity of energy production
C.U. Boulder/Kristen Averyt 2011 Freshwater Use by U.S. Power Plants: Electricity’s thirst for a Precious Resource Report Water intensity of electricity generation
CRS/Nicole Carter 2011 Desalination: Technologies, Use, and Congressional Issues R40477 Energy intensity of water
Duke University/A. Shpitsberg 2011 Collaborative Water Risk Management: Guidelines for the Power Industry, Water Utility, and Regulator Thesis Risk management
NREL/Jordan Macknick 2011 A Review of Operational Water Consumption and Withdrawal Factors for Electricity Generating Technologies NREL/TP-6A20-50900 Water intensity of electricity generation
NREL/Kathleen Hallett 2011 Energy Intensity of Water: Literature Suggests Increasing Interest Despite Limited and Inconsistent Data ASME 2011 International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exposition Energy intensity of water
GAO 2011 Energy Water Nexus: Amount of Energy Needed to Supply, Use, and Treat Water Is Location-Specific and Can Be Reduced by Certain Technologies and Approaches GAO-11-225 Energy intensity of water
 ? 2011 Water-Energy Analysis of the 10-year WECC Transmission Planning Study Cases Report Water intensity of electricity generation
U.T. Austin/Kelly Twomey 2011 Evaluating the Energy Intensity of the US Public Water System ASME 2011 5th International Conference on Energy Sustainability Energy intensity of water
UCAR/ Aiguo Dai 2011 Drought under global warming: A review [1] Water availability projections
Pacific Institute/Heather Cooley 2011 Water for Energy: Future Water Needs for Electricity in the Intermountain West Report Water intensity of electricity generation
INL/Robert Jeffers 2011 A Framework for Analysis of Energy-Water Interdependency Problems INL/CON-11-23023 Methodology
U. of Utah/Robert Keiter 2011 Policy Analysis of Produced Water Issues Associated With In-Situ Thermal Technologies Report Water intensity of energy production
U. of Twente/Arjen Y. Hoestra 2011 The water footprint of humanity PNAS 109(2011) Energy intensity of water, water intensity of energy, planning
DOE 2011 Sustainable and Adequate Biofuels Feedstock Production: Recommendations for Federal Research and Development Report Energy intensity of water, water intensity of energy, planning
DOE 2011 2011 Strategic Sustainability Performance Plan: Report to The White House Council on Environmental Quality Report Water Use Efficiency and Management pg 59
CRS/N. Carter 2011 Energy's Water Demand: Trends, Vulnerabilities, and Management R41507 Water intensity of energy
PNNL/R. César Izaurralde 2011 Bringing Water into an Integrated Assessment Framework PNNL-19320 Water intensity of energy
UT Austin/A. Stillwell 2010 Energy Recovery from Wastewater Treatment Plants in the United States: A Case Study of the Energy-Water Nexus Sustainability 2,945 Energy intensity of water
NETL/D. Elcock 2010 Water Vulnerabilities for Existing Coal-fired Power Plants DOE/NETL-2010/1429 Water intensity of electricity
ANL/M. Wu 2010 Developing a Tool to Estimate Water Use in Electric Power Generation in the United States ANL/ESD/11-2 Water intensity of electricity
ANL/J. Veil 2010 Water Management Technologies Used by Marcellus Shale Gas Producers ANL/EVS/R-10/3 Water intensity of energy
Cleantech Group LLC/M. Javier 2010 The state of water innovation Report Water technology
NETL 2010 Department of Energy/National Energy Technology Laboratory's Water-Energy Interface Research Program: December 2010 Update Report Water intensity of energy
NAS 2010 Management and Effects of Coalbed Methane Produced Water in the United States Report Produced water
EPA 2010 Coalbed Methane Extraction: Detailed Study Report Report Produced water
Florida Department of Environmental Protection 2010 Desalination in Florida: Technology, Implementation, and Environmental Issues Report Energy intensity of water
INL 2010 Cooling Water Issues and Opportunities at U.S. Nuclear Power Plants INL/EXT-10-20208 Water intensity of electricity
GAO 2010 Energy Water Nexus: A Better and Coordinated Understanding of Water Resources Could Help Mitigate the Impacts of Potential Oil Shale Development GAO-11-35 Water intensity of energy generation
Boston University/Cutler Cleveland 2010 An Assessment of the Energy Return on Investment (EROI) of Oil Shale Report Water intensity of energy production
Texas Water Development Board/James Herring 2010 The Future of Desalination in Texas Report Energy intensity of water
U.C. Davis/Gouri Shankar Mishra 2010 Analysis of Lifecycle Water Requirements of Energy and Transportation Fuels: Electricity from Geothermal Resources - Model Description UCD-ITS-RR-10-20A Water intensity of energy production
ANL/C.E. Clark 2010 Water Use in the Development and Operation of Geothermal Power Plants ANL/EVS/R-10/1 Water intensity of electricity production
U. Alberta/Shikhar Singh 2010 Development of water requirement factors for biomass conversion pathway Bioresource Technology 102, 2, January 2011, Pages 1316–1328 Methodology
Worldwatch Institute/Emily Grubert 2010 How Energy Choices Affect Fresh Water Supplies: A Comparison of U.S. Coal and Natural Gas Report Water intensity of energy
Harvard Kennedy School/Erik Mielke et al. 2010 Water consumption of Energy Resource Extraction, Processing, and Conversion Report Water intensity of energy
NETL/Erik Shuster 2010 Life-cycle analysis on biodiesel production from microalgae: Water footprint and nutrients balance Bioresource Technology 102,1 p. 159 (January 2011) Water footprint and nutrient analysis of microalgal biodiesel production
Office of Senator Jon Kyl 2010 Deploying Solar Power in the State of Arizona: A Brief Overview of the Solar-Water Nexus Report Water intensity of electricity generation
Harvard University/Erik Mielke 2010 Water Consumption of Energy Resource Extraction, Processing, and Conversion Report Water intensity of energy production
Georgia Institute of Tech./Yongsheng Chen 2010 Water Consumption of Energy Resource Extraction, Processing, and Conversion Report Water intensity of energy production
INL/G. Sehlke 2009 What is "The Energy-Water Nexus"? Journal of Contemporary Water Research & Education 143, p. 1 Water intensity of energy, Energy intensity of water
SNL/V. Tidwell 2009 Decision Support for Integrated Water-Energy Planning SAND2009-6521 Planning
GAO 2009 Energy Water Nexus: Many Uncertainties Remain about National and Regional Effects of Increased Biofuel Production on Water Resources GAO-10-116 Water intensity of energy production
ANL/C.E. Clark 2009 Produced Water Volumes and Management Practices in the United States ANL/EVS/R-09/1 Water intensity of energy production
U. Minnesota/Y. Chiu 2009 Water Embodied in Bioethanol in the United States Environ. Sci. Technol. 2009, 43, 2688–2692 Water intensity of biofuel
U.T. Austin/Ashlynn Stillwell 2009 Energy‐Water Nexus in Texas Report Energy intensity of water, Water intensity of energy
Hamburg U. of T./F. Li 2009 Review of the technological approaches for grey water treatment and reuses Sci. Total Environ. 407,3439 Energy intensity of water
GAO 2009 Energy Water Nexus: Improvements to Federal Water Use Data Would Increase Understanding of Trends in Power Plant Water Use GAO-10-23 Water intensity of electricity generation
LLNL/A.J. Simon 2009 Water's Impacts on Hydrogen LLNL-PRES-411246 Water intensity of energy production
NETL/Clark, C.E., and J.A. Veil 2009 Produced Water Volumes and Management Practices in the United States ANL/EVS/R-09/1 Water intensity of energy production
U.S. Army Corps of Engineers/Alexey Voinov 2009 The Energy-Water Nexus: Why Should We Care? Journal of Contemporary Water Research & Education, Issue 143, pages 17-29, December 2009 Water intensity of energy, energy intensity of water
DOE 2009 Report to Congress on the Potential Environmental Effects of Marine and Hydrokinetic Energy Technologies Report Water intensity of electricity generation
National University of Singapore/Benjamin K. Sovacool 2009 Preventing National Electricity-Water Crisis Areas in the United States Columbia Journal of Environmental Law, vol. 34:2, 2009 Water intensity of electricity generation
U. Twente/W. Gerbens-Leenes 2009 The water footprint of bioenergy PNAS June 3, 2009 Water intensity of bioenergy
USGS/J. Kenney 2009 Estimated Use of Water in the United States in 2005 USGS Circular 1344 Water intensity of electricity generation, energy production
McGill University/Audrey Maheu 2009 Energy Choices and their Impacts on Demand for Water Resources: An Assessment of Current and Projected Water Consumption in Global Energy Production Report Water intensity of energy
National University of Singapore/Benjamin K. Sovacool 2009 Running on Empty: The Electricity-Water Nexus and the U.S. Electric Sector Energy Law Journal, vol 30:11, 2009 Water intensity of electricity generation
POLIS/Carol Maas 2009 Greenhouse Gas and Energy Co-Benefits of Water Conservation Report Energy intensity of water
Colorado School of Mines 2009 Technical Assessment of Produced Water Treatment Technologies Report Water intensity of energy
River Network/Bevan Griffiths-Sattenspiel 2009 The Carbon Footprint of Water Report Energy intensity of water
ANL/M. Wu 2009 Consumptive Water Use in the Production of Ethanol and Petroleum Gasoline ANL/ESD/09-1 Water intensity of energy production
U. Maryland/T. Simpson 2008 The New Gold Rush: Fueling Ethanol Production while Protecting Water Quality J. Env. Quality 37,318 Water intensity of ethanol
DOI/Bureau of Reclamation 2008 Summary of Smart Controller Water Savings Studies Tech Memo No. 86-68210-SCAO-01 Smart landscape irrigation control technology
U.S. Climate Change Science Program 2008 Effects of Climate Change on Energy Production and Use in the United States Report Water intensity of energy
SNL/M. Hightower 2008 Energy & Water: Issues, Trends, and Challenges (EPRI Workshop) Presentation All
ANL/D. Elcock 2008 Baseline and Projected Water Demand Data for Energy and Competing Water Use Sectors ANL/EVS/TM/08-8 Water demand
DOE 2008 (?) Concentrating Solar Power Commercial Application Study: Reducing Water Consumption of Concentrating Solar Power Electricity Generation Report to Congress Water intensity of electricity generation
DOE 2008 20% Wind Energy by 2030: Increasing Wind Energy's Contribution to U.S. Electricity Supply DOE/GO-102008-2567 Water intensity of electricity generation
NAS/Committee on Advancing Desalination Technology 2008 Desalination: A National Perspective Report No. 12184 Energy intensity of water, planning
NAS 2008 Water Implications of Biofuels Production in the United States Report Energy intensity of water, water intensity of energy, planning
BNL/V. Bhatt 2008 New York City Energy-Water Integrated Planning: A Pilot Study BNL-81906-2008 Energy intensity of water, planning
U. of Twente/Winnie Gerbens-Leenes 2008 The water footprint of bioenergy PNAS, 106, pp. 10219-10223 Water intensity of energy production
Water Services Association of Australia/S.J. Kenway 2008 Energy use in the provision and consumption of urban water in Australia and New Zealand Report Energy intensity of water
U.T. Austin/Carey King 2008 Water Intensity of Transportation Environ. Sci. Technol., 2008, 42 (21), pp 7866–7872 Water intensity of transportation
National Research Council/Amy Zander 2008 Desalination: A National Perspective Report Energy intensity of water
INL/Paul Wichlacz 2008 Energy-Water Nexus -- Meeting the Energy and Water Needs of the Snake/Columbia River Basin in the 21st Century INL/CON-08-13943 Planning
ANL/J. Veil 2007 Use of Reclaimed Water for Power Plant Cooling ANL/EVS/R-07/3 Water intensity of electricity
NSTC 2007 A Strategy for Federal Science and Technology to Support Water Availability and Quality in the United States Report Research needs
NETL/Michael Klett 2007 Power Plant Water Usage and Loss Study Report Water intensity of electricity generation
NREL/Andy Aden 2007 Water Usage for Current and Future Ethanol Production Southwest Hydrology, 2007 Water intensity of energy production
U.T. Austin/Michael Webber 2007 The water intensity of the transitional hydrogen economy Environ. Res. Lett. 2 034007 Water intensity of energy production
U.C. Santa Barbara/Robert C. Wilkinson 2007 Analysis of the Energy Intensity of Water Supplies for West Basin Municipal Water District Report Energy intensity of water
SNL/Ron Pate 2007 Overview of the Energy-Water Interdependencies and the Emerging Energy Demands on Water Resources SAND 2007-1349C Water intensity of energy production, water intensity of electricity generation
USDA/Jurgen Garbrecth and Jeanne Schneider 2007 1895-2006 Annual Precipitation, Long-term Trends, Persistent Variations, and Annual Precipitation Expectations for Oklahoma Climate Divisions Report Modeling
IATP/D. Keeney 2006 Water Use by Ethanol Plants: Potential Challenges Report Water intensity of ethanol
CPUC 2006 Cost and Value of Water Use at Combined-Cycle Power Plants CEC-500-2006-034 Water intensity of electricity
SNL/A. Sattler 2006 Technical Review of Proposed Changes in Montana Water Quality Standards for Coal Bed Natural Gas Produced Water SAND2006-0312 Produced water
ANL/J. Veil 2006 Update on Use of Mine Pool Water for Power Generation ANL/EVS/R-06/6 Water intensity of electricity
ANL/J. Veil 2006 Potential Ground Water and Surface Water Impacts from Oil Shale and Tar Sands Energy-Production Operations ANL/EVS/R-06/9 Water intensity of energy
Demand Response Research Center/Lon House 2006 Water Supply Related Electricity Demand in California LBNL-62041 collaborative report Energy intensity of water
SNL/J. Miller 2006 Forward Osmosis: A New Approach to Water Purification and Desalination SAND2006-4634 Energy intensity of water
NETL/John Duda 2006 Emerging Issues for Fossil Energy and Water: Investigation of Water Issues Related to Coal Mining, Coal to Liquids, Oil Shale, and Carbon Capture and Sequestration DOE/NETL-2006/1233 Water intensity of energy production
Tufts University/Edward Spang 2006 The Potential for Wind-Powered Desalination in Water-Scarce Countries Thesis Energy intensity of water
NREL/GE Global Research 2006 Integrated Wind Energy/Desalination System NREL/SR-500-39485 Energy intensity of water
Navigant 2006 Refining Estimates of Water-Related Energy Use in California CEC-500-2006-118 Energy intensity of water
Pacific Institute/Heather Cooley 2006 Desalination, with a Grain of Salt: A California Perspective Report Energy intensity of water
DOE 2006 Energy Demands on Water Resources Report Water intensity of energy production, water intensity of electricity generation
ANL/J. Veil 2006 Summary of DOE/PERF Water Program Review ANL/EVS/R-06/1 Technology
California Energy Commission/Gary Klein 2005 California's Water – Energy Relationship CEC-700-2005-011-SF Water intensity of energy, energy intensity of water, planning
Higher Technical Institute Cyprus/Soteris Kalogirou 2005 Seawater desalination using renewable energy sources Progress in Energy and Combustion Science 31 (2005) 242–281 Energy intensity of water
USGS/Susan Hutson 2005 Estimated Use of Water in the United States in 2000 USGS Circular 1268 Water intensity of electricity generation, energy production
SAIC/Lindsay Green 2005 Finding Technological Solutions to the Energy-Water Nexus Energy Security, IAGS, August 29, 2005 Technology
ANL/J. Gillette 2004 Identification of Incentive Options to Encourage the Use of Produced Water, Coal Bed Methane Water, and Mine Pool Water Report Water intensity of energy
ANL 2004 A White Paper Describing Produced Water from Production of Crude Oil, Natural Gas and Coal Bed Methane White Paper Produced water
Institute for the Analysis of Global Security/Allan Hoffman 2004 The Connection: Water and Energy Security Report Energy intensity of water
NRDC/Ronnie Cohen 2004 Energy Down the Drain: The Hidden Costs of California's Water Supply Report Energy intensity of water
SNL/J. Miller 2003 Review of Water Resources and Desalination Technologies SAND 2003-0800 Technology
The Saving Water Partnership 2003 Water Efficient Irrigation Study Final Report Irrigation
DOE 2003 Water Use in Industries of the Future1 Report Water intensity of industry
Hewlett Foundation Energy Series 2003 The Last Straw: Water Use by Power Plants in the Arid West Report Water intensity of electricity generation
DOI/Bureau of Reclamation, SNL 2003 Desalination and Water Purification Technology Roadmap Desalination & Water Purification Research & Development Program Report #95 Energy intensity of water
NREL/Paul Torcellini 2003 Consumptive Water Use for U.S. Power Production NREL/TP-550-33905 Water intensity of electricity generation
New Mexico State University/N. Argaw 2003 Renewable Energy for Water Pumping Applications in Rural Villages NREL/SR-500-30361 Energy intensity of water, technology
CH2M Hill/Jim Mavis 2003 Water Use in Industries of the Future: Mining Industry Report Water intensity of industry
SBW Consulting 2002 Energy Benchmarking Secondary Wastewater Treatment and Ultraviolet Disinfection Processes at Various Municipal Wastewater Treatment Facilities Report to PG&E Energy intensity of water
EPRI/R. Goldstein 2002 Water & Sustainability (Volume 4): U.S. Electricity Consumption for Water Supply & Treatment—The Next Half Century Topical Report 1006787 Energy intensity of water
DOE 2002 Energy Penalty Analysis of Possible Cooling Water Intake Structure Requirements on Existing Coal-Fired Power Plants Report Water for electricity
Energetics/Mark Ellis 2001 (?) Industrial Water Use and Its Energy Implications Report Water intensity of industry
API 2000 Overview of Exploration and Production Waste Volumes and Waste Management Practices in the United States Report Water intensity of oil & gas
USGS/Wayne Solley 1998 Estimated Use of Water in the United States in 1995 USGS Circular 1200 Water intensity of electricity generation, energy production
EPA 1978 Energy Consumption of Advanced Wastewater Treatment at Ely, Minnesota EPA-600/7-78-001 Energy intensity of water
EPA/R. Smith 1973 Electrical Power Consumption for Municipal Wastewater Treatment EPA-R2-73-281 Energy intensity of water