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High and Dry: Climate change, water and the economy
<p>This World Bank reports finds that water scarcity, exacerbated by climate change, could hinder economic growth, spur migration, and spark conflict. However, most countries can neutralize the adverse impacts of water scarcity by taking action to allocate and use water resources more efficiently.</p><p>Key Findings</p><ul><li>Water scarcity, exacerbated by climate change, could cost some regions up to 6% of their GDP, spur migration, and spark conflict.</li><li>The combined effects of growing populations, rising incomes, and expanding cities will see demand for water rising exponentially, while supply becomes more erratic and uncertain.</li><li>Unless action is taken soon, water will become scarce in regions where it is currently abundant - such as Central Africa and East Asia - and scarcity will greatly worsen in regions where water is already in short supply - such as the Middle East and the Sahel in Africa. These regions could see their growth rates decline by as much as 6% of GDP by 2050 due to water-related impacts on agriculture, health, and incomes.</li><li>Water insecurity could multiply the risk of conflict. Food price spikes caused by droughts can inflame latent conflicts and drive migration. Where economic growth is impacted by rainfall, episodes of droughts and floods have generated waves of migration and spikes in violence within countries.</li><li>The negative impacts of climate change on water could be neutralized with better policy decisions, with some regions standing to improve their growth rates by up to 6% with better water resource management.</li><li>Improved water stewardship pays high economic dividends. When governments respond to water shortages by boosting efficiency and allocating even 25% of water to more highly-valued uses, such as more efficient agricultural practices, losses decline dramatically and for some regions may even vanish.</li><li>In the world’s extremely dry regions, more far-reaching policies are needed to avoid inefficient water use. Stronger policies and reforms are needed to cope with deepening climate stresses.</li><li>Policies and investments that can help lead countries to more water secure and climate-resilient economies include:</li><ul><li>Better planning for water resource allocation</li><li>Adoption of incentives to increase water efficiency, and</li><li>Investments in infrastructure for more secure water supplies and availability.</li></ul></ul><div>[author's summary]</div><img src="" height="1" width="1" alt=""/>
10 Feb 2017 04:33:21 GMT
Sustainable development and the water–energy–food nexus: A perspective on livelihoods
<p>The water–energy–food nexus is being promoted as a conceptual tool for achieving sustainable development. Frameworks for implementing nexus thinking, however, have failed to explicitly or adequately incorporate sustainable&nbsp;<em>livelihoods</em>&nbsp;perspectives. This is counterintuitive given that livelihoods are key to achieving sustainable development. In this paper we present a critical review of nexus approaches and identify potential linkages with sustainable livelihoods theory and practice, to deepen our understanding of the interrelated dynamics between human populations and the natural environment. Building upon this review, we explore the concept of ‘environmental livelihood security’ – which encompasses a balance between natural resource supply and human demand on the environment to promote sustainability – and develop an integrated nexus-livelihoods framework for examining the environmental livelihood security of a system. The outcome is an integrated framework with the capacity to measure and monitor environmental livelihood security of whole systems by accounting for the water, energy and food requisites for livelihoods at multiple spatial scales and institutional levels. We anticipate this holistic approach will not only provide a significant contribution to achieving national and regional sustainable development targets, but will also be effective for promoting equity amongst individuals and communities in local and global development agendas. [authors abstract]</p><img src="" height="1" width="1" alt=""/>
E.M. Biggs 10 Feb 2017 04:15:50 GMT
The Water-Energy-Food Nexus: A new approach in support of food security and sustainable agriculture
<p>This FAO note gives a brief introduction to the Water-Energy-Food (WEF) Nexus conceptual framework as a useful way to describe and address the complex and interrelated nature of our global resource systems. It puts forward WEF as a conceptual approach:</p><ul><li>to better understand and systematically analyse the interactions between the natural environment and human activities</li><li>to help work towards a more coordinated management and use of natural resources across sectors and scales</li><li>to help identify and manage trade-offs andto build synergies allowing for more integrated and cost-effective planning, decision-making, implementation, monitoring and evaluation.</li></ul><img src="" height="1" width="1" alt=""/>
10 Feb 2017 04:05:24 GMT
Climate change and water: An overview from the World Water Development Report 3: Water in a changing world
<p>This World Water Assessment Programme Special Report brings together messages on water and climate change from the World Water Development Report 3: Water in a Changing World. Water in a Changing World shows that changes in our water resources are shaped to a great extent by a number of key externalities, among them climate change, and that decisions taken far from the conventionally defined water sector have a tremendous influence on water resources and how they are used or misused. The report also describes the dynamic linkages that interconnect changes in climate, the state of our water resources, demographic expansion and migration issues, food and energy shortages, and the continuing challenge of poverty. Rather than addressing these issues in isolation, it argues that a holistic approach is crucial if we are to solve the crises we face today and avoid worse crises tomorrow.</p><img src="" height="1" width="1" alt=""/>
10 Feb 2017 03:47:02 GMT
Water and Climate Blue Book
<p>Llaunched by the Morroccan government at COP22 in Marrakech, the blue book aims to raise international awareness on the vulnerability of water in the context of climate change and the urgency of action. It also speaks in favor of merging both agendas of water and climate, in order to ensure a total integration of water in the negotiations on climate change.</p><p>The book also presents concrete actions in the water field to cope with the impact of climate variability, actions which have already been launched or are being implemented, including the Water for Africa&nbsp;initiative. It is organized around chapters that highlight the challenges of water, its positioning within the adaptation and mitigation set of actions, and the recommendations to the international water community for a better water resilience to climate change and ensure sustainable development.</p><img src="" height="1" width="1" alt=""/>
10 Feb 2017 03:26:23 GMT
Climate change adaption readiness: lessons from the 2015/16 El Niño for climate readiness in Southern Africa
<div>Southern Africa is experiencing its worst drought in at least 35 years. The drought is associated with an acute El Niño cycle, a periodic weather phenomenon that affects weather patterns across large regions of the globe, including Southern Africa. While the El Niño cycle is not linked directly to broader climate change processes, an assessment of</div><div>the region’s responses to the current drought does provide insight into its capacity to respond to severe environmental stresses. Insights drawn from such an assessment allow for a deeper understanding of climate adaptation readiness in the region.</div><div>&nbsp;</div><div>This paper concludes that there is a need to expedite the development of regional and national response plans to severe environmental stresses, and in particular to strengthen capacity to effectively implement and co-ordinate appropriate actions. At the national level, response capacity in numerous Southern African states remains low. Even in South Africa, where government capacity is the highest in the region, implementation delays and co-ordination challenges have hampered effective responses to the drought. Yet despite these problems, there have also been successes in regional and national responses to droughts and longer-term climate challenges. Such programmes and innovative responses can be scaled to achieve more far-reaching impacts and thereby further develop the region’s climate adaptation readiness.</div><img src="" height="1" width="1" alt=""/>
A. Benkenstein 09 Feb 2017 09:59:25 GMT
Report on the nationally determined contributions survey conducted by the Nairobi Framework Partnership in 2016
<p>Countries in Asia, Africa and Latin America and the Caribbean urgently need financial support to green their power sectors and thereby implement their national climate action plans under the&nbsp;Paris Climate Change Agreement.</p><p>This is the key finding from this survey of 79 countries&nbsp;conducted by the secretariat of the UNFCCC on behalf of the&nbsp;Nairobi Framework Partnership (NFP).</p><p>The central goal of the Paris Agreement is to limit the global average temperature rise to as close as possible to 1.5 degrees Celsius. Transitioning the power sector to low carbon is crucial to meet this goal, as generating power using coal, gas and oil is the largest source of greenhouse gas emissions which cause climate change.</p><p>The survey also found that whilst many countries are receiving some form of support to increase transparency (Measurement, Reporting and Verification) from international organizations, in most cases this support is not enough.</p><p>The survey clearly indicates that countries believe that making use of the UN’s&nbsp;Clean Development Mechanism (CDM),&nbsp;Standardized Baselines&nbsp;and&nbsp;Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Actions (NAMAs)&nbsp;can help them to achieve their climate action commitments.</p><p>The Asian and African regions were found to be the ones requiring most urgent support for the development of carbon markets and economic instruments for mitigation action.</p><img src="" height="1" width="1" alt=""/>
07 Feb 2017 03:15:05 GMT
Resilience Resources: RABIT - Resilience Assessment Benchmarking and Impact
<p>This page provides guidance materials relating to RABIT: the Resilience Assessment Benchmarking and Impact Toolkit.&nbsp; This enables the measurement of resilience baselines, and also measurement of the impact on resilience of development interventions; particularly introduction of ICTs.&nbsp; It focuses on resilience in low-income communities.</p><img src="" height="1" width="1" alt=""/>
03 Feb 2017 10:21:26 GMT
Impact of climate change on select value chains in Mozambique
<p>In Mozambique, where agriculture accounts for more than 25 percent of gross domestic product and employs about 80 percent of the country’s workforce, climate change has potential to reduce production of key crops and jeopardize both macroeconomic stability and the livelihoods of millions of people.</p><p>Despite this, the country, with just 16 percent of arable land under cultivation, has great potential to expand the agriculture sector. This report considers both sides of the challenge, detailing the likely impact of climate changes on three key crops (soy, pigeon pea and sesame) and analyzing opportunities to manage those risks across the value chain. Focused on the four central provinces, the report concludes with concrete recommendations for decision-makers.</p><div>This report demonstrates a strong likelihood of increased temperatures, extreme weather events and changes in rainfall patterns in Mozambique, together with evidence that some of these changes have already begun. In response, the agricultural system must adapt and become more resilient to these changes. The uncertainty associated with future climate is compounded by the fact that climate change is occurring on top of significant existing interannual variability in climate. Therefore, it is impossible to plan for a single future scenario or single set of on-the-ground agricultural interventions that will be effective in all areas of Mozambique in all years. In the end, it will be important to develop robust solutions that build national, community and individual resilience to respond to the entire suite of future climate scenarios.<br /><br /></div><div>One approach is to pair a package of locally relevant climate-smart agricultural practices with improved climate and weather information for decision-making. This way, farmers can decide what will be the most effective adaptive strategy in a specific year given their local context and constraints.</div><img src="" height="1" width="1" alt=""/>
03 Feb 2017 09:54:52 GMT
Decentralized climate change responses in uganda: climate change adaptation lacks local government funding
<p>This study explored ways in which Mali’s 25-year old decentralized governance system empowers local government to help communities adapt to the changing climate. The findings suggest that local development plans hold promise as a vehicle for engaging communities and integrating adaptation into local development planning, but that more needs to be done to strengthen the process. Centered in the southern regions of Mopti, Koulikoro and Sikasso, where most livelihoods derive from farming and livestock, the study also found that decentralized governance creates particular opportunities to facilitate problem-solving across villages and build external linkages to NGOs, donors and others. Such relationships are important as households increasingly compete for water and land for grazing and farming, and trees for charcoal and fuelwood. With higher temperatures and decreasing rainfall likely in these regions in the future, effective management of natural resources is vital to maintaining livelihoods and minimizing conflict.</p><img src="" height="1" width="1" alt=""/>
02 Feb 2017 10:34:24 GMT
Policies and practices for climate smart agriculture in Sub-Saharan Africa: A comparative assessment of challenges and opportunities across 15 countries
<p>This report is a product of the collaboration between the Food, Agriculture and Natural Resources Policy Analysis Network (FANRPAN) and the Earth System Governance Project, on policies for climate-smart agriculture. It synthesizes the findings of 15 scoping studies conducted by national consultants across Eastern and Southern Africa in order to analyze the barriers and opportunities for promoting climate-smart agriculture (CSA) in the region.</p><p>The study finds that the onset impacts of climate change (particularly droughts, floods, and other alterations in rainfall patterns, with their associated impacts on crop yields and livestock) are already being perceived both by formal experts and by rural populations across Eastern and Southern Africa. Yet, the promotion and uptake of CSA practices remain limited. All countries have examples of both traditional and research-based agricultural practices that can be deemed climate-smart, but they are not mainstreamed and still receive limited support. Some countries have developed National Climate Change Policies while others countries have National Adaptation Programmes of Action (NAPA) in place. However, such policies often lack adequate instruments to achieve the goals they set. Furthermore, they are not sufficiently connected across sectors. There is a clear need for greater policy coherence to avoid conflicts and create synergies. Furthermore, perverse incentives that hinder CSA implementation remain in place and need revision.</p><p>There is an urgent need for SouthSouth and North-South cooperation that promotes the endogenous technological development of Africa. For greater CSA uptake, it is also fundamental that smallholder farmers, particularly women and the youth, have greater participation in policy- and decision-making. Currently, most agricultural and climate change policies have been top-down and carried out through “one-way” extension services that tell farmers what to do and do not sufficiently listen to them. It is essential that institutions be revised to eliminate gender imbalances and incorporate the views, needs, interests and concerns of smallholders, who make up the majority of farmers in Africa.</p><p>All in all the author finds that Eastern and Southern Africa hold great potential for CSA, but this potential needs to be further explored.</p><img src="" height="1" width="1" alt=""/>
M. G. Bastos Lima 25 Jan 2017 04:10:49 GMT
Low Carbon Development Key issues
<p>Low Carbon Development: Key Issues is the first comprehensive textbook to address the interface between international development and climate change in a carbon constrained world.</p><p>It discusses the key conceptual, empirical and policy-related issues of low carbon development and takes an international and interdisciplinary approach to the subject by drawing on insights from across the natural sciences and social sciences whilst embedding the discussion in a global context.</p><img src="" height="1" width="1" alt=""/>
F. Urban 23 Jan 2017 05:26:39 GMT
Low Carbon Development Strategies: A primer on framing nationally appropriate mitigation actions (NAMAs) in Developing Countries
<p>UNEP and UNEP Risø Centre are engaged in providing financial and technical support to a number of countries working on Low Carbon Development Strategies (LCDS) and piloting Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Actions (NAMAs). From this engagement it is evident that there is a strong need for clarification both of the underlying terminology and possible approaches, and development of more detailed guidance and tools to assist the national processes.</p><p>Several initiatives by national, bilateral and multilateral actors are attempting to bring about this clarification and improved understanding, essentially combining practical application with normative development, and providing the experiences as input to the political negotiations being conducted under the UNFCCC.</p><p>This UNEP primer aims to contribute to this clarification by presenting the basic principles, proposing some possible elements of a national LCDS and NAMA preparation process, and providing a template for NAMA articulation.</p><img src="" height="1" width="1" alt=""/>
23 Jan 2017 04:54:10 GMT
Financing Pathways for Low Emissions and Climate Resilient Development
<p>Shifting the global economy onto a&nbsp;2°C trajectory implies a rapid shift of existing investment patterns and far reaching transformation in technology, infrastructure and practises, including the adoption of new financing and business models. A key challenge for developing countries is how to develop a national climate agenda that is fully integrated with development objectives so that the new paradigm balances social, economic and environmental objectives. This will be critical to ensuring a steady transition which will also be influenced by the structure of the economy and the wider political economy, existing institutional frameworks and priorities, domestic capacity and perceived risk for managing processes of change.</p><p>“National Financing Pathways” are put forward here as a concept that articulates the interdependencies between public, private and international sources of finance as a means of delivering scaled investment to support implementation of low emission and climate resilient development. The interplay between national policy objectives and institutional frameworks with various sources of finance can be considered as constituting a national finance ecosystem and so influencing the shape and pace of the financing pathway. Based on discussions with representatives in Chile, Colombia and Peru, this working paper&nbsp;identifies emerging issues that may influence a NFP and considers different frameworks and tools to develop such pathways.</p><img src="" height="1" width="1" alt=""/>
Amal-Lee Amin 23 Jan 2017 04:42:12 GMT
Low-Emission Development Strategy (LEDS) Handbook no.5
<p>This handbook reflects the content presented, and the discussions held, during the ClimaSouth LEDS Seminar held in Marrakech, on 16-17 April 2015. The handbook is intended as an introduction to the concept of Low-Emission Development Strategies (LEDS). It discusses steps towards developing such strategies, highlighting that low-emission development paths can achieve sustainable development, turning challenges into opportunities for national economies. The role of policy in achieving LEDS goals and the process for LEDS policy making are also presented, and examples of LEDS in Europe are provided. The aim of this handbook is to contribute to policy-makers’ and technicians’ efforts at addressing climate change management issues.</p><img src="" height="1" width="1" alt=""/>
23 Jan 2017 04:31:56 GMT
Utilising Electricity Access for Poverty Reduction - Full report
<p>The productive use of electricity can support sustained poverty reduction by enabling the creation and improvement of income generating activities. However, in order to realise these positive impacts, the level of electricity access must be sufficient and enabling conditions beyond the electricity supply itself must be in place.</p><p>The relationship between electricity access provision and poverty reduction has been unclear and policymakers are seeking answers to the following questions:</p><ul><li>What level of electricity access is required to enable and sustain poverty escape?</li><li>What constraints, despite increased access to electricity, mean that people are not able to use that electricity productively? How can they be removed?&nbsp;</li></ul><p>The research presented in this report has sought to explore these questions through a review of existing literature and case studies in Kenya and India which looked at the policy and regulatory regime in each country, and included stakeholder interviews and field research. The Literature Review and Case Study reports are available seperately from the Practical Action <a href="">website</a>.</p><img src="" height="1" width="1" alt=""/>
12 Jan 2017 02:30:46 GMT
Steps to overcome the North–South divide in research relevant to climate change policy and practice
<p>The authors of this Nature Climate Change Perspective article argue that Northern (developed country) domination of science relevant to climate change policy and practice, and limited research led by researchers in Southern developing countries, may be hindering further development and implementation of global climate change agreements and nationally appropriate actions. They acknowledge that some efforts have been made to address the divide but argue that progress has been slow. The article illustrates the extent of the divide, reviews underlying issues and analyses their consequences for climate change policy develop-ment and implementation. The authors propose a set of practical steps that a wide range of actors should take at global, regional and national scales to address this knowledge divide, with examples of some actions already being implemented.</p><img src="" height="1" width="1" alt=""/>
11 Jan 2017 11:41:23 GMT
Financing Universal Access to Electricity
<p>The recent emphasis on the provision of modern energy services as an important ingredient for development has improved finance availability for the goal of Sustainable Energy for All (SE4ALL).</p><p>However, existing financial flows are still insufficient to meet the target of universal access of sustainable energy by 2030 and often ignore poor people, who cannot afford the service, or those renewable energy technologies that cannot offer high rates of return.</p><p>Drawing on a large dataset of official development assistance and private investment for electrification between 1990 and 2012, our research has looked at the factors that explain donor and private finance in the electricity sector of developing countries. What lessons can be taken and shared with policymakers to avoid past mistakes and target countries and technologies that have been neglected in previous efforts?</p><img src="" height="1" width="1" alt=""/>
11 Jan 2017 05:21:27 GMT
Pro-Poor Access to Green Electricity in Kenya
<p>Is Kenya on track to follow an electrification strategy that is green and pro-poor? What are the main challenges to following this path? The two questions guiding this study are particularly relevant in a country with exceptional renewable energy resources, but where 80 per cent of the population lacks access to electricity and 50 per cent lives in poverty.</p><p>This study looks at four particular issues relating to access to green electricity for the poor: accessibility; commercial viability for project developers; financial sustainability for the State; and affordability. We will focus on grid electricity and mini-grids. For grid-connected generation, once electricity is fed to the grid, the issues of accessibility and affordability for the poor depend on national policies determining who gets electricity and at what price, making it impossible to differentiate between green and non-green electricity.</p><p>However, our study will show whether or not on-grid renewable generation can be financially sustainable in Kenya while providing affordable fees. For off-grid electricity, targeting the poor is a matter of situating generation capacity in the right places and affordability is a matter of setting prices that allow for cost recovery without being excessively expensive for the poor.</p><p>This report can support decision-making for development and climate finance institutions, as well as private investors in Kenya seeking a pro-poor green electrification strategy. It shows how to target the poor, which electrification alternatives to use, at what price, whether or not this is commercially viable and which policies would be required to make it so.</p><img src="" height="1" width="1" alt=""/>
A. Pueyo 11 Jan 2017 05:12:56 GMT
What Explains the Allocation of Aid and Private Investment for Electrification?
<p>This paper aims to inform policy looking to step up investment in the electricity sector of developing countries and align it to other development goals such as universal access to energy or sustainability.</p><p>Three questions guide the analysis:</p><ul><li>How and why has private and donor finance for electrification changed across time?</li><li>What are the different motivations of private investors and donors as regards who and what gets financed?</li><li>Are sustainability and equitable access priorities for private and donor investment?&nbsp;</li></ul><p>These questions are addressed by describing finance flows during the period 1990–2010 and performing an econometric analysis to explain inter-country allocation.</p><img src="" height="1" width="1" alt=""/>
A. Pueyo 11 Jan 2017 03:02:42 GMT
Maximisation of Benefits for the Poor of Investments in Renewable Electricity: A Policy Tool for Project Planning
<p>Electricity improves users’ quality of life and can enable income generation when used for productive activities, hence supporting an escape from the poverty trap. Where generation comes from renewable sources, it also makes a positive contribution to low-carbon development; for many, this is a classic ‘win-win’ situation.</p><p>This report uses the evidence collected through a comprehensive literature review to develop a policy tool to maximise the poverty impact of electrification projects. It can be of use for development and climate finance institutions funding renewable energy projects in developing countries, and keen to enhance the poverty impacts of these projects.</p><img src="" height="1" width="1" alt=""/>
A. Pueyo 11 Jan 2017 02:56:58 GMT
Strengthening the Poverty Impact of Renewable Electricity Investments: Summary of E-Discussion
<p>On 19 and 20 March 2014 IDS convened an e-discussion on ‘strengthening the poverty impact of renewable electricity investments’. The event sought to instigate a global dialogue on what is required to maximise the poverty impact of clean electricity investments, as well as inform ongoing IDS work on this topic.</p><p>The e-discussion was structured around three threads:</p><ol><li>How strong is the evidence that electrification has an impact on poor people, and does this matter in decisions to finance renewable generation capacity projects?</li><li>How can the poverty impact of renewable generation capacity projects be maximised?</li><li>How can poverty eradication be introduced into the Sustainable Energy for All (SE4ALL) and climate finance agendas?</li></ol><p>This note summarises the contributions made by different participants in the e-discussion. It generalises the points most commonly raised around each thread and reflects specific points of strong consensus or contestation, but without identifying specific contributors by name. It also provides a project team reflection on how valuable the event was for our research and why.</p><img src="" height="1" width="1" alt=""/>
A. Pueyo 11 Jan 2017 02:47:57 GMT
Climatic trends, risk perceptions and coping strategies of smallholder farmers in rural Uganda
<p>Smallholder farmers in Uganda face a wide range of agricultural production risks, with climate change and variability presenting new risks and vulnerabilities. Climate related risks&nbsp; such as prolonged dry seasons have become more frequent and intense with negative impacts on agricultural livelihoods and food security.</p><p>This paper assesses farmers’ perceptions of climate change and variability and analyses historical trends in temperature and rainfall in two rural districts of Uganda in order to determine the major climate-related risks affecting crop and livestock production and to identify existing innovative strategies for coping with and adapting to climate-related risks, with potential for up-scaling in rural districts. The traditional coping strategies that have been developed by these communities overtime provide a foundation for designing effective adaptation strategies. <br /><br />Drought, disease and pest epidemics, decreasing water sources, lack of pasture, bush fires, hailstorms, changes in crop flowering and fruiting times were the major climate-related risks reported across the two districts. Farmers use a wide range of agricultural technologies and strategies to cope with climate change and climate variability. Mulching, intercropping and planting of food security crops were among the most common practices used. Other strategies included water harvesting for domestic consumption, other soil and water conservation technologies and on-farm diversification. Farmers often use a combination of these technologies and practices to enhance agricultural productivity. The average maximum temperatures increased across the two districts. Trends in average annual rainfall showed mixed results with a general decline in one district and a relatively stable trend in the other district. Perceived changes in climate included erratic rainfall onset and cessation, which were either early or late, poor seasonal distribution of rainfall and little rainfall. Farmers also reported variations in temperatures. Farmers’ perception of changing rainfall characteristics and increasing temperatures were consistent with the observed historical climatic trends from meteorological data.</p><img src="" height="1" width="1" alt=""/>
10 Jan 2017 12:18:51 GMT
Malawi summary of baseline studies: country report for the GFCS Adaptation Program in Africa
<div>This report reflects the summary of baseline findings in Malawi, under the auspices of the Global Framework for Climate Services (GFCS) Adaptation Programme in Africa. It identifies gaps in climate information access and use at the local level, types of climate services farmers and pastoralists need in Malawi, relevant channels to reach farmers with requested services, lead-time and gender-specific requirements for the design and delivery of climate services that matter to farmers.</div><p>The analysis supports several recommendations for improving the supply, delivery, and iterative feedback and improvement of climate services in Malawi:</p><ul><li>to improve the supply of useful services, first develop climate service products to be responsive to farmer needs. Second, indicate value and integrate traditional indicators with the conventional climate forecasts to promote farmers’ use of scientific climate information in conjunction with their own indigenous knowledge. Finally, co-produce services with agricultural experts: establish a dialogue between national meteorology services, extension agents and farmers. This will represent an effective platform for relevant and useful climate services for farmers</li><li>to improve the delivery of climate information and advisories, climate information communication for farmers must rely on radio and extension workers both from government and NGOs. Extension agents should also be trained in understanding climate forecast concepts and integrate them into routine extension support</li><li>rigorous evaluation of climate services is a requirement for improving the usefulness of the services delivered. First, conduct post-season reviews to capture farmer feedback on received services. Second, continue to track climate information access and use at the local level, and changes against the baseline.&nbsp; </li></ul><p><br />This summary of CCAFS baseline findings from Malawi reveals the current state of climate information use at the local level, gaps and needs of farmers before they can benefit from improved science-based climate information, identifying the role of ICTs and rural radio to reach marginalized rural communities. It is hoped that these findings will offer valuable insights to the GFCS Adaptation Program in Africa, and future projects working to scale up relevant climate services for farmers and pastoralists in the country.&nbsp;</p><img src="" height="1" width="1" alt=""/>
10 Jan 2017 11:14:06 GMT
Tanzania summary of baseline studies: country report for the GFCS Adaptation Program in Africa
<p>This report reflects upon the consolidated findings from the baseline and scoping studies conducted under the auspices of Global Framework for Climate Services (GFCS) Adaptation Programme in Africa. It identifies gaps in climate information access and use at the local level, type of climate services farmers and pastoralists need in Tanzania, relevant channels to reach farmers with requested services, lead-time and gender specific requirements.</p><p>The analysis supports several recommendations for improving the supply, delivery, and iterative feedback and improvement of climate services in Tanzania:</p><ul><li>to improve the supply of useful services, first, co-produce climate services with farmers, and integrate indigenous knowledge with scientific climate forecasts to enhance relevance of climate information for local communities. Second, ensure timely delivery of accurate climate services, which is essential for these services to be useful to farmers and pastoralists for agricultural decision-making. Finally, downscale climate information to render it location specific, and make the service more relevant and credible for farmers</li><li>to improve the delivery of climate information and advisories, first, invest in good radio coverage.&nbsp; This is critical for the delivery of climate information as most households have access to climate information through radio. Second, diversify communication channels.&nbsp; This includes leveraging the power of ICTs (cell phones voice messages and reliance on village leaders) to reach all farmers with climate information, including women. Third, train government extension agents in understanding climate forecasts, and rely on these agents to deliver the information</li><li>rigorous evaluation of climate services is a requirement for improving the usefulness of the services. Conduct post-season reviews to capture farmer feedback on received services. Lastly, continue to track climate information access and use at the local level, and note changes against the baseline</li></ul><p><br />It is hoped that these findings will offer valuable insights to the GFCS Adaptation Program in Africa, and future projects working to scale up relevant climate services for farmers and pastoralists in Tanzania.&nbsp;&nbsp;</p><img src="" height="1" width="1" alt=""/>
10 Jan 2017 10:57:05 GMT
Towards policy integration of disaster risk, climate adaptation, and development in ASEAN: a baseline assessment
<div data-canvas-width="899.986665">This Insight attempts to create a baseline assessment of disaster risk reduction (DRR) and climate change adap-</div><div data-canvas-width="305.19332999999995">tation (CCA) policies in ten Southeast Asian countries. More than 50 per cent of global disaster mortality occurred in</div><div data-canvas-width="459.5699733333334">Southeast Asia between 2004 and 2014, and four ASEAN member states are ranked in the top 10 countries most affected by climate risk between 1996 and 2015. The integration of relevant existing global mechanisms into national and local regulatory systems, and especially into national development plans, is therefore necessary to ensure the development of adaptive and resilience capacities. Although the region has realised the importance of streamlining DRR and CCA policies in development plans, a baseline of such efforts has yet to exist to date.</div><div data-canvas-width="459.5699733333334">&nbsp;</div><div data-canvas-width="459.5699733333334">&nbsp;</div><img src="" height="1" width="1" alt=""/>
M. Sembiring 10 Jan 2017 10:42:01 GMT
Crops, crop pests and climate change - why Africa needs to be better prepared
<div data-canvas-width="144.0334704">Ongoing investments in agriculture will not deliver for Africa until the destabilising nature of crop pest events, especially shock outbreak events, are addressed. As a result of climate change, the prevalence of crop pests will change and the frequency of shock pest events will increase, putting agricultural systems at risk. The granularity of these changes, in terms of choices by farmers, cropping systems and markets, presents a critical challenge.</div><div data-canvas-width="144.0334704">&nbsp;</div><div data-canvas-width="144.0334704">The following recommendations are put forward:</div><ul><li>build capacity of plant health organisations, as key partners at the front-line against crop pests, in support of food security, trade and policy implementation</li><li>improve data gathering, centred on better understanding of critical metrics of crop pest impacts, extending beyond yield loss and encompassing economic and investment factors to improve prediction capabilities</li><li>enhance the understanding of risk behaviours of food chain stakeholders and their willingness to invest and adapt, to support increased adoption of technologies</li><li>improve fusion of disparate datasets and risk modelling of crop pest consequences for projections on farmer choices and cropping system at the landscape scale, informed by markets and policy</li><li>invest in pre-emptive crop pest resistance breeding against future high risk pests based on current and futured geographic distributions in order to avoid the consequences of shock pest episodes</li><li>take cognizance of the boundary-less nature of crop pests, and develop&nbsp; regional supra-governmental capabilities for the analysis and articulation of horizon scanning and crop pest risk concerns under climate change</li></ul><img src="" height="1" width="1" alt=""/>
Julian Smith 10 Jan 2017 04:22:59 GMT
Climate and livestock disease: assessing the vulnerability of agricultural systems to livestock pests under climate change scenarios
<p>Livestock as a sector is extremely important to the global economy and to rural livelihoods. As of 2013, there was an estimated 38 billion livestock in the world, or five animals for every person. Most (81%) were in developing countries. Around one billion smallholder farmers keep livestock, many of them women. The burden of animal disease in developing countries is high: livestock disease probably kills 20% of ruminants and more than 50% of poultry each year causing a loss of approximately USD 300 billion per year. Climate change can exacerbate disease in livestock, and some diseases are especially sensitive to climate change. Among 65 animal diseases identified as most important to poor livestock keepers, 58% are climate sensitive. Climate change may also have indirect effects on animal disease, and these may be greater than the direct effects. <br /><br />In order to address climate impacts on this sector, this paper makes the following recommendations: </p><ul><li>invest in ‘no regret’ adaptation responses. Many adaptation responses based on improving the control of climate sensitive livestock diseases are ‘no-regret’ options, which, by reducing the burden of livestock disease, will enhance community resilience, alleviate poverty and address global inequity irrespective of climate change</li><li>improve disease surveillance and response in order to detect changes in disease in a timely way, thus dramatically reducing the costs of response. This requires investment and innovation in disease reporting systems as well as laboratories capable of confirming diseases. Risk-based and participatory surveillance are promising options for improving disease reporting</li><li>increase the capacity to forecast near term occurrence of climate sensitive diseases, and to predict longer-term distribution of diseases through better epidemiological information and ground-truthed models</li><li>improve animal health service delivery by investing in the public sector and supporting innovations in the private sector such as community animal health workers linked to private veterinarians. Promote “One Health” and Ecohealth approaches to disease control, especially in vulnerable communities with high reliance on livestock (e.g. pastoralists in East Africa)</li><li>support eradication of priority diseases where this is economically justified. Develop diagnostics and vaccines, and promote adoption of good practices and strengthened biosecurity to improve disease control</li><li>increase the resilience of livestock systems by supporting diversification of livestock and livelihoods, and integrating livestock farming with agriculture. Consider promotion of species and breeds that are more resistant to disease and climate change</li><li>adopt breeding strategies focused on identifying and improving breeds that are better adapted to climate change impacts and disease</li><li>understand the potential land use changes in response to climate change and monitor their impacts on animal disease to allow preventive or remedial actions</li></ul><img src="" height="1" width="1" alt=""/>
10 Jan 2017 04:00:23 GMT
Mass displacement and the challenge for urban resilience
<div data-canvas-width="313.4366666666666">The concept of urban resilience is increasingly being used to describe the attributes of the urban system that are needed to deal with environmental disasters, conflict and financial crises. Large-scale, sudden population movements, prompted by both rapid-onset ‘natural’ disasters such as floods and ‘man-made’ disasters like conflict are on the rise, seeing increasing numbers of displaced people moving into urban areas. This represents a significant stress factor, in particular for towns and cities with already weak formal institutions that face difficulties in delivering adequate basic services to growing populations.</div><div data-canvas-width="313.4366666666666">&nbsp;</div><div data-canvas-width="313.4366666666666"><div data-canvas-width="197.11866666666666">The paper considers resilience to mass displacement in urban areas, focussing on the social and economic sub-systems – namely, shelter, health care and protection; basic service provision; economic development and employment; and social and political inclusion and community cohesion. It focuses on how well the urban system responds to new challenges and provides solutions for all residents. In particular, the paper finds that the resilience of an urban system cannot be understood without attention to the diverse experiences and needs of different groups within it: longer-term residents, new arrivals, temporary residents and, particularly, vulnerable groups.</div></div><div data-canvas-width="313.4366666666666">&nbsp;</div><div data-canvas-width="313.4366666666666">&nbsp;</div><img src="" height="1" width="1" alt=""/>
A. Kirbyshire 10 Jan 2017 02:54:01 GMT
Reaching more farmers: Innovative approaches to scaling up climate-smart agriculture
<p>The purpose of this working paper is to provide insight into how we can use novel approaches to scale up research findings on climate-smart agriculture (CSA) to meaningfully address the challenges of poverty and climate change. The approaches described include those based on value chains and private sector involvement, policy engagement, and information and communication technologies and agro-advisory services. The paper draws on 11 case studies to exemplify these new approaches to scaling up. These are synthesised using a simple conceptual framework that draws on a review of the most important challenges to scaling up. This provides the material for a discussion around how particular scaling up approaches can help to address some of the challenges of scaling up. The analysis offers insights into scaling approaches, challenges and some opportunities for scaling CSA practices and technologies. <br /><br />The authors conclude that multi-stakeholder platforms and policy making networks are key to effective upscaling, especially if paired with capacity enhancement, learning, and innovative approaches to support decision making of farmers. Projects that aim to intervene upstream at higher leverage points can be highly efficient and probably offer cost-effective dissemination strategies that reach across scales and include new and more diverse partnerships. However, these novel approaches still face challenges of promoting uptake, which remain contextualized and thus require a certain level of local engagement, while continuously paying attention to farmer’s needs and their own situations.</p><img src="" height="1" width="1" alt=""/>
O. Westermann 06 Jan 2017 12:50:42 GMT
Climate change impacts and mitigation in the developing world: an integrated assessment of the agriculture and forestry sectors
<div data-canvas-width="396.3442000000001">This paper conducts an integrated assessment of climate change impacts and climate mitigation on agricultural</div><div data-canvas-width="396.64467500000023">commodity markets and food availability in low- and middle-income countries. The analysis uses the partial</div><div data-canvas-width="395.90232499999996">equilibrium model GLOBIOM to generate scenarios to 2080. The findings show that climate change effects on</div><div data-canvas-width="393.88575979999996">the agricultural sector will increase progressively over the century. By 2030, the impact of climate change on food</div><div data-canvas-width="392.32099824999966">consumption is moderate but already twice as large in a world with high inequalities than in a more equal world. In</div><div data-canvas-width="392.99575000000004">the long run, impacts could be much stronger, with global average calorie losses of 6 percent by 2050 and 14 percent</div><div data-canvas-width="393.54">by 2080. A mitigation policy to stabilize climate below 2°C uniformly applied to all regions as a carbon tax would<div data-canvas-width="393.97749999999996">also result in a 6 percent reduction in food availability by 2050 and 12 percent reduction by 2080 compared to the</div><div data-canvas-width="394.08003249999996">reference scenario.</div><div data-canvas-width="394.08003249999996">&nbsp;</div><div data-canvas-width="392.1050000000001">To avoid more severe impacts of climate change mitigation on development than climate change itself, revenue from carbon pricing policies will need to be redistributed appropriately. Overall, the projected effects of climate change and mitigation on agricultural markets raise important issues for food security in the long run, but remain more limited in the medium term horizon of 2030. Thus, there are opportunities for low- and middle-income countries to pursue immediate development needs and thus prepare for later periods when adaptation needs and mitigation efforts will become the greatest.</div></div><img src="" height="1" width="1" alt=""/>
06 Jan 2017 12:21:41 GMT
Impacts of seasonal climate communication strategies on farm management and livelihoods in Wote, Kenya
<p>This study was undertaken in Wote division, Makueni district, Eastern province, Kenya, to test the effectiveness of different methods of communicating downscaled seasonal climate forecast information, and to assess its impact on management and productivity of smallholder farms. The communication methods tested include training workshops aimed at helping farmers understand downscaled probabilistic climate forecast information, agro-advisories that combined forecast information with advice on potential management options, and a combination of training and agro-advisory workshops. The study was conducted with about 120 farmers, 10 from each of 12 villages selected randomly from the villages that are within a 5 km radius from Kampi Ya Mawe research station for which long-term climate records are available, during the 2011-2012 short rain season. Three surveys, implemented during the pre-, mid-, and end-season periods, captured changes in management, productivity, and attitudes, associated with the provision of climate information.&nbsp; <br /><br />Relative to the control sample, farmers with access to enhanced climate information reduced their cropped area, invested in more intensive crop management, and achieved higher yields with attractive returns on investment relative to farmers in control villages. Farmers from treatment villages also demonstrated appreciation of the role of climate information in planning and managing farm activities, higher satisfaction with the season, and strong interest in receiving climate information on a regular basis. This interest was demonstrated by their willingness to pay a modest amount for the service if required. <br /><br />The evaluation was disaggregated by gender. Gender influenced adjustments to crop mix in response to climate information, with women preferring short-duration legumes. Gender did not appear to affect the subjective value put on climate information, or willingness to pay.</p><img src="" height="1" width="1" alt=""/>
06 Jan 2017 12:07:36 GMT