Compound and Elemental Analysis

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GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home

Exploration Technique: Compound and Elemental Analysis

Exploration Technique Information
Exploration Group: Lab Analysis Techniques
Exploration Sub Group: Fluid Lab Analysis
Parent Exploration Technique: Fluid Lab Analysis
Information Provided by Technique
Lithology:
Stratigraphic/Structural:
Hydrological: Results can aid in the determination of fluid source regions and circulation pathways.
Thermal: Certain elements exhibit high spatial correlation with high-temperature geothermal systems.
Cost Information
Low-End Estimate (USD): 15.001,500 centUSD
0.015 kUSD
1.5e-5 MUSD
1.5e-8 TUSD
/ compound
Median Estimate (USD): 30.003,000 centUSD
0.03 kUSD
3.0e-5 MUSD
3.0e-8 TUSD
/ compound
High-End Estimate (USD): 50.005,000 centUSD
0.05 kUSD
5.0e-5 MUSD
5.0e-8 TUSD
/ compound
Dictionary.png
Compound and Elemental Analysis:
Compound and elemental analysis is a process where a sample of some material (e.g., soil, waste or drinking water, bodily fluids, minerals, chemical compounds) is analyzed for its elements and compounds and sometimes its isotopic composition. Elemental analysis can be qualitative (determining what elements are present), and it can also be quantitative (determining how much of each type are present).
Other definitions:Wikipedia Reegle


 
Introduction
By taking appropriate samples of fluids from surface springs and from well discharges, a great deal can be learned about the presence of absence of a geothermal resource and about the resource itself, such as reservoir fluid types, geothermometry, reservoir processes, and production monitoring.

Photo of the plasma sampler from an ICP-MS system used by the Atomic Energy and Alternative Energies Commission (CEA), France. Photo from the CEA Website, last updated October 2, 2011.

 
Use in Geothermal Exploration
Two common chemical parameters used to characterize geothermal fluids are TDS and pH, which can be measured in the field with a conductivity meter and pH meter.[1] More detailed characterization of thermal and meteoric fluids is achieved through lab analyses of individual dissolved chemical components. Dissolved solids consist mainly of:

  • sodium (Na)
  • calcium (Ca)
  • potassium (K)
  • chlorine (Cl)
  • silica (SiO2)
  • sulfate (SO4)
  • bicarbonate (HCO3).

Minor constituents include a wide range of elements, including:

  • mercury (Hg),
  • fluorine (F),
  • boron (B),
  • arsenic (As)

Dissolved gases usually include:

  • carbon dioxide (CO2)
  • hydrogen sulfide (H2S)
  • ammonia (NH4)
  • methane (CH4)





 
Best Practices
Data suggest that there are differences in the trace element geochemistry of magmatically-driven systems when compared to extensional systems (i.e. those that are just driven by elevated geothermal gradients).[2]











Page Area Activity Start Date Activity End Date Reference Material
Compound and Elemental Analysis (Klein, 2007) Unspecified


Compound and Elemental Analysis At Akutan Fumaroles Area (Kolker, Et Al., 2010) Akutan Fumaroles Area


Compound and Elemental Analysis At Alum Area (DOE GTP) Alum Geothermal Area


Compound and Elemental Analysis At Alvord Hot Springs Area (Wood, 2002) Alvord Hot Springs Area


Compound and Elemental Analysis At Belknap-Foley-Bigelow Hot Springs Area (Wood, 2002) Belknap-Foley-Bigelow Hot Springs Area


Compound and Elemental Analysis At Beowawe Hot Springs Area (Wood, 2002) Beowawe Hot Springs Area


Compound and Elemental Analysis At Black Warrior Area (DOE GTP) Black Warrior Area


Compound and Elemental Analysis At Blackfoot Reservoir Area (Hutsinpiller & Parry, 1985) Blackfoot Reservoir Area


Compound and Elemental Analysis At Breitenbush Hot Springs Area (Wood, 2002) Breitenbush Hot Springs Area


Compound and Elemental Analysis At Buffalo Valley Hot Springs Area (Laney, 2005) Buffalo Valley Hot Springs Area


Compound and Elemental Analysis At Central Nevada Seismic Zone Region (Coolbaugh, Et Al., 2010) Central Nevada Seismic Zone Geothermal Region


Compound and Elemental Analysis At Central Nevada Seismic Zone Region (Laney, 2005) Central Nevada Seismic Zone Geothermal Region


Compound and Elemental Analysis At Clear Lake Area (Thompson, Et Al., 1992) Clear Lake Area


Compound and Elemental Analysis At Colrado Area (DOE GTP) Colado Geothermal Area


Compound and Elemental Analysis At Coso Geothermal Area (1991) Coso Geothermal Area 1991 1991


Compound and Elemental Analysis At Coso Geothermal Area (2004) Coso Geothermal Area 2004 2004


Compound and Elemental Analysis At Crane Hot Springs Area (Wood, 2002) Crane Hot Springs Area


Compound and Elemental Analysis At Dixie Valley Geothermal Area (Wood, 2002) Dixie Valley Geothermal Area 1997 2001


Compound and Elemental Analysis At Fenton Hill HDR Geothermal Area (Brookins & Laughlin, 1983) Fenton Hill HDR Geothermal Area 1983


Compound and Elemental Analysis At Fenton Hill HDR Geothermal Area (Goff & Janik, 2002) Fenton Hill HDR Geothermal Area


Compound and Elemental Analysis At Fenton Hill HDR Geothermal Area (Goff, Et Al., 1981) Fenton Hill HDR Geothermal Area 1981


Compound and Elemental Analysis At Fenton Hill HDR Geothermal Area (Grigsby, Et Al., 1983) Fenton Hill HDR Geothermal Area


Compound and Elemental Analysis At Fenton Hill HDR Geothermal Area (Grigsby, Et Al., 1989) Fenton Hill HDR Geothermal Area 1989


Compound and Elemental Analysis At Fenton Hill HDR Geothermal Area (Janik & Goff, 2002) Fenton Hill HDR Geothermal Area 1982 2002


Compound and Elemental Analysis At Fenton Hill HDR Geothermal Area (Laughlin, Et Al., 1983) Fenton Hill HDR Geothermal Area 1983


Compound and Elemental Analysis At Fenton Hill HDR Geothermal Area (Rao, Et Al., 1996) Fenton Hill HDR Geothermal Area 1996 1996


Compound and Elemental Analysis At Fenton Hill HDR Geothermal Area (Trujillo, Et Al., 1983) Fenton Hill HDR Geothermal Area 1983


Compound and Elemental Analysis At Fish Lake Valley Area (DOE GTP) Fish Lake Valley Area


Compound and Elemental Analysis At Fish Lake Valley Area (Deymonaz, Et Al., 2008) Fish Lake Valley Area


Compound and Elemental Analysis At Flint Geothermal Area (DOE GTP) Flint Geothermal Area


Compound and Elemental Analysis At Fort Bliss Area (DOE GTP) Fort Bliss Area


Compound and Elemental Analysis At Gabbs Valley Area (DOE GTP) Gabbs Valley Area


Compound and Elemental Analysis At Geysers Area (Kennedy & Truesdell, 1996) Geysers Area


Compound and Elemental Analysis At Geysers Area (Lambert & Epstein, 1992) Geysers Area


Compound and Elemental Analysis At Glass Buttes Area (DOE GTP) Glass Buttes Area


Compound and Elemental Analysis At Heber Area (Wood, 2002) Heber Area


Compound and Elemental Analysis At Hot Lake Area (Wood, 2002) Hot Lake Area


Compound and Elemental Analysis At Hot Springs Ranch Area (Szybinski, 2006) Hot Springs Ranch Area


Compound and Elemental Analysis At International Geothermal Area, Indonesia (Laney, 2005) International Geothermal Area Indonesia


Compound and Elemental Analysis At International Geothermal Area, Mexico (Norman & Moore, 2004) International Geothermal Area Mexico


Compound and Elemental Analysis At International Geothermal Area, New Zealand (Wood, 2002) International Geothermal Area New Zealand


Compound and Elemental Analysis At International Geothermal Area, Philippines (Wood, 2002) International Geothermal Area Philippines


Compound and Elemental Analysis At Jemez Pueblo Area (DOE GTP) Jemez Pueblo Area


Compound and Elemental Analysis At Jemez Springs Area (Goff & Janik, 2002) Jemez Springs Area


Compound and Elemental Analysis At Jemez Springs Area (Goff, Et Al., 1981) Jemez Springs Area


Compound and Elemental Analysis At Jemez Springs Geothermal Area (Trainer, 1974) Jemez Springs Geothermal Area 1972 1974


Compound and Elemental Analysis At Kilauea East Rift Area (Coombs, Et Al., 2006) Kilauea East Rift Area


Compound and Elemental Analysis At Kilauea East Rift Geothermal Area (Coombs, Et Al., 2006) Kilauea East Rift Geothermal Area 1998 2002


Compound and Elemental Analysis At Kilauea East Rift Geothermal Area (Quane, Et Al., 2003) Kilauea East Rift Geothermal Area 1989 2000


Compound and Elemental Analysis At Kilauea Southwest Rift And South Flank Area (Combs, Et Al., 2006) Kilauea Southwest Rift And South Flank Area


Compound and Elemental Analysis At Kilauea Southwest Rift And South Flank Area (Coombs, Et Al., 2006) Kilauea Southwest Rift And South Flank Area


Compound and Elemental Analysis At Lake City Hot Springs Area (Sladek, Et Al., 2004) Lake City Hot Springs Area


Compound and Elemental Analysis At Lake City Hot Springs Area (Warpinski, Et Al., 2004) Lake City Hot Springs Area


Compound and Elemental Analysis At Lassen Volcanic National Park Area (Janik & Mclaren, 2010) Lassen Volcanic National Park Area


Compound and Elemental Analysis At Lassen Volcanic National Park Area (Thompson, 1985) Lassen Volcanic National Park Area


Compound and Elemental Analysis At Lightning Dock Area (Norman & Moore, 2004) Lightning Dock Area


Compound and Elemental Analysis At Lightning Dock Geothermal Area (Dellechaie, 1977) Lightning Dock Geothermal Area


Compound and Elemental Analysis At Lightning Dock Geothermal Area (Elston, Et Al., 1983) Lightning Dock Geothermal Area


Compound and Elemental Analysis At Lightning Dock Geothermal Area (Witcher, 2006) Lightning Dock Geothermal Area


Compound and Elemental Analysis At Little Valley Area (Wood, 2002) Little Valley Area


Compound and Elemental Analysis At Long Valley Caldera Geothermal Area (Bergfeld, Et Al., 2006) Long Valley Caldera Geothermal Area 2006


Compound and Elemental Analysis At Long Valley Caldera Geothermal Area (Evans, Et Al., 2002) Long Valley Caldera Geothermal Area 2002


Compound and Elemental Analysis At Long Valley Caldera Geothermal Area (Farrar, Et Al., 2003) Long Valley Caldera Geothermal Area 2000 2001


Compound and Elemental Analysis At Long Valley Caldera Geothermal Area (McKenzie & Truesdell, 1977) Long Valley Caldera Geothermal Area 1976 1977


Compound and Elemental Analysis At Maui Area (DOE GTP) Maui Area


Compound and Elemental Analysis At McCoy Geothermal Area (DOE GTP) McCoy Geothermal Area


Compound and Elemental Analysis At Mccredie Hot Springs Area (Wood, 2002) McCredie Hot Springs Area


Compound and Elemental Analysis At Mcgee Mountain Area (DOE GTP) McGee Mountain Area


Compound and Elemental Analysis At Mickey Hot Springs Area (Wood, 2002) Mickey Hot Springs Area


Compound and Elemental Analysis At Mt St Helens Area (Shevenell & Goff, 1995) Mt St Helens Area


Compound and Elemental Analysis At Mt St Helens Area (Shevenell & Goff, 2000) Mt St Helens Area


Compound and Elemental Analysis At New River Area (DOE GTP) New River Area


Compound and Elemental Analysis At Newberry Caldera Area (Goles & Lambert, 1990) Newberry Caldera Area


Compound and Elemental Analysis At Northern Basin & Range Region (Cole, 1983) Northern Basin and Range Geothermal Region


Compound and Elemental Analysis At Northern Basin & Range Region (Coolbaugh, Et Al., 2010) Northern Basin and Range Geothermal Region


Compound and Elemental Analysis At Northern Basin & Range Region (Laney, 2005) Northern Basin and Range Geothermal Region


Compound and Elemental Analysis At Nw Basin & Range Region (Coolbaugh, Et Al., 2010) Northwest Basin and Range Geothermal Region


Compound and Elemental Analysis At Nw Basin & Range Region (Laney, 2005) Northwest Basin and Range Geothermal Region


Compound and Elemental Analysis At Raft River Geothermal Area (1981) Raft River Geothermal Area 1981 1981


Compound and Elemental Analysis At Reese River Area (Henkle & Ronne, 2008) Reese River Area


Compound and Elemental Analysis At Roosevelt Hot Springs Area (Christensen, Et Al., 1983) Roosevelt Hot Springs Geothermal Area


Compound and Elemental Analysis At Rye Patch Area (DOE GTP) Rye Patch Area


Compound and Elemental Analysis At Salt Wells Area (Coolbaugh, Et Al., 2006) Salt Wells Geothermal Area 2005 2005


Compound and Elemental Analysis At Salt Wells Area (Shevenell & Garside, 2003) Salt Wells Geothermal Area 2002 2002


Compound and Elemental Analysis At Salton Sea Area (Wood, 2002) Salton Sea Area


Compound and Elemental Analysis At Seven Mile Hole Area (Larson, Et Al., 2009) Seven Mile Hole Area


Compound and Elemental Analysis At Silver Peak Area (DOE GTP) Silver Peak Area


Compound and Elemental Analysis At Snake River Plain Region (DOE GTP) Snake River Plain Geothermal Region


Compound and Elemental Analysis At Soda Lake Area (DOE GTP) Soda Lake Area


Compound and Elemental Analysis At The Needles Area (DOE GTP) The Needles Area


Compound and Elemental Analysis At U.S. West Region (Krohn, Et Al., 1993) U.S. West Region


Compound and Elemental Analysis At U.S. West Region (Laney, 2005) U.S. West Region


Compound and Elemental Analysis At Umpqua Hot Springs Area (Wood, 2002) Umpqua Hot Springs Area


Compound and Elemental Analysis At Valles Caldera - Redondo Geothermal Area (Chipera, Et Al., 2008) Valles Caldera - Redondo Geothermal Area 2008


Compound and Elemental Analysis At Valles Caldera - Redondo Geothermal Area (Gardner, Et Al., 1986) Valles Caldera - Redondo Geothermal Area 1986


Compound and Elemental Analysis At Valles Caldera - Redondo Geothermal Area (Goff, Et Al., 1982) Valles Caldera - Redondo Geothermal Area 1982


Compound and Elemental Analysis At Valles Caldera - Redondo Geothermal Area (Janik & Goff, 2002) Valles Caldera - Redondo Geothermal Area 1982 2002


Compound and Elemental Analysis At Valles Caldera - Redondo Geothermal Area (Musgrave, Et Al., 1989) Valles Caldera - Redondo Geothermal Area 1989


Compound and Elemental Analysis At Valles Caldera - Redondo Geothermal Area (White, Et Al., 1992) Valles Caldera - Redondo Geothermal Area 1992


Compound and Elemental Analysis At Valles Caldera - Sulphur Springs Area (Rao, Et Al., 1996) Valles Caldera - Sulphur Springs Geothermal Area 1996 1996


Compound and Elemental Analysis At Valles Caldera - Sulphur Springs Geothermal Area (Chipera, Et Al., 2008) Valles Caldera - Sulphur Springs Geothermal Area 2008


Compound and Elemental Analysis At Valles Caldera - Sulphur Springs Geothermal Area (Goff, Et Al., 1982) Valles Caldera - Sulphur Springs Geothermal Area 1982


Compound and Elemental Analysis At Valles Caldera - Sulphur Springs Geothermal Area (Goff, Et Al., 1985) Valles Caldera - Sulphur Springs Geothermal Area 1986


Compound and Elemental Analysis At Valles Caldera - Sulphur Springs Geothermal Area (Janik & Goff, 2002) Valles Caldera - Sulphur Springs Geothermal Area 2002


Compound and Elemental Analysis At Valles Caldera - Sulphur Springs Geothermal Area (Musgrave, Et Al., 1989) Valles Caldera - Sulphur Springs Geothermal Area 1989


Compound and Elemental Analysis At Valles Caldera - Sulphur Springs Geothermal Area (Trainer, 1974) Valles Caldera - Sulphur Springs Geothermal Area 1972 1974


Compound and Elemental Analysis At Valles Caldera - Sulphur Springs Geothermal Area (White, Et Al., 1992) Valles Caldera - Sulphur Springs Geothermal Area 1992


Compound and Elemental Analysis At Valley Of Ten Thousand Smokes Region Area (Keith, Et Al., 1992) Valley Of Ten Thousand Smokes Region Area


Compound and Elemental Analysis At Valley Of Ten Thousand Smokes Region Area (Kodosky & Keith, 1993) Valley Of Ten Thousand Smokes Region Area


Compound and Elemental Analysis At Walker-Lane Transitional Zone Region (Coolbaugh, Et Al., 2010) Walker-Lane Transition Zone Geothermal Region


Compound and Elemental Analysis At Walker-Lane Transitional Zone Region (Laney, 2005) Walker-Lane Transition Zone Geothermal Region


Compound and Elemental Analysis At Wister Area (DOE GTP) Wister Area


Compound and Elemental Analysis At Yellowstone Region (Goff & Janik, 2002) Yellowstone Caldera Geothermal Region


Compound and Elemental Analysis At Yellowstone Region (Hurwitz, Et Al., 2007) Yellowstone Caldera Geothermal Region


Compound and Elemental Analysis At Yellowstone Region (Kennedy, Et Al., 1985) Yellowstone Caldera Geothermal Region


Compound and Elemental Analysis At Yellowstone Region (Kennedy, Et Al., 1988) Yellowstone Caldera Geothermal Region


Compound and Elemental Analysis At Zim's Hot Springs Geothermal Area (Wood, 2002) Zim's Hot Springs Geothermal Area

  1. Unspecified
  2. Akutan Fumaroles Area
  3. Alum Geothermal Area
  4. Alvord Hot Springs Area
  5. Belknap-Foley-Bigelow Hot Springs Area
  6. Beowawe Hot Springs Area
  7. Black Warrior Area
  8. Blackfoot Reservoir Area
  9. Breitenbush Hot Springs Area
  10. Buffalo Valley Hot Springs Area
  11. Central Nevada Seismic Zone Geothermal Region
  12. Clear Lake Area
  13. Colado Geothermal Area
  14. Coso Geothermal Area
  15. Crane Hot Springs Area
  16. Dixie Valley Geothermal Area
  17. Fenton Hill HDR Geothermal Area
  18. Fish Lake Valley Area
  19. Flint Geothermal Area
  20. Fort Bliss Area
  21. Gabbs Valley Area
  22. Geysers Area
  23. Glass Buttes Area
  24. Heber Area
  25. Hot Lake Area
  26. Hot Springs Ranch Area
  27. International Geothermal Area Indonesia
  28. International Geothermal Area Mexico
  29. International Geothermal Area New Zealand
  30. International Geothermal Area Philippines
  31. Jemez Pueblo Area
  32. Jemez Springs Area
  33. Jemez Springs Geothermal Area
  34. Kilauea East Rift Area
  35. Kilauea East Rift Geothermal Area
  36. Kilauea Southwest Rift And South Flank Area
  37. Lake City Hot Springs Area
  38. Lassen Volcanic National Park Area
  39. Lightning Dock Area
  40. Lightning Dock Geothermal Area
  41. Little Valley Area
  42. Long Valley Caldera Geothermal Area
  43. Maui Area
  44. McCoy Geothermal Area
  45. McCredie Hot Springs Area
  46. McGee Mountain Area
  47. Mickey Hot Springs Area
  48. Mt St Helens Area
  49. New River Area
  50. Newberry Caldera Area
  51. Northern Basin and Range Geothermal Region
  52. Northwest Basin and Range Geothermal Region
  53. Raft River Geothermal Area
  54. Reese River Area
  55. Roosevelt Hot Springs Geothermal Area
  56. Rye Patch Area
  57. Salt Wells Geothermal Area
  58. Salton Sea Area
  59. Seven Mile Hole Area
  60. Silver Peak Area
  61. Snake River Plain Geothermal Region
  62. Soda Lake Area
  63. The Needles Area
  64. U.S. West Region
  65. Umpqua Hot Springs Area
  66. Valles Caldera - Redondo Geothermal Area
  67. Valles Caldera - Sulphur Springs Geothermal Area
  68. Valley Of Ten Thousand Smokes Region Area
  69. Walker-Lane Transition Zone Geothermal Region
  70. Wister Area
  71. Yellowstone Caldera Geothermal Region
  72. Zim's Hot Springs Geothermal Area



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