EBRD-The Low Carbon Transition
"The EBRD region is the only major region in the world in which carbon emissions have fallen substantially–by about 28 percent–between 1990 and 2008. This decline, which occurred notwithstanding an increase in real GDP by about 22 per cent over the same period, was a product of the transition from wasteful and energy-intensive planned economies toward market economies. Transition lead to both shifts to less carbon-intensive energy sources–in particular, increased usage of gas instead of coal–and most importantly lower energy usage per unit of GDP. The latter resulted both from deep energy efficiency improvements within economic sectors and (to a lesser extent) from structural change, that is, a shift from energy-intensive activities such as heavy industry to less energy-intensive activities such as services"