Co-benefits Risk Assessment (COBRA) Screening Model

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COBRA is a PC-compatible preliminary screening software tool to estimate the impacts at the state or local level resulting from new clean energy policies or a major fuel switching investment by a large pollution source.

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This tool is included in the Development Impacts Assessment (DIA) Toolkit from the LEDS Global Partnership.


COBRA converts emissions reductions into air quality improvements, and estimates annual adverse health impacts avoided, monetizing their value. This tool serves as a preliminary screening tool to identify those scenarios that might benefit from further evaluation with more sophisticated air quality modeling approaches.

When to Use This Tool

This tool is most useful for development impacts assessments focused on:

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Learn more about the topics for assessing the impacts of low-emission development strategies (LEDS).

Key Outputs

Maps and estimates of the benefits of clean energy policies and programs in terms of air quality, human health (number of cases of illness and death avoided), and related cost savings. It also provides estimates of the outcomes of clean energy policies that change emissions of particulate matter, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, ammonia, and volatile organic compounds at the county, state, regional, or national level.

How to Use This Tool

Training Available
User Manual and Quick Start Tutorial Documents provided.

Level of Expertise

Key Inputs

Users create their own scenario by specifying increases or decreases to the baseline emission estimates. Emission changes can be entered at the county, state, or national levels, and outcomes can be modeled nationwide or for smaller geographic areas.

Case Studies

Examples of how Co-benefits Risk Assessment (COBRA) Screening Model has helped people assessing the impacts of low-emission development strategies in countries and regions:

A list of analyses that have used COBRA can be found on the website: