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Eldis
Climate data and projections: supporting evidence-based decision-making in the Caribbean
<div>Governments in the Caribbean recognise climate variability and change to be the most significant threat to sustainable development in the region. Policies and strategies, such as the regional framework for achieving development resilient to climate change and its implementation plan, acknowledge the scale of the threat and provide a plan that aspires to safeguard regional prosperity and meet development goals. To do this, decision-makers need effective tools and methods to help integrate climate change considerations into their planning and investment processes. To build resilience, decision-makers can benefit from access to appropriate climate change data that are specific to their geographical location and relevant to their planning horizons.</div><div>&nbsp;</div><div>The CARibbean Weather Impacts Group (CARIWIG) project, funded by the Climate and Development Knowledge Network (CDKN), gives access to climate data that have been downscaled, making them relevant for use in the Caribbean region. The project also provides tools that allow decision-makers to better understand the potential impacts of drought, tropical storms, rainfall and temperature changes. Caribbean decision-makers, researchers andscientists can access this data freely, through the CARIWIG website.<div>&nbsp;</div><div>This policy brief provides an overview of CARIWIG data and information and how they can be used, pointing to illustrative examples of how they have been applied in several Caribbean countries. It also provides decision-makers with the tools necessary to make effective climate decisions in the face of uncertainty.</div></div><div>&nbsp;</div><div><div>Key messages:</div><div><ul><li>Climate data and projections that are relevant to the Caribbean region are available through the online CARIWIG portal</li><li>Historical climate data and future projections are available for a range of climate variables</li><li>A suite of simulation tools, including a weather generator, a tropical storm model and a regional drought analysis tool are also freely available</li><li>these resources are useful for decision makers. When combined with other data and information, they can help to build a picture of potential impacts to key economic sectors in the Caribbean</li><li>a series of case studies shows how these resources have been applied to real-world situations in Caribbean countries</li><li>the Caribbean Community Climate Change Centre (CCCCC) is providing training and support on how to use CARIWIG outputs</li><li>CDKN-funded projects provide methods and tools for decision makers to take proactive action to build climate resilience, despite the uncertainty that comes with future climate projections</li></ul></div></div><img src="http://feeds.feedburner.com/~r/eldis-climate_change/~4/GwbkfUsqGEI" height="1" width="1" alt=""/>
24 Mar 2017 01:45:23 GMT
Electricity supply in South Africa: Path dependency or decarbonisation?
<p>Renewable energy technologies have experienced an exponential growth in South Africa, thanks to the procurement of large-scale power plants. However, South Africa’s electricity sector still lacks a level playing field. Significant vested interests have maintained overwhelming support for centralised, coal-based electricity generation, preventing the development of renewable energy technologies to their optimal potential. Active efforts are required to enhance the transformation of electricity supply in the country by truly incorporating the low-carbon transition in electricity planning, opening the policy space for the development of embedded generation, and phasing out fossil fuel subsidies.</p><p>The electricity sector in South Africa is a highly contested space. The emergence of renewable energy technologies (along with energy efficiency and other demand-side management opportunities) has generated healthy revitalisation and disturbance of the status quo in the industry. Discussions around other technologies, such as gas-to-power and nuclear energy, are also adding to this vibrant dynamics. Significant vested interests are still at play alongside massive state support to maintain the domination of the coal industry over the electricity supply industry in South Africa. <br /><br />Active efforts are required to provide a level playing field for all energy technologies and enhance the transformation of electricity supply in the country. This includes truly incorporating the low-carbon transition in electricity planning, open the policy space for the development of embedded generation and phase out fossil fuel subsidies.</p><img src="http://feeds.feedburner.com/~r/eldis-climate_change/~4/ZrIoB5Kp1_Y" height="1" width="1" alt=""/>
G. Montmasson-Clair 14 Mar 2017 02:06:58 GMT
Innovative risk finance solutions – Insights for geothermal power development in Kenya and Ethiopia
<p>Geothermal development is on the rise in many regions of the world.&nbsp;However, the high costs of field development, coupled with the high risks associated with resource exploration and drilling, still pose a significant barrier to private sector financing.</p><p>Insurance can mitigate the risks to investors&nbsp;and increase flows of private finance to the industry.</p><p>A project by Parhelion, a private sector insurance and risk company focused on climate finance, funded by CDKN, aimed to improve the technical capacity of Kenya’s and Ethiopia’s local insurance industries for using geothermal risk mitigation instruments.</p><p>A consultative process with relevant stakeholders in these countries yielded insights and recommendations for international, multilateral and bilateral institutions that are looking to support geothermal resource development. The analysis was enriched by E3G’s expertise in analysing climate finance flows.</p><p>The study found that international, multilateral and bilateral institutions should:</p><ul><li><strong>Support technical assistance and capacity building</strong>, which takes into account the needs of all relevant stakeholders involved within specific country and market contexts.</li></ul><ul><li><strong>Provide targeted concessional finance&nbsp;</strong>by taking into account all possible risk mitigation instruments during project development, and by envisioning the leverage of private finance as early as possible.</li></ul><ul><li>U<strong>se insurance&nbsp;</strong><strong>instruments</strong>&nbsp;to target specific, well defined risks: this can offer very high leverage ratios on the use of public funds, and crowd in private sector insurance capital.</li></ul><img src="http://feeds.feedburner.com/~r/eldis-climate_change/~4/IJhJBx11W7k" height="1" width="1" alt=""/>
Paula Rolffs 02 Mar 2017 01:44:39 GMT
Climate impacts on agriculture and tourism – the case for climate resilient investment in the Caribbean
<p>For the Caribbean, climate change is not tomorrow’s problem. The threats it poses are neither distant nor abstract – they are already apparent. In recent years, hurricanes have caused major damage in countries such as Jamaica, Grenada and Cuba; severe flooding has hit Belize and Guyana; and droughts affect much of the east of the region. The small island state of Saint Lucia alone has faced 27 natural disasters between 1980 and 2008, with total economic damage reaching an estimated US$2.5 billion. The need for investment to build climate resilience in the Caribbean has never been greater.</p><p>These impacts are putting considerable strain on the finances of national governments, businesses and citizens, and threaten regional prosperity and development. The Commonwealth Expert Group on Climate Finance has said that climate change is already reversing some of the gains on poverty alleviation and economic growth that have been made in the Caribbean.</p><p>Over the past decade, research funded by the Climate and Development Knowledge Network (CDKN) has provided fresh insight into the nature of the climate threat to the Caribbean. Researchers have developed regionally downscaled climate change projections and climate visualisation tools providing information that can be used to make informed decisions at the subregional level. This information has been used in conjunction with a range of other tools, and has been applied to real-life situations in Caribbean nations including Saint Lucia, Jamaica, Barbados, Belize and Cuba.</p><p>Focusing on the agriculture and tourism sectors, this document identifies some of the most pressing issues and climate vulnerabilities facing Caribbean states. It makes the case that climate resilience investment by governments, businesses and development partners is urgently needed to</p><p><strong>Key messages</strong></p><ul><li>&nbsp;Climate variability and change are already having severe impacts on key sectors including agriculture and tourism.</li><li>These impacts are reversing economic growth, exacerbating poverty and undermining the future prosperity of Caribbean countries.</li><li>CDKN research has provided locally appropriate climate change projections that give fresh insight into the vulnerability of key sectors.</li><li>Adaptation investment in the agriculture sector is needed to account for projected changes in rainfall and growing seasons, and occurrence of extreme events, especially drought.</li><li>Adaptation investment in the tourism sector is also needed to build resilience to rising seas, bleached coral reefs, water scarcity and gradual temperature increase.</li><li>There are many potential adaptation measures that can be applied by governments, businesses, individuals and development partners.</li><li>Financial support is needed to support adaptation action as high up-front costs are a barrier to local adaptation efforts.</li><li>Effectively prioritising adaptation options can maximise their value and lead to positive co-benefits for individuals, businesses and society.</li></ul><img src="http://feeds.feedburner.com/~r/eldis-climate_change/~4/7V546oQLfe4" height="1" width="1" alt=""/>
W. Bugler 28 Feb 2017 05:42:54 GMT
Driving, connecting and communicating: The many roles of national government in climate adaptation planning
<p>Climate change is one of the most significant challenges to the Caribbean’s future prosperity. The impacts of climate change on economically important sectors such as tourism, agriculture and fishing threaten Caribbean nations’ ability to achieve their economic and social development goals. By 2050, the costs to the region are expected to reach US$22 bn each year; this represents 10% of regional gross domestic product, based on 2004 figures.&nbsp;Paying for recovery efforts after natural disasters causes significant budgetary pressures and diverts funds from other pressing development issues such as health and education. However, responding to climate challenges is highly complex. Climate change has cross-cutting impacts that span sectors and spatial scales, and involves multiple stakeholders. Delivering effective climate change adaptation is therefore a question of governance.</p><p>Bottom-up, community-level approaches are important in meeting the challenges that climate change poses, but in isolation they are insufficient. National governance frameworks must foster community action, but also provide the enabling environment for large investments and transformative change at scale. The challenge that national governments face is to coordinate adaptation interventions at both national and local levels by engaging multiple organisations and individuals.</p><p>Targeted primarily at Caribbean policy-makers, this&nbsp;<em>Information Brief&nbsp;</em>draws on the experience of three CDKN-funded projects that have taken place in the region over the last decade. It identifies ‘best practice’ lessons on governance, highlights examples from applied case studies in Caribbean countries, and recommends tools and methods that can be applied to make governance frameworks more effective at delivering climate compatible development. It is also a gateway to the reports and tools that have been produced under these CDKN-funded projects.</p><p><strong>Key messages</strong></p><ul><li>Policy and governance arrangements at the national level are vital for climate adaptation. Local action is im&shy;portant but is insufficient in isolation.</li><li>National governments provide stra&shy;tegic oversight and access to climate finance, and have the capacity and authority to drive climate action.</li><li>Climate change considerations should be integrated into policies and plans across government departments. The CCORAL tool allows decision-makers to do this.</li><li>Institutional arrangements are vital to help translate government policy into action. Governments can use the ARIA toolkit to assess their institutional adaptive capacity as a first step to strengthening these frameworks.</li><li>Government institutions are vital in stimulating action at the local level. Networked governance arrangements can help to build movements for cli&shy;mate resilience that translate national priorities into local action and inte&shy;grate local needs into national policy.</li></ul><img src="http://feeds.feedburner.com/~r/eldis-climate_change/~4/uvSma4BGzEw" height="1" width="1" alt=""/>
W. Bugler 28 Feb 2017 05:15:12 GMT
Africa’s climate: helping decision-makers make sense of climate information
<div>African decision-makers need reliable, accessible, and trustworthy information about the continent’s climate, and how this climate might change in future, if they are to plan appropriately to meet the region’s development challenges.</div><div><br />This report is designed as a guide for scientists, policy-makers, and practitioners on the continent. The research in this report, written by leading experts in their fields, presents an overview of climate trends across central, eastern, western, and southern Africa, and is distilled into a series of factsheets that are tailored for specific sub-regions and countries. Some of these capture the current state of knowledge, while others explore the ‘burning scientific questions’ that still need to be answered.</div><img src="http://feeds.feedburner.com/~r/eldis-climate_change/~4/AH3W4mV1C48" height="1" width="1" alt=""/>
24 Feb 2017 01:53:41 GMT
Zombie energy: climate benefits of ending subsidies to fossil fuel production
<div>Ending subsidies to fossil fuel production is often a missing piece of comprehensive climate action plans. To implement the 2015 Paris Agreement and keep climate change well below 2oC, the world needs both supply-side policies (such as removal of fossil fuel production subsidies, moratoriums and “no-go zones” or coal phase-out) and demand-side policies (such as carbon pricing, removal of fossil fuel consumption subsidies, or fuel and energy efficiency standards).</div><div>&nbsp;</div><div><div>This report sheds light on the potential climate benefits of the removal of fossil fuel production subsidies in terms of both greenhouse gas (GHG) emission reductions and the oil, gas and coal reserves that could become uneconomical to produce. The paper explains how different production subsidies currently unlock “zombie energy” from fossil fuel deposits that would not be commercially viable to produce without government support. It also presents new modelling of the global removal of certain subsidies to fossil fuel production.</div><div>&nbsp;</div><div>The report is structured as follows:</div><div><ul><li>chapter 1 explains why fossil fuel production subsidies matter for climate change. The chapter also defines and categorises fossil fuel production subsidies</li><li>chapter 2 outlines how different subsidies influence investment decisions related to fossil fuel production</li><li>chapter 3 discusses modelling of a removal of fossil fuel production subsidies and inputs of the GSI-IF (p) global model</li><li>chapter 4 presents results of new modelling that shows how much coal, oil and gas could become uneconomical to produce—and the GHG emission reductions that would result—if certain fossil fuel production subsidies are removed globally</li></ul></div><div>The report concludes with a summary of the findings as well as opportunities for further research on the climate benefits of fossil fuel subsidy removal.</div></div><img src="http://feeds.feedburner.com/~r/eldis-climate_change/~4/WPV4d9AbhwY" height="1" width="1" alt=""/>
24 Feb 2017 01:33:43 GMT
National climate change governance: topic guide
<div>The full brunt of cumulative greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions will be felt over the years to come but climate change impacts are already here. Fifteen of the 16 warmest years on record (since 1880) have occurred since 2001. At the same time, Hallegatte et al. (2016) estimate that, without the rapid implementation of pro-poor, climate-informed development policies, climate change impacts could result in 100 million more people in extreme poverty by 2030. The world’s poor are more vulnerable to loss of critical assets, health risks and food insecurity from drought or price shocks. To address these risks, development policies must consider climate risk scenarios while expanding ‘no-regrets’ social protection programmes that provide benefits to vulnerable populations under different climate scenarios.</div><div><br />This Topic Guide looks at climate change governance and the political economy of climate policy development and implementation at the national scale. Its primary purpose is to help Department for International Development (DFID) staff better support country partners in implementing climate and sustainable development policy that is equitable, effective and coherent and that can adapt to changing circumstances. It highlights national procedural, policy, institutional, political, economicand social-behavioural challenges and identifies potential entry points for addressing them. It is intended for both climate change and governance advisors, hence covers issues and concepts that will be very familiar to one group but not necessarily the other.</div><img src="http://feeds.feedburner.com/~r/eldis-climate_change/~4/DnjRBTxLycI" height="1" width="1" alt=""/>
J. Worker 24 Feb 2017 01:24:14 GMT
Driving, connecting and communicating: the many roles of national government in climate adaptation planning
<div>Climate change is one of the most significant challenges to the Caribbean’s future prosperity. The impacts of climate change on economically important sectors such as tourism, agriculture and fishing threaten Caribbean nations’ ability to achieve their economic and social development goals. By 2050, the costs to the region are expected to reach US$22 bn each year; this represents 10% of regional gross domestic product, based on 2004 figures.</div><div>&nbsp;</div><div>Paying for recovery efforts after natural disasters causes significant budgetary&nbsp; pressures and diverts funds from other pressing development issues such as health and&nbsp; education. However, responding to climate challenges is highly complex. Climate change has cross-cutting impacts that span sectors and spatial scales, and involves multiple stakeholders. Delivering effective climate change adaptation is therefore a question of governance.</div><div>&nbsp;</div><div>Key messages:</div><div><ul><li><div>policy and governance arrangements at the national level are vital for climate adaptation. Local action is important but is insufficient in isolation</div></li><li><div>national governments provide strategic oversight and access to climate finance, and have the capacity and authority to drive climate action</div></li><li><div>climate change considerations should be integrated into policies and plans across government departments. The CCORAL tool allows decision-makers to do this</div></li><li><div>iInstitutional arrangements are vital to help translate government policy into action. Governments can use the ARIA toolkit to assess their institutional adaptive capacity as a first step to strengthening these frameworks</div></li><li><div>government institutions are vital in stimulating action at the local level. Networked governance arrangements can help to build movements for climate resilience that translate national priorities into local action and integrate local needs into national policy</div></li></ul></div><img src="http://feeds.feedburner.com/~r/eldis-climate_change/~4/BR5518To3Uw" height="1" width="1" alt=""/>
21 Feb 2017 04:40:13 GMT
Climate impacts on agriculture and tourism: the case for climate resilient investment in the Caribbean
<div>For the Caribbean, climate change is not tomorrow’s problem. The threats it poses are neither distant nor abstract – they are already apparent. In recent years, hurricanes have caused major damage in countries such as Jamaica, Grenada and Cuba; severe flooding has hit Belize and Guyana; and droughts affect much of the east of the region.</div><div>&nbsp;</div><div>The small island state of Saint Lucia alone has faced 27 natural disasters between 1980 and 2008, with total economic damage&nbsp; reaching an estimated US$2.5 billion. The need for investment to build climate resilience in the Caribbean has never been greater.</div><div>&nbsp;</div><div>Key messages:<br /><div><ul><li>climate variability and change are already having severe impacts on key sectors including agriculture and tourism</li><li>these impacts are reversing economic growth, exacerbating poverty and undermining the future prosperity of Caribbean countries</li><li>CDKN research has provided locally appropriate climate change projections that give fresh insight into the vulnerability of key sectors</li><li><div>adaptation investment in the agriculture sector is needed to account for projected changes in rainfall and growing seasons, and</div><div>occurrence of extreme events, especially drought</div></li><li><div>adaptation investment in the tourism sector is also needed to build resilience to rising seas, bleached coral reefs, water scarcity and gradual temperature increase</div></li><li><div>there are many potential adaptation measures that can be applied by governments, businesses, individuals and development</div><div>partners</div></li><li><div>financial support is needed to support adaptation action as high up-front costs are a barrier to local adaptation efforts</div></li><li><div>effectively prioritising adaptation options can maximise their value and lead to positive co-benefits for individuals, businesses and society</div></li></ul></div></div><img src="http://feeds.feedburner.com/~r/eldis-climate_change/~4/AeHi4KGEy9o" height="1" width="1" alt=""/>
21 Feb 2017 04:30:44 GMT
The Future of rice security under climate change
<div>Food systems are climate and weather dependent; heat stress and changes in rainfall patterns and relative humidity are likely to regulate crop yields. Elevated carbon dioxide (CO2) are likely to directly and indirectly bring new challenges to the stability and sustainability of global food production including rice.</div><div><br />This report provides a brief overview of projected rice security indicated by future potential yield under elevated carbon dioxide levels. This research aims to identify the downscaled impact of climate change on rice production which includes climate change impact assessment at sub-national levels in the world’s top three rice exporters namely Thailand, Vietnam and India. <br /><br />This paper also identifies some of the downscaled impacts of climate change that may continue to affect rice production in these regions until the end of the 21st century. The authors also identify public actions and policy responses in India, Thailand and Vietnam.</div><img src="http://feeds.feedburner.com/~r/eldis-climate_change/~4/1v6BgtISYME" height="1" width="1" alt=""/>
P.P.S. Teng 21 Feb 2017 04:16:58 GMT
Weather-index based crop insurance as a social adaptation to climate change and variability in the Upper West Region of Ghana: developing a participatory approach
<div>Climate change and variability are major challenges to rain-fed crop production in Africa. This paper presents a report on a pilot project to test a concept for operationalising weather-index crop insurance as a social adaptation to the climate change and variability problem in the Upper West Region of Ghana. An analysis of long-term weather variables showed rising temperature of 1.7oC over a period of 53 years as well as major shifts in rainfall patterns. Farmers face a new reality that cannot be addressed with their indigenous knowledge alone.</div><div>&nbsp;</div><div><div>The aim of this paper is to record this process and to put the results into recent context, through discussing them through the lens of insurance operations and research in Ghana. Ensuing discussions showed that although all stakeholders considered the participatory design tools to be meritorious, a number of logistical challenges were identified that need to be addressed for effective scaling.</div><div><br />The study also highlighted the high spatial variability of rainfall in the Upper West region of Ghana, showing the necessity of satellite-derived rainfall products. Finally, the framework suggested in this report highlights the complexity and the institutional structures required to implement an effective insurance.</div><div>&nbsp;</div><div>In effect, this simple study has exposed the complexities and intricacies that must be overcome in establishing a sustainable insurance scheme in Ghana.</div></div><img src="http://feeds.feedburner.com/~r/eldis-climate_change/~4/R0DQnqbhyLY" height="1" width="1" alt=""/>
21 Feb 2017 03:38:43 GMT
Repositioning Chinese development finance in Latin America: opportunities for green finance
<div>China is one of the largest creditors of Latin American and the Caribbean and has loaned the region more than $125 billion since 2005. However, the&nbsp; composition of China’s financing in the region has been concentrated in commodity related sectors that are currently on the decline. <br /><br />This policy brief notes the extent to which Chinese finance is concentrated in new green economy sectors, and finds that China is not taking full opportunity of the potential in this sector. Moreover, as the global commodity boom has declined, much of China’s investments in the region have been exposed to significant risk, including prominent environmental and social risks. Despite great strides whereby the Chinese government has established a series of guidelines on greening overseas investment over the last few years, China’s development banks and companies are lacking the policies and staffing to identify and fully mitigate such risks. <br /><br />This policy brief reviews the green profile of Chinese development finance in LAC and analyses environment related risks and policies for Chinese overseas investment. It also outlines the opportunities of green finance in LAC and how blending instruments can mobilise green financial flows that are beneficial for both China and LAC.</div><img src="http://feeds.feedburner.com/~r/eldis-climate_change/~4/bZlLPH3FiMo" height="1" width="1" alt=""/>
F. Yuan 21 Feb 2017 02:46:19 GMT
High and Dry: Climate change, water and the economy
<p>This World Bank reports finds that water scarcity, exacerbated by climate change, could hinder economic growth, spur migration, and spark conflict. However, most countries can neutralize the adverse impacts of water scarcity by taking action to allocate and use water resources more efficiently.</p><p>Key Findings</p><ul><li>Water scarcity, exacerbated by climate change, could cost some regions up to 6% of their GDP, spur migration, and spark conflict.</li><li>The combined effects of growing populations, rising incomes, and expanding cities will see demand for water rising exponentially, while supply becomes more erratic and uncertain.</li><li>Unless action is taken soon, water will become scarce in regions where it is currently abundant - such as Central Africa and East Asia - and scarcity will greatly worsen in regions where water is already in short supply - such as the Middle East and the Sahel in Africa. These regions could see their growth rates decline by as much as 6% of GDP by 2050 due to water-related impacts on agriculture, health, and incomes.</li><li>Water insecurity could multiply the risk of conflict. Food price spikes caused by droughts can inflame latent conflicts and drive migration. Where economic growth is impacted by rainfall, episodes of droughts and floods have generated waves of migration and spikes in violence within countries.</li><li>The negative impacts of climate change on water could be neutralized with better policy decisions, with some regions standing to improve their growth rates by up to 6% with better water resource management.</li><li>Improved water stewardship pays high economic dividends. When governments respond to water shortages by boosting efficiency and allocating even 25% of water to more highly-valued uses, such as more efficient agricultural practices, losses decline dramatically and for some regions may even vanish.</li><li>In the world’s extremely dry regions, more far-reaching policies are needed to avoid inefficient water use. Stronger policies and reforms are needed to cope with deepening climate stresses.</li><li>Policies and investments that can help lead countries to more water secure and climate-resilient economies include:</li><ul><li>Better planning for water resource allocation</li><li>Adoption of incentives to increase water efficiency, and</li><li>Investments in infrastructure for more secure water supplies and availability.</li></ul></ul><div>[author's summary]</div><img src="http://feeds.feedburner.com/~r/eldis-climate_change/~4/y9KBxvr9E6Y" height="1" width="1" alt=""/>
10 Feb 2017 04:33:21 GMT
Sustainable development and the water–energy–food nexus: A perspective on livelihoods
<p>The water–energy–food nexus is being promoted as a conceptual tool for achieving sustainable development. Frameworks for implementing nexus thinking, however, have failed to explicitly or adequately incorporate sustainable&nbsp;<em>livelihoods</em>&nbsp;perspectives. This is counterintuitive given that livelihoods are key to achieving sustainable development. In this paper we present a critical review of nexus approaches and identify potential linkages with sustainable livelihoods theory and practice, to deepen our understanding of the interrelated dynamics between human populations and the natural environment. Building upon this review, we explore the concept of ‘environmental livelihood security’ – which encompasses a balance between natural resource supply and human demand on the environment to promote sustainability – and develop an integrated nexus-livelihoods framework for examining the environmental livelihood security of a system. The outcome is an integrated framework with the capacity to measure and monitor environmental livelihood security of whole systems by accounting for the water, energy and food requisites for livelihoods at multiple spatial scales and institutional levels. We anticipate this holistic approach will not only provide a significant contribution to achieving national and regional sustainable development targets, but will also be effective for promoting equity amongst individuals and communities in local and global development agendas. [authors abstract]</p><img src="http://feeds.feedburner.com/~r/eldis-climate_change/~4/AEvyuDoiU00" height="1" width="1" alt=""/>
E.M. Biggs 10 Feb 2017 04:15:50 GMT
The Water-Energy-Food Nexus: A new approach in support of food security and sustainable agriculture
<p>This FAO note gives a brief introduction to the Water-Energy-Food (WEF) Nexus conceptual framework as a useful way to describe and address the complex and interrelated nature of our global resource systems. It puts forward WEF as a conceptual approach:</p><ul><li>to better understand and systematically analyse the interactions between the natural environment and human activities</li><li>to help work towards a more coordinated management and use of natural resources across sectors and scales</li><li>to help identify and manage trade-offs andto build synergies allowing for more integrated and cost-effective planning, decision-making, implementation, monitoring and evaluation.</li></ul><img src="http://feeds.feedburner.com/~r/eldis-climate_change/~4/s1F1gSliCdg" height="1" width="1" alt=""/>
10 Feb 2017 04:05:24 GMT
Climate change and water: An overview from the World Water Development Report 3: Water in a changing world
<p>This World Water Assessment Programme Special Report brings together messages on water and climate change from the World Water Development Report 3: Water in a Changing World. Water in a Changing World shows that changes in our water resources are shaped to a great extent by a number of key externalities, among them climate change, and that decisions taken far from the conventionally defined water sector have a tremendous influence on water resources and how they are used or misused. The report also describes the dynamic linkages that interconnect changes in climate, the state of our water resources, demographic expansion and migration issues, food and energy shortages, and the continuing challenge of poverty. Rather than addressing these issues in isolation, it argues that a holistic approach is crucial if we are to solve the crises we face today and avoid worse crises tomorrow.</p><img src="http://feeds.feedburner.com/~r/eldis-climate_change/~4/BHz55lGLhEk" height="1" width="1" alt=""/>
10 Feb 2017 03:47:02 GMT
Water and Climate Blue Book
<p>Llaunched by the Morroccan government at COP22 in Marrakech, the blue book aims to raise international awareness on the vulnerability of water in the context of climate change and the urgency of action. It also speaks in favor of merging both agendas of water and climate, in order to ensure a total integration of water in the negotiations on climate change.</p><p>The book also presents concrete actions in the water field to cope with the impact of climate variability, actions which have already been launched or are being implemented, including the Water for Africa&nbsp;initiative. It is organized around chapters that highlight the challenges of water, its positioning within the adaptation and mitigation set of actions, and the recommendations to the international water community for a better water resilience to climate change and ensure sustainable development.</p><img src="http://feeds.feedburner.com/~r/eldis-climate_change/~4/jsuX7iK4jnM" height="1" width="1" alt=""/>
10 Feb 2017 03:26:23 GMT
Climate change adaption readiness: lessons from the 2015/16 El Niño for climate readiness in Southern Africa
<div>Southern Africa is experiencing its worst drought in at least 35 years. The drought is associated with an acute El Niño cycle, a periodic weather phenomenon that affects weather patterns across large regions of the globe, including Southern Africa. While the El Niño cycle is not linked directly to broader climate change processes, an assessment of</div><div>the region’s responses to the current drought does provide insight into its capacity to respond to severe environmental stresses. Insights drawn from such an assessment allow for a deeper understanding of climate adaptation readiness in the region.</div><div>&nbsp;</div><div>This paper concludes that there is a need to expedite the development of regional and national response plans to severe environmental stresses, and in particular to strengthen capacity to effectively implement and co-ordinate appropriate actions. At the national level, response capacity in numerous Southern African states remains low. Even in South Africa, where government capacity is the highest in the region, implementation delays and co-ordination challenges have hampered effective responses to the drought. Yet despite these problems, there have also been successes in regional and national responses to droughts and longer-term climate challenges. Such programmes and innovative responses can be scaled to achieve more far-reaching impacts and thereby further develop the region’s climate adaptation readiness.</div><img src="http://feeds.feedburner.com/~r/eldis-climate_change/~4/EZurMy3hQ_s" height="1" width="1" alt=""/>
A. Benkenstein 09 Feb 2017 09:59:25 GMT
Report on the nationally determined contributions survey conducted by the Nairobi Framework Partnership in 2016
<p>Countries in Asia, Africa and Latin America and the Caribbean urgently need financial support to green their power sectors and thereby implement their national climate action plans under the&nbsp;Paris Climate Change Agreement.</p><p>This is the key finding from this survey of 79 countries&nbsp;conducted by the secretariat of the UNFCCC on behalf of the&nbsp;Nairobi Framework Partnership (NFP).</p><p>The central goal of the Paris Agreement is to limit the global average temperature rise to as close as possible to 1.5 degrees Celsius. Transitioning the power sector to low carbon is crucial to meet this goal, as generating power using coal, gas and oil is the largest source of greenhouse gas emissions which cause climate change.</p><p>The survey also found that whilst many countries are receiving some form of support to increase transparency (Measurement, Reporting and Verification) from international organizations, in most cases this support is not enough.</p><p>The survey clearly indicates that countries believe that making use of the UN’s&nbsp;Clean Development Mechanism (CDM),&nbsp;Standardized Baselines&nbsp;and&nbsp;Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Actions (NAMAs)&nbsp;can help them to achieve their climate action commitments.</p><p>The Asian and African regions were found to be the ones requiring most urgent support for the development of carbon markets and economic instruments for mitigation action.</p><img src="http://feeds.feedburner.com/~r/eldis-climate_change/~4/PlepBzQd2pU" height="1" width="1" alt=""/>
07 Feb 2017 03:15:05 GMT
Resilience Resources: RABIT - Resilience Assessment Benchmarking and Impact
<p>This page provides guidance materials relating to RABIT: the Resilience Assessment Benchmarking and Impact Toolkit.&nbsp; This enables the measurement of resilience baselines, and also measurement of the impact on resilience of development interventions; particularly introduction of ICTs.&nbsp; It focuses on resilience in low-income communities.</p><img src="http://feeds.feedburner.com/~r/eldis-climate_change/~4/z8vXwoE7yLg" height="1" width="1" alt=""/>
03 Feb 2017 10:21:26 GMT
Impact of climate change on select value chains in Mozambique
<p>In Mozambique, where agriculture accounts for more than 25 percent of gross domestic product and employs about 80 percent of the country’s workforce, climate change has potential to reduce production of key crops and jeopardize both macroeconomic stability and the livelihoods of millions of people.</p><p>Despite this, the country, with just 16 percent of arable land under cultivation, has great potential to expand the agriculture sector. This report considers both sides of the challenge, detailing the likely impact of climate changes on three key crops (soy, pigeon pea and sesame) and analyzing opportunities to manage those risks across the value chain. Focused on the four central provinces, the report concludes with concrete recommendations for decision-makers.</p><div>This report demonstrates a strong likelihood of increased temperatures, extreme weather events and changes in rainfall patterns in Mozambique, together with evidence that some of these changes have already begun. In response, the agricultural system must adapt and become more resilient to these changes. The uncertainty associated with future climate is compounded by the fact that climate change is occurring on top of significant existing interannual variability in climate. Therefore, it is impossible to plan for a single future scenario or single set of on-the-ground agricultural interventions that will be effective in all areas of Mozambique in all years. In the end, it will be important to develop robust solutions that build national, community and individual resilience to respond to the entire suite of future climate scenarios.<br /><br /></div><div>One approach is to pair a package of locally relevant climate-smart agricultural practices with improved climate and weather information for decision-making. This way, farmers can decide what will be the most effective adaptive strategy in a specific year given their local context and constraints.</div><img src="http://feeds.feedburner.com/~r/eldis-climate_change/~4/A1TRzV5wOMg" height="1" width="1" alt=""/>
03 Feb 2017 09:54:52 GMT
Decentralized climate change responses in uganda: climate change adaptation lacks local government funding
<p>This study explored ways in which Mali’s 25-year old decentralized governance system empowers local government to help communities adapt to the changing climate. The findings suggest that local development plans hold promise as a vehicle for engaging communities and integrating adaptation into local development planning, but that more needs to be done to strengthen the process. Centered in the southern regions of Mopti, Koulikoro and Sikasso, where most livelihoods derive from farming and livestock, the study also found that decentralized governance creates particular opportunities to facilitate problem-solving across villages and build external linkages to NGOs, donors and others. Such relationships are important as households increasingly compete for water and land for grazing and farming, and trees for charcoal and fuelwood. With higher temperatures and decreasing rainfall likely in these regions in the future, effective management of natural resources is vital to maintaining livelihoods and minimizing conflict.</p><img src="http://feeds.feedburner.com/~r/eldis-climate_change/~4/qiOPeM0S3Uc" height="1" width="1" alt=""/>
02 Feb 2017 10:34:24 GMT
Policies and practices for climate smart agriculture in Sub-Saharan Africa: A comparative assessment of challenges and opportunities across 15 countries
<p>This report is a product of the collaboration between the Food, Agriculture and Natural Resources Policy Analysis Network (FANRPAN) and the Earth System Governance Project, on policies for climate-smart agriculture. It synthesizes the findings of 15 scoping studies conducted by national consultants across Eastern and Southern Africa in order to analyze the barriers and opportunities for promoting climate-smart agriculture (CSA) in the region.</p><p>The study finds that the onset impacts of climate change (particularly droughts, floods, and other alterations in rainfall patterns, with their associated impacts on crop yields and livestock) are already being perceived both by formal experts and by rural populations across Eastern and Southern Africa. Yet, the promotion and uptake of CSA practices remain limited. All countries have examples of both traditional and research-based agricultural practices that can be deemed climate-smart, but they are not mainstreamed and still receive limited support. Some countries have developed National Climate Change Policies while others countries have National Adaptation Programmes of Action (NAPA) in place. However, such policies often lack adequate instruments to achieve the goals they set. Furthermore, they are not sufficiently connected across sectors. There is a clear need for greater policy coherence to avoid conflicts and create synergies. Furthermore, perverse incentives that hinder CSA implementation remain in place and need revision.</p><p>There is an urgent need for SouthSouth and North-South cooperation that promotes the endogenous technological development of Africa. For greater CSA uptake, it is also fundamental that smallholder farmers, particularly women and the youth, have greater participation in policy- and decision-making. Currently, most agricultural and climate change policies have been top-down and carried out through “one-way” extension services that tell farmers what to do and do not sufficiently listen to them. It is essential that institutions be revised to eliminate gender imbalances and incorporate the views, needs, interests and concerns of smallholders, who make up the majority of farmers in Africa.</p><p>All in all the author finds that Eastern and Southern Africa hold great potential for CSA, but this potential needs to be further explored.</p><img src="http://feeds.feedburner.com/~r/eldis-climate_change/~4/hNfX_Gc66xI" height="1" width="1" alt=""/>
M. G. Bastos Lima 25 Jan 2017 04:10:49 GMT
Low Carbon Development Key issues
<p>Low Carbon Development: Key Issues is the first comprehensive textbook to address the interface between international development and climate change in a carbon constrained world.</p><p>It discusses the key conceptual, empirical and policy-related issues of low carbon development and takes an international and interdisciplinary approach to the subject by drawing on insights from across the natural sciences and social sciences whilst embedding the discussion in a global context.</p><img src="http://feeds.feedburner.com/~r/eldis-climate_change/~4/flq5B31sW-I" height="1" width="1" alt=""/>
F. Urban 23 Jan 2017 05:26:39 GMT
Low Carbon Development Strategies: A primer on framing nationally appropriate mitigation actions (NAMAs) in Developing Countries
<p>UNEP and UNEP Risø Centre are engaged in providing financial and technical support to a number of countries working on Low Carbon Development Strategies (LCDS) and piloting Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Actions (NAMAs). From this engagement it is evident that there is a strong need for clarification both of the underlying terminology and possible approaches, and development of more detailed guidance and tools to assist the national processes.</p><p>Several initiatives by national, bilateral and multilateral actors are attempting to bring about this clarification and improved understanding, essentially combining practical application with normative development, and providing the experiences as input to the political negotiations being conducted under the UNFCCC.</p><p>This UNEP primer aims to contribute to this clarification by presenting the basic principles, proposing some possible elements of a national LCDS and NAMA preparation process, and providing a template for NAMA articulation.</p><img src="http://feeds.feedburner.com/~r/eldis-climate_change/~4/vUUd3izigwY" height="1" width="1" alt=""/>
23 Jan 2017 04:54:10 GMT
Financing Pathways for Low Emissions and Climate Resilient Development
<p>Shifting the global economy onto a&nbsp;2°C trajectory implies a rapid shift of existing investment patterns and far reaching transformation in technology, infrastructure and practises, including the adoption of new financing and business models. A key challenge for developing countries is how to develop a national climate agenda that is fully integrated with development objectives so that the new paradigm balances social, economic and environmental objectives. This will be critical to ensuring a steady transition which will also be influenced by the structure of the economy and the wider political economy, existing institutional frameworks and priorities, domestic capacity and perceived risk for managing processes of change.</p><p>“National Financing Pathways” are put forward here as a concept that articulates the interdependencies between public, private and international sources of finance as a means of delivering scaled investment to support implementation of low emission and climate resilient development. The interplay between national policy objectives and institutional frameworks with various sources of finance can be considered as constituting a national finance ecosystem and so influencing the shape and pace of the financing pathway. Based on discussions with representatives in Chile, Colombia and Peru, this working paper&nbsp;identifies emerging issues that may influence a NFP and considers different frameworks and tools to develop such pathways.</p><img src="http://feeds.feedburner.com/~r/eldis-climate_change/~4/iI7MGcLgjNk" height="1" width="1" alt=""/>
Amal-Lee Amin 23 Jan 2017 04:42:12 GMT
Low-Emission Development Strategy (LEDS) Handbook no.5
<p>This handbook reflects the content presented, and the discussions held, during the ClimaSouth LEDS Seminar held in Marrakech, on 16-17 April 2015. The handbook is intended as an introduction to the concept of Low-Emission Development Strategies (LEDS). It discusses steps towards developing such strategies, highlighting that low-emission development paths can achieve sustainable development, turning challenges into opportunities for national economies. The role of policy in achieving LEDS goals and the process for LEDS policy making are also presented, and examples of LEDS in Europe are provided. The aim of this handbook is to contribute to policy-makers’ and technicians’ efforts at addressing climate change management issues.</p><img src="http://feeds.feedburner.com/~r/eldis-climate_change/~4/x-lqgGTbWCk" height="1" width="1" alt=""/>
23 Jan 2017 04:31:56 GMT
Utilising Electricity Access for Poverty Reduction - Full report
<p>The productive use of electricity can support sustained poverty reduction by enabling the creation and improvement of income generating activities. However, in order to realise these positive impacts, the level of electricity access must be sufficient and enabling conditions beyond the electricity supply itself must be in place.</p><p>The relationship between electricity access provision and poverty reduction has been unclear and policymakers are seeking answers to the following questions:</p><ul><li>What level of electricity access is required to enable and sustain poverty escape?</li><li>What constraints, despite increased access to electricity, mean that people are not able to use that electricity productively? How can they be removed?&nbsp;</li></ul><p>The research presented in this report has sought to explore these questions through a review of existing literature and case studies in Kenya and India which looked at the policy and regulatory regime in each country, and included stakeholder interviews and field research. The Literature Review and Case Study reports are available seperately from the Practical Action <a href="http://practicalaction.org/utilising">website</a>.</p><img src="http://feeds.feedburner.com/~r/eldis-climate_change/~4/P-Z1OZqRmA0" height="1" width="1" alt=""/>
12 Jan 2017 02:30:46 GMT
Steps to overcome the North–South divide in research relevant to climate change policy and practice
<p>The authors of this Nature Climate Change Perspective article argue that Northern (developed country) domination of science relevant to climate change policy and practice, and limited research led by researchers in Southern developing countries, may be hindering further development and implementation of global climate change agreements and nationally appropriate actions. They acknowledge that some efforts have been made to address the divide but argue that progress has been slow. The article illustrates the extent of the divide, reviews underlying issues and analyses their consequences for climate change policy develop-ment and implementation. The authors propose a set of practical steps that a wide range of actors should take at global, regional and national scales to address this knowledge divide, with examples of some actions already being implemented.</p><img src="http://feeds.feedburner.com/~r/eldis-climate_change/~4/i9AHUOX1pAY" height="1" width="1" alt=""/>
11 Jan 2017 11:41:23 GMT
Financing Universal Access to Electricity
<p>The recent emphasis on the provision of modern energy services as an important ingredient for development has improved finance availability for the goal of Sustainable Energy for All (SE4ALL).</p><p>However, existing financial flows are still insufficient to meet the target of universal access of sustainable energy by 2030 and often ignore poor people, who cannot afford the service, or those renewable energy technologies that cannot offer high rates of return.</p><p>Drawing on a large dataset of official development assistance and private investment for electrification between 1990 and 2012, our research has looked at the factors that explain donor and private finance in the electricity sector of developing countries. What lessons can be taken and shared with policymakers to avoid past mistakes and target countries and technologies that have been neglected in previous efforts?</p><img src="http://feeds.feedburner.com/~r/eldis-climate_change/~4/hJGNTt6AzlA" height="1" width="1" alt=""/>
11 Jan 2017 05:21:27 GMT
Pro-Poor Access to Green Electricity in Kenya
<p>Is Kenya on track to follow an electrification strategy that is green and pro-poor? What are the main challenges to following this path? The two questions guiding this study are particularly relevant in a country with exceptional renewable energy resources, but where 80 per cent of the population lacks access to electricity and 50 per cent lives in poverty.</p><p>This study looks at four particular issues relating to access to green electricity for the poor: accessibility; commercial viability for project developers; financial sustainability for the State; and affordability. We will focus on grid electricity and mini-grids. For grid-connected generation, once electricity is fed to the grid, the issues of accessibility and affordability for the poor depend on national policies determining who gets electricity and at what price, making it impossible to differentiate between green and non-green electricity.</p><p>However, our study will show whether or not on-grid renewable generation can be financially sustainable in Kenya while providing affordable fees. For off-grid electricity, targeting the poor is a matter of situating generation capacity in the right places and affordability is a matter of setting prices that allow for cost recovery without being excessively expensive for the poor.</p><p>This report can support decision-making for development and climate finance institutions, as well as private investors in Kenya seeking a pro-poor green electrification strategy. It shows how to target the poor, which electrification alternatives to use, at what price, whether or not this is commercially viable and which policies would be required to make it so.</p><img src="http://feeds.feedburner.com/~r/eldis-climate_change/~4/aofN--Wa0ug" height="1" width="1" alt=""/>
A. Pueyo 11 Jan 2017 05:12:56 GMT