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Low Carbon Development Key issues
<p>Low Carbon Development: Key Issues is the first comprehensive textbook to address the interface between international development and climate change in a carbon constrained world.</p><p>It discusses the key conceptual, empirical and policy-related issues of low carbon development and takes an international and interdisciplinary approach to the subject by drawing on insights from across the natural sciences and social sciences whilst embedding the discussion in a global context.</p><img src="" height="1" width="1" alt=""/>
F. Urban 23 Jan 2017 05:26:39 GMT
Low Carbon Development Strategies: A primer on framing nationally appropriate mitigation actions (NAMAs) in Developing Countries
<p>UNEP and UNEP Risø Centre are engaged in providing financial and technical support to a number of countries working on Low Carbon Development Strategies (LCDS) and piloting Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Actions (NAMAs). From this engagement it is evident that there is a strong need for clarification both of the underlying terminology and possible approaches, and development of more detailed guidance and tools to assist the national processes.</p><p>Several initiatives by national, bilateral and multilateral actors are attempting to bring about this clarification and improved understanding, essentially combining practical application with normative development, and providing the experiences as input to the political negotiations being conducted under the UNFCCC.</p><p>This UNEP primer aims to contribute to this clarification by presenting the basic principles, proposing some possible elements of a national LCDS and NAMA preparation process, and providing a template for NAMA articulation.</p><img src="" height="1" width="1" alt=""/>
23 Jan 2017 04:54:10 GMT
Financing Pathways for Low Emissions and Climate Resilient Development
<p>Shifting the global economy onto a&nbsp;2°C trajectory implies a rapid shift of existing investment patterns and far reaching transformation in technology, infrastructure and practises, including the adoption of new financing and business models. A key challenge for developing countries is how to develop a national climate agenda that is fully integrated with development objectives so that the new paradigm balances social, economic and environmental objectives. This will be critical to ensuring a steady transition which will also be influenced by the structure of the economy and the wider political economy, existing institutional frameworks and priorities, domestic capacity and perceived risk for managing processes of change.</p><p>“National Financing Pathways” are put forward here as a concept that articulates the interdependencies between public, private and international sources of finance as a means of delivering scaled investment to support implementation of low emission and climate resilient development. The interplay between national policy objectives and institutional frameworks with various sources of finance can be considered as constituting a national finance ecosystem and so influencing the shape and pace of the financing pathway. Based on discussions with representatives in Chile, Colombia and Peru, this working paper&nbsp;identifies emerging issues that may influence a NFP and considers different frameworks and tools to develop such pathways.</p><img src="" height="1" width="1" alt=""/>
Amal-Lee Amin 23 Jan 2017 04:42:12 GMT
Low-Emission Development Strategy (LEDS) Handbook no.5
<p>This handbook reflects the content presented, and the discussions held, during the ClimaSouth LEDS Seminar held in Marrakech, on 16-17 April 2015. The handbook is intended as an introduction to the concept of Low-Emission Development Strategies (LEDS). It discusses steps towards developing such strategies, highlighting that low-emission development paths can achieve sustainable development, turning challenges into opportunities for national economies. The role of policy in achieving LEDS goals and the process for LEDS policy making are also presented, and examples of LEDS in Europe are provided. The aim of this handbook is to contribute to policy-makers’ and technicians’ efforts at addressing climate change management issues.</p><img src="" height="1" width="1" alt=""/>
23 Jan 2017 04:31:56 GMT
Utilising Electricity Access for Poverty Reduction - Full report
<p>The productive use of electricity can support sustained poverty reduction by enabling the creation and improvement of income generating activities. However, in order to realise these positive impacts, the level of electricity access must be sufficient and enabling conditions beyond the electricity supply itself must be in place.</p><p>The relationship between electricity access provision and poverty reduction has been unclear and policymakers are seeking answers to the following questions:</p><ul><li>What level of electricity access is required to enable and sustain poverty escape?</li><li>What constraints, despite increased access to electricity, mean that people are not able to use that electricity productively? How can they be removed?&nbsp;</li></ul><p>The research presented in this report has sought to explore these questions through a review of existing literature and case studies in Kenya and India which looked at the policy and regulatory regime in each country, and included stakeholder interviews and field research. The Literature Review and Case Study reports are available seperately from the Practical Action <a href="">website</a>.</p><img src="" height="1" width="1" alt=""/>
12 Jan 2017 02:30:46 GMT
Steps to overcome the North–South divide in research relevant to climate change policy and practice
<p>The authors of this Nature Climate Change Perspective article argue that Northern (developed country) domination of science relevant to climate change policy and practice, and limited research led by researchers in Southern developing countries, may be hindering further development and implementation of global climate change agreements and nationally appropriate actions. They acknowledge that some efforts have been made to address the divide but argue that progress has been slow. The article illustrates the extent of the divide, reviews underlying issues and analyses their consequences for climate change policy develop-ment and implementation. The authors propose a set of practical steps that a wide range of actors should take at global, regional and national scales to address this knowledge divide, with examples of some actions already being implemented.</p><img src="" height="1" width="1" alt=""/>
11 Jan 2017 11:41:23 GMT
Financing Universal Access to Electricity
<p>The recent emphasis on the provision of modern energy services as an important ingredient for development has improved finance availability for the goal of Sustainable Energy for All (SE4ALL).</p><p>However, existing financial flows are still insufficient to meet the target of universal access of sustainable energy by 2030 and often ignore poor people, who cannot afford the service, or those renewable energy technologies that cannot offer high rates of return.</p><p>Drawing on a large dataset of official development assistance and private investment for electrification between 1990 and 2012, our research has looked at the factors that explain donor and private finance in the electricity sector of developing countries. What lessons can be taken and shared with policymakers to avoid past mistakes and target countries and technologies that have been neglected in previous efforts?</p><img src="" height="1" width="1" alt=""/>
11 Jan 2017 05:21:27 GMT
Pro-Poor Access to Green Electricity in Kenya
<p>Is Kenya on track to follow an electrification strategy that is green and pro-poor? What are the main challenges to following this path? The two questions guiding this study are particularly relevant in a country with exceptional renewable energy resources, but where 80 per cent of the population lacks access to electricity and 50 per cent lives in poverty.</p><p>This study looks at four particular issues relating to access to green electricity for the poor: accessibility; commercial viability for project developers; financial sustainability for the State; and affordability. We will focus on grid electricity and mini-grids. For grid-connected generation, once electricity is fed to the grid, the issues of accessibility and affordability for the poor depend on national policies determining who gets electricity and at what price, making it impossible to differentiate between green and non-green electricity.</p><p>However, our study will show whether or not on-grid renewable generation can be financially sustainable in Kenya while providing affordable fees. For off-grid electricity, targeting the poor is a matter of situating generation capacity in the right places and affordability is a matter of setting prices that allow for cost recovery without being excessively expensive for the poor.</p><p>This report can support decision-making for development and climate finance institutions, as well as private investors in Kenya seeking a pro-poor green electrification strategy. It shows how to target the poor, which electrification alternatives to use, at what price, whether or not this is commercially viable and which policies would be required to make it so.</p><img src="" height="1" width="1" alt=""/>
A. Pueyo 11 Jan 2017 05:12:56 GMT
What Explains the Allocation of Aid and Private Investment for Electrification?
<p>This paper aims to inform policy looking to step up investment in the electricity sector of developing countries and align it to other development goals such as universal access to energy or sustainability.</p><p>Three questions guide the analysis:</p><ul><li>How and why has private and donor finance for electrification changed across time?</li><li>What are the different motivations of private investors and donors as regards who and what gets financed?</li><li>Are sustainability and equitable access priorities for private and donor investment?&nbsp;</li></ul><p>These questions are addressed by describing finance flows during the period 1990–2010 and performing an econometric analysis to explain inter-country allocation.</p><img src="" height="1" width="1" alt=""/>
A. Pueyo 11 Jan 2017 03:02:42 GMT
Maximisation of Benefits for the Poor of Investments in Renewable Electricity: A Policy Tool for Project Planning
<p>Electricity improves users’ quality of life and can enable income generation when used for productive activities, hence supporting an escape from the poverty trap. Where generation comes from renewable sources, it also makes a positive contribution to low-carbon development; for many, this is a classic ‘win-win’ situation.</p><p>This report uses the evidence collected through a comprehensive literature review to develop a policy tool to maximise the poverty impact of electrification projects. It can be of use for development and climate finance institutions funding renewable energy projects in developing countries, and keen to enhance the poverty impacts of these projects.</p><img src="" height="1" width="1" alt=""/>
A. Pueyo 11 Jan 2017 02:56:58 GMT
Strengthening the Poverty Impact of Renewable Electricity Investments: Summary of E-Discussion
<p>On 19 and 20 March 2014 IDS convened an e-discussion on ‘strengthening the poverty impact of renewable electricity investments’. The event sought to instigate a global dialogue on what is required to maximise the poverty impact of clean electricity investments, as well as inform ongoing IDS work on this topic.</p><p>The e-discussion was structured around three threads:</p><ol><li>How strong is the evidence that electrification has an impact on poor people, and does this matter in decisions to finance renewable generation capacity projects?</li><li>How can the poverty impact of renewable generation capacity projects be maximised?</li><li>How can poverty eradication be introduced into the Sustainable Energy for All (SE4ALL) and climate finance agendas?</li></ol><p>This note summarises the contributions made by different participants in the e-discussion. It generalises the points most commonly raised around each thread and reflects specific points of strong consensus or contestation, but without identifying specific contributors by name. It also provides a project team reflection on how valuable the event was for our research and why.</p><img src="" height="1" width="1" alt=""/>
A. Pueyo 11 Jan 2017 02:47:57 GMT
Climatic trends, risk perceptions and coping strategies of smallholder farmers in rural Uganda
<p>Smallholder farmers in Uganda face a wide range of agricultural production risks, with climate change and variability presenting new risks and vulnerabilities. Climate related risks&nbsp; such as prolonged dry seasons have become more frequent and intense with negative impacts on agricultural livelihoods and food security.</p><p>This paper assesses farmers’ perceptions of climate change and variability and analyses historical trends in temperature and rainfall in two rural districts of Uganda in order to determine the major climate-related risks affecting crop and livestock production and to identify existing innovative strategies for coping with and adapting to climate-related risks, with potential for up-scaling in rural districts. The traditional coping strategies that have been developed by these communities overtime provide a foundation for designing effective adaptation strategies. <br /><br />Drought, disease and pest epidemics, decreasing water sources, lack of pasture, bush fires, hailstorms, changes in crop flowering and fruiting times were the major climate-related risks reported across the two districts. Farmers use a wide range of agricultural technologies and strategies to cope with climate change and climate variability. Mulching, intercropping and planting of food security crops were among the most common practices used. Other strategies included water harvesting for domestic consumption, other soil and water conservation technologies and on-farm diversification. Farmers often use a combination of these technologies and practices to enhance agricultural productivity. The average maximum temperatures increased across the two districts. Trends in average annual rainfall showed mixed results with a general decline in one district and a relatively stable trend in the other district. Perceived changes in climate included erratic rainfall onset and cessation, which were either early or late, poor seasonal distribution of rainfall and little rainfall. Farmers also reported variations in temperatures. Farmers’ perception of changing rainfall characteristics and increasing temperatures were consistent with the observed historical climatic trends from meteorological data.</p><img src="" height="1" width="1" alt=""/>
10 Jan 2017 12:18:51 GMT
Malawi summary of baseline studies: country report for the GFCS Adaptation Program in Africa
<div>This report reflects the summary of baseline findings in Malawi, under the auspices of the Global Framework for Climate Services (GFCS) Adaptation Programme in Africa. It identifies gaps in climate information access and use at the local level, types of climate services farmers and pastoralists need in Malawi, relevant channels to reach farmers with requested services, lead-time and gender-specific requirements for the design and delivery of climate services that matter to farmers.</div><p>The analysis supports several recommendations for improving the supply, delivery, and iterative feedback and improvement of climate services in Malawi:</p><ul><li>to improve the supply of useful services, first develop climate service products to be responsive to farmer needs. Second, indicate value and integrate traditional indicators with the conventional climate forecasts to promote farmers’ use of scientific climate information in conjunction with their own indigenous knowledge. Finally, co-produce services with agricultural experts: establish a dialogue between national meteorology services, extension agents and farmers. This will represent an effective platform for relevant and useful climate services for farmers</li><li>to improve the delivery of climate information and advisories, climate information communication for farmers must rely on radio and extension workers both from government and NGOs. Extension agents should also be trained in understanding climate forecast concepts and integrate them into routine extension support</li><li>rigorous evaluation of climate services is a requirement for improving the usefulness of the services delivered. First, conduct post-season reviews to capture farmer feedback on received services. Second, continue to track climate information access and use at the local level, and changes against the baseline.&nbsp; </li></ul><p><br />This summary of CCAFS baseline findings from Malawi reveals the current state of climate information use at the local level, gaps and needs of farmers before they can benefit from improved science-based climate information, identifying the role of ICTs and rural radio to reach marginalized rural communities. It is hoped that these findings will offer valuable insights to the GFCS Adaptation Program in Africa, and future projects working to scale up relevant climate services for farmers and pastoralists in the country.&nbsp;</p><img src="" height="1" width="1" alt=""/>
10 Jan 2017 11:14:06 GMT
Tanzania summary of baseline studies: country report for the GFCS Adaptation Program in Africa
<p>This report reflects upon the consolidated findings from the baseline and scoping studies conducted under the auspices of Global Framework for Climate Services (GFCS) Adaptation Programme in Africa. It identifies gaps in climate information access and use at the local level, type of climate services farmers and pastoralists need in Tanzania, relevant channels to reach farmers with requested services, lead-time and gender specific requirements.</p><p>The analysis supports several recommendations for improving the supply, delivery, and iterative feedback and improvement of climate services in Tanzania:</p><ul><li>to improve the supply of useful services, first, co-produce climate services with farmers, and integrate indigenous knowledge with scientific climate forecasts to enhance relevance of climate information for local communities. Second, ensure timely delivery of accurate climate services, which is essential for these services to be useful to farmers and pastoralists for agricultural decision-making. Finally, downscale climate information to render it location specific, and make the service more relevant and credible for farmers</li><li>to improve the delivery of climate information and advisories, first, invest in good radio coverage.&nbsp; This is critical for the delivery of climate information as most households have access to climate information through radio. Second, diversify communication channels.&nbsp; This includes leveraging the power of ICTs (cell phones voice messages and reliance on village leaders) to reach all farmers with climate information, including women. Third, train government extension agents in understanding climate forecasts, and rely on these agents to deliver the information</li><li>rigorous evaluation of climate services is a requirement for improving the usefulness of the services. Conduct post-season reviews to capture farmer feedback on received services. Lastly, continue to track climate information access and use at the local level, and note changes against the baseline</li></ul><p><br />It is hoped that these findings will offer valuable insights to the GFCS Adaptation Program in Africa, and future projects working to scale up relevant climate services for farmers and pastoralists in Tanzania.&nbsp;&nbsp;</p><img src="" height="1" width="1" alt=""/>
10 Jan 2017 10:57:05 GMT
Towards policy integration of disaster risk, climate adaptation, and development in ASEAN: a baseline assessment
<div data-canvas-width="899.986665">This Insight attempts to create a baseline assessment of disaster risk reduction (DRR) and climate change adap-</div><div data-canvas-width="305.19332999999995">tation (CCA) policies in ten Southeast Asian countries. More than 50 per cent of global disaster mortality occurred in</div><div data-canvas-width="459.5699733333334">Southeast Asia between 2004 and 2014, and four ASEAN member states are ranked in the top 10 countries most affected by climate risk between 1996 and 2015. The integration of relevant existing global mechanisms into national and local regulatory systems, and especially into national development plans, is therefore necessary to ensure the development of adaptive and resilience capacities. Although the region has realised the importance of streamlining DRR and CCA policies in development plans, a baseline of such efforts has yet to exist to date.</div><div data-canvas-width="459.5699733333334">&nbsp;</div><div data-canvas-width="459.5699733333334">&nbsp;</div><img src="" height="1" width="1" alt=""/>
M. Sembiring 10 Jan 2017 10:42:01 GMT
Crops, crop pests and climate change - why Africa needs to be better prepared
<div data-canvas-width="144.0334704">Ongoing investments in agriculture will not deliver for Africa until the destabilising nature of crop pest events, especially shock outbreak events, are addressed. As a result of climate change, the prevalence of crop pests will change and the frequency of shock pest events will increase, putting agricultural systems at risk. The granularity of these changes, in terms of choices by farmers, cropping systems and markets, presents a critical challenge.</div><div data-canvas-width="144.0334704">&nbsp;</div><div data-canvas-width="144.0334704">The following recommendations are put forward:</div><ul><li>build capacity of plant health organisations, as key partners at the front-line against crop pests, in support of food security, trade and policy implementation</li><li>improve data gathering, centred on better understanding of critical metrics of crop pest impacts, extending beyond yield loss and encompassing economic and investment factors to improve prediction capabilities</li><li>enhance the understanding of risk behaviours of food chain stakeholders and their willingness to invest and adapt, to support increased adoption of technologies</li><li>improve fusion of disparate datasets and risk modelling of crop pest consequences for projections on farmer choices and cropping system at the landscape scale, informed by markets and policy</li><li>invest in pre-emptive crop pest resistance breeding against future high risk pests based on current and futured geographic distributions in order to avoid the consequences of shock pest episodes</li><li>take cognizance of the boundary-less nature of crop pests, and develop&nbsp; regional supra-governmental capabilities for the analysis and articulation of horizon scanning and crop pest risk concerns under climate change</li></ul><img src="" height="1" width="1" alt=""/>
Julian Smith 10 Jan 2017 04:22:59 GMT
Climate and livestock disease: assessing the vulnerability of agricultural systems to livestock pests under climate change scenarios
<p>Livestock as a sector is extremely important to the global economy and to rural livelihoods. As of 2013, there was an estimated 38 billion livestock in the world, or five animals for every person. Most (81%) were in developing countries. Around one billion smallholder farmers keep livestock, many of them women. The burden of animal disease in developing countries is high: livestock disease probably kills 20% of ruminants and more than 50% of poultry each year causing a loss of approximately USD 300 billion per year. Climate change can exacerbate disease in livestock, and some diseases are especially sensitive to climate change. Among 65 animal diseases identified as most important to poor livestock keepers, 58% are climate sensitive. Climate change may also have indirect effects on animal disease, and these may be greater than the direct effects. <br /><br />In order to address climate impacts on this sector, this paper makes the following recommendations: </p><ul><li>invest in ‘no regret’ adaptation responses. Many adaptation responses based on improving the control of climate sensitive livestock diseases are ‘no-regret’ options, which, by reducing the burden of livestock disease, will enhance community resilience, alleviate poverty and address global inequity irrespective of climate change</li><li>improve disease surveillance and response in order to detect changes in disease in a timely way, thus dramatically reducing the costs of response. This requires investment and innovation in disease reporting systems as well as laboratories capable of confirming diseases. Risk-based and participatory surveillance are promising options for improving disease reporting</li><li>increase the capacity to forecast near term occurrence of climate sensitive diseases, and to predict longer-term distribution of diseases through better epidemiological information and ground-truthed models</li><li>improve animal health service delivery by investing in the public sector and supporting innovations in the private sector such as community animal health workers linked to private veterinarians. Promote “One Health” and Ecohealth approaches to disease control, especially in vulnerable communities with high reliance on livestock (e.g. pastoralists in East Africa)</li><li>support eradication of priority diseases where this is economically justified. Develop diagnostics and vaccines, and promote adoption of good practices and strengthened biosecurity to improve disease control</li><li>increase the resilience of livestock systems by supporting diversification of livestock and livelihoods, and integrating livestock farming with agriculture. Consider promotion of species and breeds that are more resistant to disease and climate change</li><li>adopt breeding strategies focused on identifying and improving breeds that are better adapted to climate change impacts and disease</li><li>understand the potential land use changes in response to climate change and monitor their impacts on animal disease to allow preventive or remedial actions</li></ul><img src="" height="1" width="1" alt=""/>
10 Jan 2017 04:00:23 GMT
Mass displacement and the challenge for urban resilience
<div data-canvas-width="313.4366666666666">The concept of urban resilience is increasingly being used to describe the attributes of the urban system that are needed to deal with environmental disasters, conflict and financial crises. Large-scale, sudden population movements, prompted by both rapid-onset ‘natural’ disasters such as floods and ‘man-made’ disasters like conflict are on the rise, seeing increasing numbers of displaced people moving into urban areas. This represents a significant stress factor, in particular for towns and cities with already weak formal institutions that face difficulties in delivering adequate basic services to growing populations.</div><div data-canvas-width="313.4366666666666">&nbsp;</div><div data-canvas-width="313.4366666666666"><div data-canvas-width="197.11866666666666">The paper considers resilience to mass displacement in urban areas, focussing on the social and economic sub-systems – namely, shelter, health care and protection; basic service provision; economic development and employment; and social and political inclusion and community cohesion. It focuses on how well the urban system responds to new challenges and provides solutions for all residents. In particular, the paper finds that the resilience of an urban system cannot be understood without attention to the diverse experiences and needs of different groups within it: longer-term residents, new arrivals, temporary residents and, particularly, vulnerable groups.</div></div><div data-canvas-width="313.4366666666666">&nbsp;</div><div data-canvas-width="313.4366666666666">&nbsp;</div><img src="" height="1" width="1" alt=""/>
A. Kirbyshire 10 Jan 2017 02:54:01 GMT
Reaching more farmers: Innovative approaches to scaling up climate-smart agriculture
<p>The purpose of this working paper is to provide insight into how we can use novel approaches to scale up research findings on climate-smart agriculture (CSA) to meaningfully address the challenges of poverty and climate change. The approaches described include those based on value chains and private sector involvement, policy engagement, and information and communication technologies and agro-advisory services. The paper draws on 11 case studies to exemplify these new approaches to scaling up. These are synthesised using a simple conceptual framework that draws on a review of the most important challenges to scaling up. This provides the material for a discussion around how particular scaling up approaches can help to address some of the challenges of scaling up. The analysis offers insights into scaling approaches, challenges and some opportunities for scaling CSA practices and technologies. <br /><br />The authors conclude that multi-stakeholder platforms and policy making networks are key to effective upscaling, especially if paired with capacity enhancement, learning, and innovative approaches to support decision making of farmers. Projects that aim to intervene upstream at higher leverage points can be highly efficient and probably offer cost-effective dissemination strategies that reach across scales and include new and more diverse partnerships. However, these novel approaches still face challenges of promoting uptake, which remain contextualized and thus require a certain level of local engagement, while continuously paying attention to farmer’s needs and their own situations.</p><img src="" height="1" width="1" alt=""/>
O. Westermann 06 Jan 2017 12:50:42 GMT
Climate change impacts and mitigation in the developing world: an integrated assessment of the agriculture and forestry sectors
<div data-canvas-width="396.3442000000001">This paper conducts an integrated assessment of climate change impacts and climate mitigation on agricultural</div><div data-canvas-width="396.64467500000023">commodity markets and food availability in low- and middle-income countries. The analysis uses the partial</div><div data-canvas-width="395.90232499999996">equilibrium model GLOBIOM to generate scenarios to 2080. The findings show that climate change effects on</div><div data-canvas-width="393.88575979999996">the agricultural sector will increase progressively over the century. By 2030, the impact of climate change on food</div><div data-canvas-width="392.32099824999966">consumption is moderate but already twice as large in a world with high inequalities than in a more equal world. In</div><div data-canvas-width="392.99575000000004">the long run, impacts could be much stronger, with global average calorie losses of 6 percent by 2050 and 14 percent</div><div data-canvas-width="393.54">by 2080. A mitigation policy to stabilize climate below 2°C uniformly applied to all regions as a carbon tax would<div data-canvas-width="393.97749999999996">also result in a 6 percent reduction in food availability by 2050 and 12 percent reduction by 2080 compared to the</div><div data-canvas-width="394.08003249999996">reference scenario.</div><div data-canvas-width="394.08003249999996">&nbsp;</div><div data-canvas-width="392.1050000000001">To avoid more severe impacts of climate change mitigation on development than climate change itself, revenue from carbon pricing policies will need to be redistributed appropriately. Overall, the projected effects of climate change and mitigation on agricultural markets raise important issues for food security in the long run, but remain more limited in the medium term horizon of 2030. Thus, there are opportunities for low- and middle-income countries to pursue immediate development needs and thus prepare for later periods when adaptation needs and mitigation efforts will become the greatest.</div></div><img src="" height="1" width="1" alt=""/>
06 Jan 2017 12:21:41 GMT
Impacts of seasonal climate communication strategies on farm management and livelihoods in Wote, Kenya
<p>This study was undertaken in Wote division, Makueni district, Eastern province, Kenya, to test the effectiveness of different methods of communicating downscaled seasonal climate forecast information, and to assess its impact on management and productivity of smallholder farms. The communication methods tested include training workshops aimed at helping farmers understand downscaled probabilistic climate forecast information, agro-advisories that combined forecast information with advice on potential management options, and a combination of training and agro-advisory workshops. The study was conducted with about 120 farmers, 10 from each of 12 villages selected randomly from the villages that are within a 5 km radius from Kampi Ya Mawe research station for which long-term climate records are available, during the 2011-2012 short rain season. Three surveys, implemented during the pre-, mid-, and end-season periods, captured changes in management, productivity, and attitudes, associated with the provision of climate information.&nbsp; <br /><br />Relative to the control sample, farmers with access to enhanced climate information reduced their cropped area, invested in more intensive crop management, and achieved higher yields with attractive returns on investment relative to farmers in control villages. Farmers from treatment villages also demonstrated appreciation of the role of climate information in planning and managing farm activities, higher satisfaction with the season, and strong interest in receiving climate information on a regular basis. This interest was demonstrated by their willingness to pay a modest amount for the service if required. <br /><br />The evaluation was disaggregated by gender. Gender influenced adjustments to crop mix in response to climate information, with women preferring short-duration legumes. Gender did not appear to affect the subjective value put on climate information, or willingness to pay.</p><img src="" height="1" width="1" alt=""/>
06 Jan 2017 12:07:36 GMT
Is Climate-Smart Agriculture effective? A review of selected cases
<div data-canvas-width="635.6900000000002">Climate-Smart Agriculture (CSA) is an approach to address the interlinked challenges of food security and climate change, and has three objectives: (1) sustainably increasing agricultural productivity, to support equitable increases in farm incomes, food security and development; (2) adapting and building resilience of agricultural and food security systems to climate change at multiple levels; and (3) reducing greenhouse gas emissions from agriculture</div><div data-canvas-width="282.0216666666667">(including crops, livestock and fisheries). This paper examines 19 CSA case studies, to assess their effectiveness in achieving the stated objectives of CSA, while also assessing other co-benefits, economic costs and benefits,</div><div data-canvas-width="37.52833333333333">barriers to adoption, success factors, and gender and social inclusion issues. <br /><br />The analysis concludes that CSA interventions can be highly effective, achieving the three CSA objectives, while also generating additional benefits in a cost-effective and inclusive manner. However, this depends on context specific project design and implementation, for which institutional capacity is key. The paper also identifies serious gaps in data availability and comparability, which restricts further analysis.</div><img src="" height="1" width="1" alt=""/>
06 Jan 2017 02:13:26 GMT
Gender in climate-smart agriculture: module 18 for gender in agriculture sourcebook
<p>This module provides guidance and a comprehensive menu of practical tools for integrating gender in the planning, design, implementation, and evaluation of projects and investments in climate-smart agriculture (CSA). The module emphasizes the importance and ultimate goal of integrating gender in CSA practices, which is to reduce gender inequalities and ensure that men and women can equally benefit from any intervention in the agricultural sector to reduce risks linked to climate change. Climate change has an impact on food and nutrition security and agriculture, and the agriculture sector is one of the largest emitters of greenhouse gases. It is crucial to recognize that climate change affects men and women differently. The content is drawn from tested good practice and innovative approaches, with an emphasis on lessons learned, benefits and impacts, implementation issues, and replicability. These insights and lessons related to gender in CSA will assist practitioners to improve project planning, design, monitoring, and evaluation; to effectively scale up and enhance the sustainability of efforts that are already underway; or to pursue entirely different solutions. This module contains five thematic notes (TNs) that provide a concise and technically sound guide to gender integration in the selected themes. These notes summarize what has been done and highlight the success and lessons learned from projects and programs. [Wolrd Bank summary]</p><img src="" height="1" width="1" alt=""/>
06 Jan 2017 01:50:39 GMT
Sustainable small ruminant breeding program for climate-smart villages in Kenya
<p>Improving productivity of sheep and goats (i.e. small ruminants- SR) under smallholder farming systems faced with challenges of unfavourable climatic events has been identified as one means of enhancing livelihoods of communities living in these areas. Interventions are targeted through clusters of farmers grouped into “climate smart villages” (CSV) under a collaborative action by CCAFS, ViAgroforestry, World Neighbours and the Kenya Agricultural and Livestock Research Organization. <br /><br />This baseline study was implemented to understand the socio-economic aspects, population structure, management practices and production constraints of SR in the CSV of the Lower Nyando basin of Kenya. The results indicate that the community is mainly comprised of young people (mainly students) and men and women above 50 years of age who manage the various households. Land sizes owned are small, with 58% of the households owning less than one hectare of land on which they grow crops and rear on average eight SR in addition to some cattle and poultry. The SR reared are mainly indigenous breeds, with some crossbreds resulting from the few introduced Red Maasai sheep and the Galla goats for improved productivity. Breeding of SR is not controlled, and since larger animals fetch better prices on the market, over time negative selection has affected the SR population. SR are generally left to graze on stovers from crops, and take a long time to grow to maturity (up to 4 years). Farmers in the CSV know what traits they desire in their SR, and are willing to learn and change their practices in order to improve their livelihoods. <br /><br />It is evident that the organization of the households into CSVs provides a great opportunity for capacity development which should have a strong component of engaging the youth, and the development of a selection and breed improvement program for SR in the Lower Nyando area.</p><img src="" height="1" width="1" alt=""/>
06 Jan 2017 01:44:36 GMT
Training agricultural research & extension staff to produce and communicate agro-climatic information, to enhance the resilience and food security of farmers and pastoralists in Kiteto, Tanzania
<p>National Agricultural Extension Systems in ten districts in Tanzania and Malawi are receiving training in the production and use of climate services as part of a WFP-CCAFS joint activity within the GFCS Adaptation Programme in Africa. This document reports on the first training of intermediaries, conducted for 30 agricultural extension and NGO staff from Kiteto District, Tanzania, 13-17th October 2014 and draws lessons from this to feed forward into preparation and training in the remaining districts in 2015. Preparation for the course included analysis of historical climate information, as well as training of staff from the Tanzania Meteorological Agency in downscaling using the Climate Prediction Tool (CPT). The ensuing training course for intermediaries covered the Participatory Integrated Climate Services for Agriculture (PICSA) approach. This aimed to equip agricultural extension field staff to provide local historical climate information, seasonal and sub-seasonal forecasts (seamless forecasts) together with crop and livelihood information and to facilitate use of participatory decision making tools by smallholder farmers, in order to enhance farm and field-level decision making for resilience and food security. <br /><br />Training included a strong practical component. At the end of the training course agricultural extension officers and NGO staff developed plans for implementation in the locations that they work. Formal and informal feedback from participants was very positive. From this first training several improvements to feed into subsequent training in Tanzania and Malawi were identified and recommendations are made. These include: how to ensure that climate information for districts is analysed well in advance; appropriate crop and livestock management options are identified to cover variation within each district; climatic variability is adequately addressed within districts; and the potential benefits of CPT downscaled forecasting are fully explored.</p><img src="" height="1" width="1" alt=""/>
06 Jan 2017 01:20:48 GMT
Bhutan climate + change handbook
<div data-canvas-width="662.0999999999999">Bhutan sits in the Hindu Kush Himalayas (HKH), and, like its regional neighbours,faces numerous existential challenges, driven primarily by climate change. Warming trends and melting glaciers pose serious threats to the nation and its inhabitants.</div><div data-canvas-width="662.0999999999999">&nbsp;</div><div data-canvas-width="662.0999999999999"><div data-canvas-width="563.2333333333333">This Climate Change Adaptation Resource Handbook has been developed as part of the activities implemented under the EU-funded Rural Livelihoods and Climate Change Adaptation in the Himalayas Initiative. This book is aimed at government officials and other local policymakers who wish to understand the impacts of climate change with specific reference to Bhutan.</div></div><img src="" height="1" width="1" alt=""/>
05 Jan 2017 12:37:31 GMT
Climate models: what they show us and how they can be used in planning
<div data-canvas-width="269.563875">The climate conditions that we experience are the result of complex interactions between processes occurring in the atmosphere and in the oceans. These processes operate at global and local scales and are influenced by other factors, including the land surface, polar ice sheets and the sun. This is why different parts of the world experience different climates. Global Climate Models (GCMs) are computer models that attempt to capture and simulate all these processes, based on our current knowledge.</div><div data-canvas-width="269.563875">&nbsp;</div><div data-canvas-width="269.563875"><div data-canvas-width="128.93055">Global Climate Models are run on supercomputers at a number of centres around the world, including the Max Planck Institute in Germany, the UK Met Office Hadley Centre, and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration in the USA. The models use physical laws and mathematical equations that reflect our understanding of atmospheric and oceanic processes.</div></div><div data-canvas-width="128.93055">&nbsp;</div><div data-canvas-width="128.93055"><div data-canvas-width="222.79075">The nature of planning decisions that are made over the medium term is different from those that are made in the short term. So what is required from climate projections is different from what is needed from shorter-term weather predictions. The resolution provided by GCMs is useful to inform medium- to long-term planning decisions. The poor availability of historical weather observations in some parts of Africa for example limits understanding of how reliable these models are.</div></div><div data-canvas-width="222.79075">&nbsp;</div><div data-canvas-width="222.79075">&nbsp;</div><div data-canvas-width="222.79075">&nbsp;</div><div data-canvas-width="222.79075">&nbsp;</div><div data-canvas-width="222.79075">&nbsp;</div><div data-canvas-width="222.79075">&nbsp;</div><div data-canvas-width="222.79075">&nbsp;</div><div data-canvas-width="222.79075">&nbsp;</div><div data-canvas-width="128.93055">&nbsp;</div><img src="" height="1" width="1" alt=""/>
05 Jan 2017 12:07:35 GMT
Vulnerability to climate change and adaptation strategies of local communities in Malawi: experiences of women fish-processing groups in the Lake Chilwa Basin
<div data-canvas-width="124.96421266666667">In recent years, research on climate change and human security has received much attention among policy makers and academia alike. Communities in the Global South that rely on an intact resource base and struggle with poverty, existing inequalities and historical injustices will especially be affected by predicted changes in temperature and precipitation. <br /><br />The objective of this article is to better understand under what conditions local communities can adapt to anticipated impacts of climate change. The empirical part of the paper answers the question as to what extent local women engaged in fish processing in the Chilwa Basin in Malawi have experienced climate change and how they are affected by it.</div><div data-canvas-width="124.96421266666667">&nbsp;</div><div data-canvas-width="124.96421266666667">The article assesses an adaptation project designed to make those women more resilient to a warmer and more variable climate. The research results show that marketing and improving fish processing as strategies to adapt to climate change have their limitations. The study concludes that livelihood diversification can be a more effective strategy for Malawian women to adapt to a more variable and unpredictable climate rather than exclusively relying on a resource base that is threatened by climate change.</div><img src="" height="1" width="1" alt=""/>
H. Jørstad 03 Jan 2017 11:11:51 GMT
Media Monitoring Report: The Low Emission and Climate Resilient Development (LECRD) Project: Volume and Quality of Media Coverage of Climate Change and El Niño related Disasters in Kenya
<p>Media play a crucial role in mitigation of risks that come with natural disasters like El Niño. Citizens rely on the media for public education, early warning, evacuation, and coordination of&nbsp; post-disaster relief. Media is inextricably entwined with disasters and hazard mitigation. Electronic and print media often cover natural disasters and significantly affect how and what the public learns about and perceives natural hazards. Improving the linkages between media and disaster-mitigation practitioners can therefore prepare the public to act promptly on warnings and in the process, help to mitigate disasters.&nbsp; This can also accelerate the shift of the societal emphasis from post-disaster relief toward pre-disaster initiatives.</p><p>This report examines the experiences, perceptions and recommendations of sampled professional journalists and an extensive content analysis of the media coverage of the disasters and climate change in Kenya. The aim of the report was to establish a basic understanding of the challenges that the media faces in reporting disasters and climate change issues in Kenya.</p><img src="" height="1" width="1" alt=""/>
03 Jan 2017 10:36:33 GMT
Recommendations of the Task Force on Climate-related Financial Disclosures
<div data-canvas-width="451.36437500000005">One of the most significant, and perhaps most misunderstood, risks that organisations face today relates to climate change. While it is widely recognized that continued emission of greenhouse gases will cause further warming of the planet and this warming could lead to damaging economic and social consequences, the exact timing and severity of physical effects are difficult to estimate. <br /><br />The large-scale and long-term nature of the problem makes it uniquely challenging, especially in the context of economic decision making. Accordingly, many organizations incorrectly perceive the implications of climate change to be long term and, therefore, not necessarily relevant to decisions made today.</div><div data-canvas-width="451.36437500000005">&nbsp;</div><div data-canvas-width="451.36437500000005">The potential impacts of climate change on organizations, however, are not only physical and do not manifest only in the long term. To stem the disastrous effects of climate change within this century, nearly 200 countries agreed in December 2015 to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and accelerate the transition to a lower-carbon economy. The reduction in greenhouse gas emissions implies movement away from fossil fuel energy and related physical assets. This coupled with rapidly declining costs and increased deployment of clean and energy-efficient technologies could have significant, near-term financial implications for organizations dependent on extracting, producing, and using coal, oil, and natural gas. While such organizations may face significant climate- related risks, they are not alone. In fact, climate- related risks and the expected transition to a lower-carbon economy affect most economic sectors and industries. While changes associated with a transition to a lower-carbon economy present significant risks, they also create significant opportunities for a broad range of organizations focused on climate change mitigation and adaptation solutions. <br /><br />Because this transition to a lower-carbon economy requires significant and, in some cases, disruptive changes across economic sectors and industries in the near term, financial policymakers are interested in the implications for the global financial system, especially in terms of avoiding severe financial shocks and sudden losses in asset values. Potential shocks and losses in value include the economic impact of precipitous changes in energy use and the revaluation of carbon-intensive assets—real and financial assets whose value depends on the extraction or use of fossil fuels. Given such concerns, and the potential impact on financial intermediaries and investors, the G20 Finance Ministers and Central Bank Governors asked the Financial Stability Board to review how the financial sector can take account of climate- related Recommendations of the Task Force on Climate-related Financial Disclosures iii<div data-canvas-width="603.1112500000003">issues. As part of its review, the Financial Stability Board identified the need for better information to support informed investment, lending, and insurance underwriting decisions to improve understanding and analysis of climate-related risks and opportunities, and over time, to help promote a smooth rather than an abrupt transition to a lower-carbon economy.</div></div><img src="" height="1" width="1" alt=""/>
03 Jan 2017 10:11:21 GMT
Assessing the evidence: migration, environment and climate change in Viet Nam
<p>The Socialist Republic of Viet Nam is one of the six pilot countries of the European Union-funded Migration, Environment and Climate Change: Evidence for Policy (MECLEP) project. <br /><br />Drawing from an extensive number of sources, including academic papers and reports produced by the Government and national and international organizations, this assessment aims to: (i) provide an overview of the linkages between migration patterns and environmental change in VietNam; (ii) critically analyse national policies that address these links; and (iii) propose some related research and policy implications. <br /><br />Viet Nam is particularly exposed to floods and typhoons as well as droughts and sea-level rise, which have major impacts on the country’s environment and the livelihoods of its 90.73 million people. Adverse environmental conditions clearly influence migration patterns in the country: since the 1990s, the relocation programmes implemented by the Government for communities affected by environmental degradation and the number of people internally displaced by natural hazards in recent years (more than 2 million between 2008 and 2015) are clear signs of the migration–environment nexus. <br /><br />The report concludes that more detailed research should be conducted in order to fully understand the migration–environment nexus and exhaustively address the needs of relocated and displaced people in the country. The establishment of a ministry of migration could play an important role in ensuring that people migrate in the best conditions</p><img src="" height="1" width="1" alt=""/>
D.N. Anh 03 Jan 2017 09:57:26 GMT
National Climate-Smart Agriculture and Food Security Action Plan of Ghana (2016-2020)
<div data-canvas-width="323.33950000000004">This policy document – National Climate-Smart Agriculture and Food Security Action Plan – is produced on the conviction that climate-smart agricultural practices, the bedrock of food security should be deliberately programmed in Ghana. <br /><br />The National Climate Change Policy provides a broad framework for formulating specific strategies to address local climate change challenges. This Action Plan therefore is an effort to translate to the ground level the broad national goals and objectives in climate-smart agriculture. A policy document such as this cannot derive solely from the National Climate Change Policy. A key step in preparing this document was the review of the relevant existing policy documents for direction and inputs. In the review, every effort was made to distil the essence of the various policy documents and factor these into the design of contents of the National Climate-Smart Agriculture and Food Security Action Plan.</div><img src="" height="1" width="1" alt=""/>
03 Jan 2017 05:11:41 GMT