Characterization Of Low-Temperature Pyroclastic Surges That Occurred In The Northeastern Japan Arc During The Late 19Th Century

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Journal Article: Characterization Of Low-Temperature Pyroclastic Surges That Occurred In The Northeastern Japan Arc During The Late 19Th Century

Abstract
Three eruption events occurring in the central part of the northeastern Japan arc were investigated and compared: Adatara AD1900, Zao AD1895, and Bandai AD1888. Producing low-temperature (LT) pyroclastic surges, these events are characterized by steam eruptions ejecting no juvenile material. These eruptions' well-preserved eruptive deposits and facies facilitated granulometric analyses of the beds, which revealed the transport and deposition mechanisms of LT surges. Combining these results with those of investigations of documents reporting the events, we correlated each eruption to the relevant individual bed and reconstructed the LT surge development sequence. Important findings related to the transport and deposition modes are the following. (1) Bed sets consisting of thin, laminated ash and its overlying thick massive tuff were recognized in the Adatara 1900 proximal deposits. The bed set was probably produced by a strong wind that discharged and propagated quickly from the vent (leading wind) and a gravitationally segregated, highly concentrated flow originated from the eruption column, within a discrete eruption episode. A similar combination might have occurred during the first surge of the Bandai 1888 event. (2) Comparison of the proximal and distal facies for the largest eruption of Adatara 1900 event indicates that the initial turbulence of the eruption cloud decreased rapidly, transforming into a density-stratified surge with a highly concentrated part near the base. Similar surges occurred in the climatic stage of Zao 1895. (3) Bandai 1888 ejecta indicate massive beds deposited preferentially at topographic lows. Co-occurring planar beds showed no topographic affection, as indicated by the topographic blocking of a stratified surge. The observed facies-massive tuffs, crudely stratified tuffs, and thin bedded tuffs-are compatible with those for high-temperature surges. At Bandai, absence of dune bedded tuffs and commonly poorer sorting in the LT surge deposits might be attributable to poor thermally induced turbulence of eruption columns. Condensation of vapor in the surges might have contributed to the poor sorting. The estimated explosion energies were 6 _ 1013 J for Adatara AD1900, 6.5 _ 1010 J for Zao AD1895, and 6.5 _ 1015 J for Bandai AD1888, implying that the three events were hydrothermal eruptions with distinctive eruptive mechanisms. Regarding eruption sources, the Adatara 1900 event was caused solely by thermal energy of the hydrothermal fluid, although magma intrusion likely triggered evolution of hydrothermal systems at Zao in 1895. Steam eruptions in the Bandai 1888 event occurred simultaneously with sudden exposure of the hydrothermal system, whose triggers require no internal energy.

Authors 
Akihiko Fujinawa, Masao Ban, Tsukasa Ohba, Kazuo Kontani and Kotaro Miura








Published Journal 
Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 2008





DOI 
Not Provided
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Citation

Akihiko Fujinawa,Masao Ban,Tsukasa Ohba,Kazuo Kontani,Kotaro Miura. 2008. Characterization Of Low-Temperature Pyroclastic Surges That Occurred In The Northeastern Japan Arc During The Late 19Th Century. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research. (!) .