Caldera Depression

From Open Energy Information


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Caldera Depression:
Calderas form from the catastrophic eruption of large amounts of felsic lava and ash. Emptying of the magma chamber and subsequent collapse of the overlying volcanic edifice forms a ring-shaped caldera depression up to several kilometers in diameter. The edges of the underlying magma chamber are roughly marked by a ring fracture zone that acts as a conduit for ongoing volcanism and hydrothermal activity.
Other definitions:Wikipedia Reegle


Topographic Features

List of topographic features commonly encountered in geothermal resource areas:

Calderas form from the catastrophic eruption of large amounts of felsic lava and ash. Emptying of the magma chamber and subsequent collapse of the overlying volcanic edifice forms a ring-shaped caldera depression up to several kilometers in diameter. The edges of the underlying magma chamber are roughly marked by a ring fracture zone that acts as a conduit for ongoing volcanism and hydrothermal activity.

Calderas are capable of expelling large amounts of volcanic material in a single eruptive event, leaving behind regionally extensive ash fall deposits. For example, the Bishop Tuff, deposited during the eruption of the Long Valley Caldera 767,100 ± 900 years ago, covers a 2,200 square-kilometer region of the southwestern United States.

Examples

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CSV
Geothermal
Resource
Area
Geothermal
Region
Tectonic
Setting
Host
Rock
Age
Host
Rock
Lithology
Mean
Capacity
Mean
Reservoir
Temp
Fenton Hill HDR Geothermal AreaRio Grande RiftExtensional Tectonics
Rift Zone
PrecambrianCrystalline basement “pCu” (undifferentiated in map units); Biotite Granodiorite (Phase I Reservoir); Gneiss, Schist, Granodiorite, Granite, Metavolcanic Rocks (Phase II Reservoir)20 MW
20,000 kW
20,000,000 W
20,000,000,000 mW
0.02 GW
2.0e-5 TW
508.15 K
235 °C
455 °F
914.67 °R
Fukushima Geothermal AreaNortheast Honshu ArcSubduction Zone65 MW
65,000 kW
65,000,000 W
65,000,000,000 mW
0.065 GW
6.5e-5 TW
579.15 K
306 °C
582.8 °F
1,042.47 °R
Hachijojima Geothermal AreaNortheast Honshu ArcSubduction Zone3.3 MW
3,300 kW
3,300,000 W
3,300,000,000 mW
0.0033 GW
3.3e-6 TW
556.15 K
283 °C
541.4 °F
1,001.07 °R
Lahendong Geothermal AreaMinahasa Volcanic ZoneSubduction ZoneMioceneAndesite80 MW
80,000 kW
80,000,000 W
80,000,000,000 mW
0.08 GW
8.0e-5 TW
578.15 K
305 °C
581 °F
1,040.67 °R
Lihir Geothermal AreaPapua New Guinea Geothermal RegionSubduction ZoneBasalt; Breccias; Tuffs56 MW
56,000 kW
56,000,000 W
56,000,000,000 mW
0.056 GW
5.6e-5 TW
548.15 K
275 °C
527 °F
986.67 °R
Miyagi Geothermal AreaNortheast Honshu ArcSubduction ZoneMioceneBasalt12.5 MW
12,500 kW
12,500,000 W
12,500,000,000 mW
0.0125 GW
1.25e-5 TW
523.15 K
250 °C
482 °F
941.67 °R
Mokai Geothermal AreaTaupo Volcanic ZoneExtensional Tectonics
Subduction Zone
QuaternaryVolcaniclastic112 MW
112,000 kW
112,000,000 W
112,000,000,000 mW
0.112 GW
1.12e-4 TW
568.15 K
295 °C
563 °F
1,022.67 °R
Mori Geothermal AreaKuril-Kamchatka ArcSubduction ZonePre-TertiaryLimestone50 MW
50,000 kW
50,000,000 W
50,000,000,000 mW
0.05 GW
5.0e-5 TW
513.15 K
240 °C
464 °F
923.67 °R
Pauzhetskaya Geothermal AreaKuril-Kamchatka ArcSubduction ZoneTuff27 MW
27,000 kW
27,000,000 W
27,000,000,000 mW
0.027 GW
2.7e-5 TW
468.15 K
195 °C
383 °F
842.67 °R
Sumatra-Sibayak Geothermal AreaSunda Volcanic Arc - Great Sumatra Fault ZoneSubduction ZoneTertiarySandstone; Limestone12 MW
12,000 kW
12,000,000 W
12,000,000,000 mW
0.012 GW
1.2e-5 TW
543.15 K
270 °C
518 °F
977.67 °R
Valles Caldera - Redondo Geothermal AreaRio Grande RiftExtensional Tectonics
Rift Zone
Mississippian-Pennsylvanian; Pleistocene, 1.6 to 1.25 MaLimestone-Madera Formation “MIPu”; Rhyolitic tuff-Intracaldera Bandelier Tuff (upper Tshirege “Qbt” and lower Otowi “Qbo” members); Caldera Fill Rhyolite (shallow)
Valles Caldera - Sulphur Springs Geothermal AreaRio Grande RiftExtensional Tectonics
Rift Zone
Precambrian; Mississippian-Pennsylvanian; Pleistocene, 1.6 to 1.25 Ma; Pliocene; MioceneCrystalline basement “pCu”; Limestone-Madera Formation “MIPu”; Rhyolitic tuff-Bandelier Tuff (upper Tshirege “Qbt” and lower Otowi “Qbo” members); Caldera Fill Rhyolite (shallow); Dacitic/Andesitic to Rhyolitic lavas and tuffs-Keres Group Volcanics (shallow); Santa Fe Group volcaniclastics “Tsf”
Wairakei-Poihipi Geothermal AreaTaupo Volcanic ZoneExtensional Tectonics
Subduction Zone
QuaternaryVolcaniclastic352 MW
352,000 kW
352,000,000 W
352,000,000,000 mW
0.352 GW
3.52e-4 TW
483.15 K
210 °C
410 °F
869.67 °R

References