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Renewable energy in cities
<p>The transition to renewables cuts across the entire urban energy landscape, from buildings, to transport, to industry and power. It means integrating energy supply and demand between different sectors, through smart technologies, rigorous planning and holistic decision-making.<br /><br />Cities today have the opportunity and the means to provide sustainable services and quality of life to their citizens. Urban areas account for more than half the world’s population, as well as 65% of global energy demand and 70% of energy-related carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. Cities, therefore, need to take action to meet the rising needs of their populations while maintaining a healthy living environment, combatting poverty and avoiding catastrophic climate change.</p><p>While the potential for renewables is high, it varies greatly depending on each city’s characteristics. Population density, growth prospects and demand profiles in cold versus hot climates all shape the opportunities to introduce renewables, including the vast growth potential for uses in urban buildings<br />and transport. Accordingly, deployment strategies must be tailored to technology options and enabling policy frameworks for each city.</p><p>Priority action areas for renewable energy in cities:</p><ul><li>renewable energy in buildings</li><li>sustainable options for transport</li><li>creating smart integrated urban energy systems</li></ul><img src="" height="1" width="1" alt=""/>
18 Oct 2016 04:20:28 GMT
State and trends of carbon pricing 2016
<p>Reflecting the growing momentum for carbon pricing worldwide, the 2016 edition of the State and Trends of Carbon Pricing report targets the wide audience of public and private stakeholders engaged in carbon pricing design and implementation. This report also provides critical input for negotiators involved in implementation of the Paris Agreement at the meeting of the Conference of the Parties (COP) in Marrakesh.</p><p>As in the previous editions, the report provides an up-to-date overview of existing and emerging carbon<br />pricing instruments around the world, including national and subnational initiatives. Furthermore, it gives an<br />overview of current corporate carbon pricing initiatives.<br /><br />Another key focus of the report is on the importance of aligning carbon pricing with the broader policy<br />landscape. The analysis provides lessons for policymakers on how to maximize synergies between climate<br />mitigation and other related policies, while managing potential tensions and tradeoffs.<br /><br />This year’s report provides new modelling analysis to demonstrate the crucial benefits that an international<br />carbon market established under Article 6 of the Paris Agreement could provide in reducing the costs to<br />countries of achieving their emission reduction targets. An international carbon market could thus enable<br />greater ambition in taking steps to reduce greenhouse gas emissions to a level consistent with the 2°C<br />climate stabilisation goal.</p><img src="" height="1" width="1" alt=""/>
18 Oct 2016 03:49:41 GMT
Cost-Benefit analysis of disaster risk reduction: a synthesis for informed decision making
<p>Annual economic losses and fatalities caused by natural disasters are subject to large fluctuations and are strongly linked to extreme events such as the Indian Ocean tsunami in 2004, cyclone Nargis in 2008 or the Haiti earthquake of 2010 (CRED, 2015). However, there is a clear trend of increasing economic and human losses over the last 40 years.</p><p>There are several reasons for this trend. Firstly, a rising world population leads to the increased settlement of socially disadvantaged segments of the population in high-risk areas such as riverine flood plains or areas with high probability of landslides. Secondly, human-induced climate change leads to an increased frequency of hydro-metrological extreme events. These combined effects produce a growing number of disasters due to natural hazards.</p><p>The objective of this paper is the development of a structured synthesis of available case studies to create generalised statements about the economic efficiency of DRR. Furthermore, the goal is to present results specifically for different hazard types to allow for a comparison of DRR across all hazards.</p><p>Key results include:</p><ul><li>DRR pays off – Based on 117 case studies, 102 report average cost-benefit ratios above the economic equilibrium. This is a powerful argument for future investments in disaster prevention</li><li>the lower the human development index (HDI) of a country the higher the economic gain of DRR measures - on average there is a higher gain from DRR measures in countries with a low HDI compared to highly developed nations</li></ul><img src="" height="1" width="1" alt=""/>
D. Hugenbusch 18 Oct 2016 02:17:34 GMT
The State of Food and Agriculture 2016: climate change, agriculture and food security
<p>In adopting the goals of the 2030 Agenda on Sustainable Development and the Paris Agreement on Climate Change, the international communit y took responsibility for building a sustainable future. But meeting the goals of eradicating hunger and poverty by 2030, while addressing the threat of climate change, will require a profound transformation of food and agriculture systems worldwide.</p><p>The effects of climate change on agricultural production and livelihoods are expected to intensify over time, and to vary across countries and regions. Beyond 2030, the negative impacts of climate change on the productivity of crops, livestock, fisheries and forestry will become increasingly severe in all regions.</p><p>Policymakers must recognize the need to manage trade-offs, and set out concrete measures for better aligning multiple objectives and incentive structures. For example, the gender equity trade-offs of planned actions need to be systematically analysed – a shift to more resilient intercropping systems has sometimes cost women their control over specific crops. One area with a large potential for policy realignment is the redesign of agricultural support measures in a way that facilitates, rather than impedes, the transition to sustainable agriculture. In 2015, developed and major developing ountries spent more than US$560 billion on agricultural production support, including subsidies on inputs and direct payments to farmers. Some measures, such as input subsidies, may induce inefficient use of agrochemicals and increase the emissions intensity of production. Making support conditional upon the adoption of practices that lower emissions and conserve natural resources is one way of aligning agricultural development and climate goals.</p><p>Policies on nutrition, food consumption, food price support, natural resources management, infrastructure development, energy and so on, may similarly need to be re-set. To address trade-offs, the process must ensure greater inclusiveness and transparency in decision-making, as well as incentives that provide long-term public and collective benefits.</p><p>More climate finance needs to flow to agriculture to fund the investment cost associated with the required large-scale transformation of its sectors and the development of climate-smart food production systems.</p><img src="" height="1" width="1" alt=""/>
18 Oct 2016 01:57:13 GMT
Climate change, children and poverty: engaging children and youth in policy debate and action
<p>Children’s vulnerability to climate change can be understood as an intersection of three axes. The first is exposure; the extent to which children live in a physical location that is vulnerable to drought, floods, extreme weather events and sea level rise. Recent estimates by UNICEF indicate that 160 million children live in drought-prone areas, and half a billion more live in zones at risk to high floods and severe storms.</p><p>The second axis is socio-economic, with vulnerability to hazards due to a lack of resources, poverty and marginalization. Families without adequate incomes and assets, protective infrastructure and housing, access to basic services, and inadequate nutrition and clean water, face the greatest risk in a changing climate. The third axis is time, today’s children and future generations will bear the brunt of environmental impacts, creating an inter-generational injustice without precedent. All children fall somewhere along these three axes, but it is the children who live in greatest poverty and in the most exposed places that face the greatest risks. More than just passive victims, these young people, often with the support of their caregivers and communities, also represent agents of change and have consistently demonstrated the capacity to devise local solutions, participate in global conversations and contribute to a safe and sustainable future.</p><p>This brief argues that:<br /><br /></p><ul><li>children and young people, particularly those living in poverty, are among the most vulnerable to the impacts of climate change</li><li>nevertheless, children and youth have shown that they can take an active role in raising awareness and creating innovative solutions</li><li>they must be empowered and supported to project their voice and to be part of the conversation in mitigation and adaptation planning and action</li><li>including the voice and needs of children at all levels of decision-making will help create a more sustainable, equitable and resilient society</li></ul><img src="" height="1" width="1" alt=""/>
B. Mauger 14 Oct 2016 04:00:19 GMT
The Republic of the Marshall Islands: disaster management reference handbook
<p>The Disaster Management Reference Handbook Series is intended to provide decision makers, planners, responders and disaster management practitioners with an overview of the disaster management structure, policies, laws, and plans for each country covered in the series. Natural and man-made threats most likely to affect the country are discussed. The handbooks also provide basic country background information, including cultural, demographic, geographic, infrastructure and other relevant data.<br /><br />Conditions such as poverty, water and sanitation, vulnerable groups and other humanitarian issues are included. A basic overview of the health situation in the country and disease surveillance is also covered. The handbooks include information on key national entities involved in disaster management, disaster response and preparation, and the military’s role in disaster relief. Information on United Nation agencies, international NGOs, major local NGOs, and key U.S. agencies and programs in the country, are also provided.</p><p>The Republic of the Marshall Islands (RMI) comprises 29 atolls and five low-lying islands, including the atolls Bikini, Ebetem Kwajalein, Ebeye Enewetak, Majuro, Rongelap, and Utirik. Twenty-two of the atolls and four islands are inhabited.</p><p>RMI faces numerous development challenges with geographical, social and economic factors contributing to high levels of vulnerability, and climate change is expected to exacerbate existing challenges. Current progress in disaster risk reduction (DRR) varies. Most progress has been made in addressing water issues and education and awareness on DRR. Progress has been weakest in relation to creating an enabling environment for improved DRM; mainstream DRM in planning, decision making, budgetary<br />processes at the national and local levels; and implementing and enforcing building codes and zoning. Currently DRR is not specified in national budgeting expenditures and RMI faces the challenge of limited technical and financial resources across ministries. The integration of DRR and disaster management (DM) into sustainable development policies, planning and programming needs further strengthening. The level of awareness amongst all national and local<br />level stakeholders and decision makers that DRR and DRM are key development issues also needs to be improved. Little progress has been made in developing local plans for emergency response. Although Non-Government Organizations (NGOs) are working with outer island communities, there is a lack of a coordinated approach to disaster preparedness and response.</p><img src="" height="1" width="1" alt=""/>
13 Oct 2016 12:39:27 GMT
Poverty & death: disaster and mortality 1996-2015
<p>The period 1996 to 2015 saw 7,056 disasters recorded worldwide by EM-DAT, the Emergency Events Database. The frequency of geophysical disasters (primarily earthquakes, including tsunamis, and volcanic eruptions) remained broadly constant throughout this period but there was a sustained rise in climate- and weather-related events (floods, storms and heatwaves in particular) which accounted for the majority of disaster deaths in most years.</p><p>Of the 1.35 million people killed by natural hazards over the past 20 years, more than half died in earthquakes, with the remainder due to weather- and climate-related hazards. The overwhelming majority of these deaths occurred in low- and middle-income countries. The poorest nations paid the highest price in terms of the numbers killed per disaster and per 100,000 population. </p><p>The global plan for reducing disaster losses, the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction, adopted by all UN member States in March 2015, sets a target for a substantial reduction in global disaster mortality; the statistics in this report point towards several major conclusions with implications for achieving this target:</p><ul><li>the high death tolls from earthquakes, including tsunamis, over the last 20 years is a deeply troubling trend given the pace of urbanization around the world in many seismic zones. This underlines the need to promote the mainstreaming of disaster risk assessments into land-use policy development and implementation, including urban planning, building codes and investing in earthquake-resistant infrastructure, notably housing, schools, health facilities and work places. The private sector, and the construction industry in particular, need to be partners in this endeavour</li><li>while better data is needed on overall disaster mortality, particularly in relation to weather- and climate-related hazards in low-income and lower-middle-income countries, it is clear that there needs to be more focus on alleviating the impact of climate change on countries which contribute least to greenhouse gas emissions but which suffer disproportionate losses of life because of extreme weather events exacerbated by rising sea levels and the warming of the land and sea</li></ul><img src="" height="1" width="1" alt=""/>
13 Oct 2016 10:55:24 GMT
No sense of ownership in weak participation: a forest conservation experiment in Tanzania
<p>Sense of ownership is often advocated as an argument for local participation within the epistemic development and nature conservation communities. Stakeholder participation in initiating, designing or implementing institutions is claimed to establish a sense of ownership among the stakeholders and subsequently improve the intended outcomes of the given institution. Theoretical and empirical justi cations of the hypothesis remain scarce. A better understanding of the effects of local participation can motivate more extensive and stronger participation of local stakeholders and improve institutional performance. This paper applies theories from psychology and behavioral economics to better understand sense of ownership. The empirical investigation is a framed fi eld experiment, in the context of tropical forest conservation and payments for environmental services in Tanzania. The results lend little support to the hypothesis in this context. The participation treatment in the experiment is weak, and a possible explanation is that sense of ownership is sensitive to the form of participation.</p><img src="" height="1" width="1" alt=""/>
Ø.N. Handberg 11 Oct 2016 01:47:17 GMT
Adaptation measures in agricultural systems: Messages to the SBSTA 44 Agriculture Workshops
<p>It is well recognized that if livelihoods and food security of farmers are to be improved in the face of climate change challenges, adaptation measures at massive scale will be needed. This will require an enabling environment to catalyse the positive behavioural changes that will be needed to move towards climate resilient food systems.</p><p>This working paper synthesizes knowledge within CGIAR on adaptation measures in agricultural systems, for the benefit of parties and observers preparing submissions to the UNFCCC SBSTA. Experience from CGIAR and partners indicate that adaptation measures covering policy, technological, financial, institutional, and research interventions are being tested and applied in agricultural systems in low-income and middle-income countries. Lessons include the need to ensure context-specificity when designing adaptation measures, engaging farmers in decision-making, and combining indigenous and scientific knowledge. Adaptation measures in agricultural systems are able to generate various added benefits in addition to adaptation benefits. These include enhanced food security, environmental benefits including mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions, and positive outcomes for gender and social inclusion. However, good design and implementation of these measures is important, for which capacity enhancement and technology transfer are essential functions.</p><img src="" height="1" width="1" alt=""/>
07 Oct 2016 12:10:31 GMT
Agricultural practices and technologies to enhance food security, resilience and productivity in a sustainable manner: messages to the SBSTA 44 agriculture workshops
<p>This paper synthesizes knowledge within CGIAR and its partners on agricultural practices and technologies to enhance food security, resilience and productivity in a sustainable manner. <br /><br />A number of agricultural practices and technologies which contribute to these objectives were identified and assessed to generate four key lessons. <br /><br />Firstly, agricultural practices and technologies do not necessarily have universal applicability, they will have to be selected, tailored and applied as appropriate for the context, including agro-ecological zones, farming systems as well as cultural and socio-economic context. <br /><br />Secondly, strong mechanisms for capacity enhancement and technology transfer are prerequisites for success of interventions. <br /><br />Thirdly, suitable sources of funding are required to support implementation and scaling up efforts. <br /><br />Lastly, many agricultural practices and technologies have the potential to achieve co-benefits for environmental health and climate change mitigation. <br /><br />In contexts where mitigation is feasible, managing for multiple outcomes can help countries and smallholder farmers adopt low carbon development pathways.</p><img src="" height="1" width="1" alt=""/>
D. Dinesh (ed) 07 Oct 2016 11:59:17 GMT
Measures for climate change adaptation in agriculture
<p>In 2014 the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) Subsidiary Body for Scientific and Technological Advice (SBSTA), as part of its mandate to consider issues related to agriculture, invited submissions from parties and observers, covering four topics, in 2015 and 2016. Of the two topics for consideration in 2016, one relates to “Identification of adaptation measures, taking into account the diversity of the agricultural systems, indigenous knowledge systems and the differences in scale as well as possible co-benefits and sharing experiences in research and development and on the ground activities, including socioeconomic, environmental and gender aspects”.</p><p>This info note provides a brief overview of key adaptation measures in agriculture. A twinned info note considers agricultural practices and technologies, which are one sub-set of adaptation measures.</p><p>Key messages:<br /><br /></p><ul><li>international governance arrangements and national policy frameworks already provide a robust foundation for adaptation in agricultural systems</li><li>national planning using prioritization tools can result in efficient, effective and equitable allocation of limited resources to benefit the most vulnerable farmers and systems</li><li>local planning involves devolution of decisionmaking and participatory approaches to match local contexts, capacities and preferences</li><li>access to adaptation finance remains critical to achieving local and global goals for adaptation. Both economic incentives and value chain initiatives can ensure that financial investments achieve adaptation at scale</li><li>effective research and knowledge systems connect farmers, policy-makers, businesses andresearchers to accelerate sharing of emerging knowledge, and help adapt to dynamic current climates and to future scenarios for climate and development</li><li>modernising extension services, capacity building and technology transfer approaches are important to capture the attention and participation of a wider group of rural people, including youth</li><li>indigenous knowledge strengthens adaptation measures by working closely with knowledgeholders at both local and national levels</li><li>gender equality and social inclusion can be strengthened if adaptation measures are well designed</li><li>adaptation measures in agricultural systems also offer opportunity to achieve multiple cobenefits, for environmental health and mitigation</li></ul><img src="" height="1" width="1" alt=""/>
S. Vermeulen 07 Oct 2016 11:50:50 GMT
Climate change adaptation in agriculture: practices and technologies
<p>In 2014 the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) Subsidiary Body for Scientific and Technological Advice (SBSTA), as part of its mandate to consider issues related to agriculture, decided to invite submissions from parties and observers, covering four topics, in 2015 and 2016. Of the two topics for consideration in 2016, one relates to ‘identification and assessment of agricultural practices and technologies to enhance productivity in a sustainable manner, food security and resilience, considering the differences in agro-ecological zones and farming systems, such as different grassland and cropland practices and systems’.</p><div data-canvas-width="93.31666666666669">This info note provides a brief overview of key practices and technologies. A twinned info note considers higher-level measures of adaptation in agriculture, such as policies and institutions.</div><div data-canvas-width="93.31666666666669">&nbsp;</div><div>Key messages:<br /><ul><li>many agricultural practices and technologies already provide proven benefits to farmers’ food security, resilience and productivity</li><li>indigenous knowledge provides the backbone of successful climate change adaptation in farming, livestock and fisheries</li><li>agro-ecological zones and farming systems are extremely diverse. Thus interventions need to be targeted to specific contexts. Decision support to match practices and technologies with agroecological zones is a priority</li><li>portfolios of practices and technologies are more likely to realize goals of food security, resilience and increased productivity. Trade-offs and synergies among these goals may exist and the focus should be on maximizing synergies</li><li>bringing practices and technologies to scale is possible and underway. Strong mechanisms for finance, capacity enhancement and technology transfer are prerequisites for success</li><li>engaging women in design and management of new technologies and practices will help close the gender gap in agriculture and deliver positive outcomes for the whole of society</li><li>case studies demonstrate the potential for agricultural practices and technologies to achieve co-benefits for environmental health, and climate change mitigation</li></ul></div><img src="" height="1" width="1" alt=""/>
D. Dinesh 07 Oct 2016 11:36:17 GMT
Mitigation of climate change risks and regulation by insurance: a feasible proposal for China
<p>Climate change is one of the most fundamental challenges of our time. The extraordinary growth of greenhouse gas (“GHG”) emissions in China represents the single greatest obstacle to global climate change efforts in the coming decades. Meanwhile, China suffers from the adverse consequences of climate change. It has been recognized that two factors may increase climate change risks: (a) the increase in GHG emissions, which will increase the frequency and intensity of climate hazards; and (b) the increase of value-at-risk, such as the increased concentration of the world’s population and property in vulnerable areas. <br /><br />Therefore, mitigation of climate change risk involves not only human intervention to reduce GHG emissions but also prevention of potential losses caused by climate hazards. Among many solutions to risk mitigation, insurance has received increased attention due to its expertise in risk management and regulatory function in influencing policyholders’ behavior. This Article examines the ability of two types of insurance—liability insurance and catastrophe insurance—to regulate and thus help mitigate climate change risks, and considers the potential lessons for China.</p><p>In the context of climate change risk management, either private insurance or the state can play a crucial role in mitigating risks. The discussion of liability insurance and catastrophe insurance in this paper makes clear that catastrophe insurance is a much more feasible method of regulating climate change risks. <br /><br />In addition, to take advantage of the state’s compulsory power, this article proposes a feasible solution marrying the merits of both state and private insurance. Compulsory catastrophe-insurance-based private-public partnership will not only enhance mitigation of value-at-risk but also provide the victims with sufficient financial protections for climate hazards that are not eliminated. This hybrid mechanism has become a prototype for developing catastrophe insurance in several countries. It should be developed as soon as possible in China to cope with the increasing risks of climate change.</p><img src="" height="1" width="1" alt=""/>
Q. He 07 Oct 2016 10:49:45 GMT
Insurance options for addressing climate change
<div>Climate change has proven to be a major stumbling block to development in emerging markets. Floods in Thailand, typhoons in the Philippines, and droughts in Africa and India have cost thousands of lives and stalled economic development. Temperatures are likely to rise even higher, which will only worsen the impact of climate change. And extreme heat can affect productivity and economic activity. In 2015, for example, when temperatures across Iraq topped 50 degrees Celsius, the government called for a mandatory four-day holiday. Such incidents are likely to become common.</div><div>&nbsp;</div><div>In emerging countries, insurance markets are under development and don’t play a major role in helping businesses mitigate climate change threats. Because insurance is viewed as a luxury product, many emerging markets have yet to prioritize the regulations and standards that insurance markets needs to function.</div><div>&nbsp;</div><div>But now a number of factors are driving emerging markets to use insurance as a tool to adapt their countries to the changing climate. The insurance industry has been looking to emerging markets, where penetration rates have historically been low, in order to grow their business. In addition, cellular and digital technologies now make it possible to reach customers in remote areas.2 Many international donors are also realizing the importance of heading off climate change to promote growth in emerging markets. Their efforts have shifted from programs that focus on distributing aid after a disaster to complementary programs that also reduce the impact of natural disasters, such as insurance.</div><div>&nbsp;</div><div>Finally, as awareness about climate change risks grow, people and businesses are looking for solutions that minimize the impact of climate related threats. Many governments are further boosting awareness by taking steps to increase financial literacy in their countries. As a result, more people are starting to see insurance as one tool that can help them address climate change.</div><img src="" height="1" width="1" alt=""/>
07 Oct 2016 10:29:36 GMT
The sustainable Infrastructure imperative: financing for better growth and development
<div data-canvas-width="367.7033333333332">Investing in sustainable infrastructure is key to tackling three simultaneous challenges: reigniting global growth, delivering on the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), and reducing climate risk. Following the milestone achievements of 2015 – including the ambitious global goals set for sustainable development and</div><div data-canvas-width="299.31">its financing in Addis Ababa and New York, and through a landmark international agreement on climate action in Paris – the challenge is to now to shift urgently from rhetoric into action.</div><div data-canvas-width="299.31">&nbsp;</div><div data-canvas-width="299.31"><div data-canvas-width="198.59999999999997">A comprehensive definition of infrastructure includes both traditional types of infrastructure (everything from energy to public transport, buildings, water supply and sanitation) and, critically, also natural infrastructure (such as forest landscapes, wetlands and watershed protection).</div></div><div data-canvas-width="198.59999999999997">&nbsp;</div><div data-canvas-width="198.59999999999997"><div data-canvas-width="373.6">More money alone won’t do the job. A range of barriers must be tackled to raise the quantity and the quality of infrastructure investment. Concerted action in four, inter-linked areas can together help</div><div data-canvas-width="246.98333333333332">us overcome these barriers and build the sustainable infrastructure of the 21st century:</div><div data-canvas-width="155.21666666666664"><ul><li>we must collectively tackle fundamental price distortions – including subsidies and lack of appropriate pricing especially for fossil fuels and carbon – to improve incentives for investment and innovation, to drastically reduce pollution and congestion, and to generate revenue that can be redirected, for instance, to support poor people</li><li>we must strengthen policy frameworks and institutional capacities to deliver the right policies and enabling conditions for investment, to build pipelines of viable and sustainable projects, to reduce high development and transaction costs, and to attract private investment</li><li>we must transform the financial system to deliver the scale and quality of investment needed in order to augment financing from all sources (especially private sources such as long-term debt finance and the large pools of institutional investor capital), reduce the cost of capital, enable catalytic finance from developmentfinance institutions (DFIs), and accelerate the greening of the financial system</li><li>we must ramp up investments in clean technology R&amp;D and deployment to reduce the costs and enhance the accessibility of more sustainable technologies</li></ul></div></div><img src="" height="1" width="1" alt=""/>
07 Oct 2016 10:10:18 GMT
The State of African Cities 2014: re-imagining sustainable urban transitions urban transitions
<div data-canvas-width="336.98531599999995"><div data-canvas-width="390.6864766666667">The overarching challenge for Africa in the decades to come is massive population growth in a context of wide-spread poverty that, in combination, generate complex and inter-related threats to the human habitat. The main premise of this report is that successfully and effectively addressing the vulnerabilities and risks to which the African populations are increasingly being exposed may, perhaps, require a complete re-thinking of current urban development trajectories if sustainable transitions are to be achieved. This report is the third in The State of African Cities series.</div></div><div data-canvas-width="390.6864766666667">&nbsp;</div><div data-canvas-width="390.6864766666667">It is not only Africa’s largest urban population concentrations that are becoming more prone to vulnerabilities and risks; these are actually increasing for all African settlements. This will add to the already significant social, economic and political hazards associated with Africa’s still pervasive urban poverty. The<div data-canvas-width="386.9432756666667">combination of demographic pressures, rapid urbanization, environmental and climate change now appear to reinforce a host of negative urban externalities.</div></div><div data-canvas-width="386.9432756666667">&nbsp;</div><div data-canvas-width="386.9432756666667"><div data-canvas-width="384.4153996666666">Ubiquitous urban poverty and urban slum proliferation, so characteristic of Africa’s large cities, is likely to become an even more widespread phenomenon under current urban development trajectories, especially given the continuing and significant shortfalls in urban institutional capacities. Since the bulk of the urban population increases are now being absorbed by Africa’s secondary and smaller cities, the sheer lack of urban governance capacities in these settlements is likely to cause slum proliferation processes that replicate those of Africa’s larger cities.</div></div><div data-canvas-width="384.4153996666666">&nbsp;</div><div data-canvas-width="384.4153996666666">This report argues for a radical re-imagination of African approaches to urbanism, both to strengthen the positive impacts of Africa’s current multiple transitions and to improve urban living and working conditions. Africa’s population is still well below the 50 per cent urban threshold. This implies that a major&nbsp; reconceptualization of its approaches to urban development can still be undertaken. Given the rapidly changing global conditions, especially those associated with environmental and climate change, looming resources scarcity and the dire need to move towards greener and more sustainable development options, Africa has the opportunity to take a global lead in innovations towards greener, healthier and more sustainable urban societies</div><img src="" height="1" width="1" alt=""/>
07 Oct 2016 03:42:44 GMT
Gender dynamics in a changing climate: how gender and adaptive capacity affect resilience
<div data-canvas-width="313.43333333333334">Gender, climate change and adaptive capacity are intricately linked. Poor and marginalised women and men face multiple and complex challenges. Climate change further exacerbates these challenges and threatens to erode development gains made to date. Unequal distribution of resources and power imbalances are both the root cause of poverty and also impact on a person’s capacity to adapt.</div><div data-canvas-width="313.43333333333334">&nbsp;</div><div data-canvas-width="313.43333333333334"><div data-canvas-width="239.41666666666666">Adaptation interventions are often based on the belief that women’s role in the home makes them critical agents of change and, thus, a focus for adaptation interventions. But many women do not have decision-making power within the home or over all household resources, let alone over valued livelihood resources and may not be able to keep or manage their own earnings. Even in some female-headed households, social stigma may prevent many women from being treated as economic or social equals, despite their sole management of their livelihoods. These barriers tend not to be addressed by climate change adaptation programmes, which can inadvertently entrench gender inequality and even increase women’s workloads.</div></div><div data-canvas-width="239.41666666666666">&nbsp;</div><div data-canvas-width="239.41666666666666"><div data-canvas-width="664.1833333333332">This learning brief synthesises lessons drawn from CARE’s Adaptation Learning Programme for Africa (ALP), which has been supporting vulnerable communities in sub-Saharan Africa to adapt to the impacts of climate change since 2010. It is based on evidence and practical experience in implementing community based adaptation (CBA), about gender dynamics and the ways in which CBA can increase adaptive capacity and promote gender equality. It identifies the factors shaping gender dynamics and adaptive capacity and gives examples of how to integrate gender into CBA approaches as well as outlining knowledge gaps and recommendations for policy and practice.</div></div><div data-canvas-width="664.1833333333332">&nbsp;</div><div data-canvas-width="664.1833333333332">Recommendations for policy and practice include:</div><div data-canvas-width="664.1833333333332"><ul><li>tackle the gender dimensions of livelihoods: they are context-specific and addressing them in appropriate ways demands context-specific action. Gender-sensitive analysis, policy and planning is critical to this</li><li>include gender equality in climate change policy goals and strategies</li><li>national and sub-national adaptation planning needs to be led by affected communities, and be based on an understanding of the gendered nature of climate change impacts as well as adaptation initiatives themselves so as not to further entrench inequality. Gender-equitable participatory actions will bring more gender balance into initiatives</li><li>strengthen interdepartmental work between women’s departments and climate change departments</li><li>power imbalance and access to decision-making in the home, community and country must be recognised and addressed in the global response</li><li>approach efforts to address adaptive capacity and gender equality not as an issue for women alone, but as an issue that is critical for the advancement of everyone in society; it is an indispensable part of achieving social justice</li><li>invest in improving women’s economic empowerment in the face of climate change to address the way resources and labour are distributed and valued in the economy</li><li>programmes need appropriate timeframes and adequate resources in order to influence social change</li><li>CBA programme designs should be required to produce gender disaggregated monitoring and to establish monitoring and evaluation of changes in gender dynamics</li><li>investing in understanding and measuring the gendered impacts of climate change beyond economic loss is important for making all types of loss and damage visible and to ensure it is accounted for, so as to build an evidence base of the human impact of climate change</li></ul></div><img src="" height="1" width="1" alt=""/>
J. Webb 07 Oct 2016 02:29:01 GMT
Cocoa farmers' perception on climate variability and its effects on adaptation strategies in the Suaman district of western region, Ghana
<p>Climate Change has gained global attention due to its adverse impact on agriculture. Cocoa production in Ghana is also under threat following climate change. This study, therefore, examined farmers’ perception on climate variability and its effect on adaptation strategies in the Suaman district of Western Region, Ghana. It involved 240 cocoa farmers. The study estimated Heckman’s treatment effect model that corrected the presence of selectivity bias in the sample. <br /><br />From the result, 69.5% of the farmers perceived an increase in the average temperature while 22.5% perceived an increase in the average rainfall over the years. The factors that significantly influenced farmers’ perceptions were farm size, farm management training, household size and farmer-based organization (FBO) membership. <br /><br />The major adaptation strategies adopted by the farmers were pesticides application, planting improved varieties, mixed planting and changing planting dates. Farmers’ perception was found to have a positive impact on their adaptation. Other factors that significantly influenced adaptation were age of cocoa farm, household size and FBO membership. <br /><br />The study concluded that perceptions are essential in adapting to climate variability in the district. Training of farmers on cocoa production and other agricultural activities in relation to climate variability and its impact is highly recommended. Similarly, enhancing access to weather forecast information is important to enhance farmer’s perceptions and also effectively implement adaptation strategies such as changing planting dates.</p><img src="" height="1" width="1" alt=""/>
07 Oct 2016 01:56:16 GMT
Agriculture under uncertain climate change predictions: land use options for Malawi’s smallholder farmers
<div data-canvas-width="244.03071999999997">Climate change will have widespread and varied effects across the globe – increasing rainfall and flooding in some areas, decreasing rainfall and droughts in others. The average global temperature is set to increase by more than 2 degrees Celsius by the end of the 21st century. For agricultural land-use policy makers, planning for this future is made more difficult because climate change scenarios for precipitation vary in their predictions, even for the same areas <br /><br />For Malawi, climate predictions range from a severe decrease in rainfall to a marked increase. This uncertainty, especially in poor areas, means that land management strategies must be effective in improving livelihoods under both scenarios.</div><div data-canvas-width="244.03071999999997">&nbsp;</div><div data-canvas-width="244.03071999999997">Key points in this Technical Report:</div><div data-canvas-width="244.03071999999997"><ul><li>what’s going on? Uncertainty over the effects of climate change on precipitation for Malawi makes it difficult to create effective land use management policies</li><li>what does this mean? Economic models that predict the effects of climate change on rural livelihoods have to take into account that an effective policy is one that tackles both the possibilities of an increase or decrease in precipitation</li><li>how the economic model does this? In comparing the effectiveness of three different land use management options for the Shire catchment in Malawi, the model described in this report took into account likely wet and dry climate scenarios. In addition, a sensitivity analysis helped check which land use management option held up best if model assumptions regarding key variables, (e.g. global maize prices, erosion impacts, fertilizer use) were not to hold true in reality</li><li>what do results show? An agroforestry approach to land use management is likely to produce positive results for livelihoods, regardless of a decrease or increase in precipitation, and regardless of what happens to key variables. Also, the agroforestry approach is likely to perform better than a conservation agriculture approach, and much better than a business-as-usual approach</li><li>moving forward: A reconsideration of rural land use management policies for Malawi is necessary for local, national, and international policy makers so as to effectively prepare Malawian agriculture for potential climate change in the future</li></ul></div><img src="" height="1" width="1" alt=""/>
H. Zhang 07 Oct 2016 01:37:27 GMT
Scoping Report: current status of index-based insurance in Bangladesh
<p>With current and anticipated increases in magnitude of extreme weather events and a declining consistency in weather patterns, particularly challenging for agriculture, there has been a growing interest in weather index-based insurance (IBI) schemes in Bangladesh. A number of weather index-based insurance products have already been tested and applied across Asia and Africa, with varying degrees of success, as a mechanism to improve livelihood security by enabling vulnerable populations to transfer risk associated with climate change, extreme weather events and other hazards. In the process, these efforts have generated important new knowledge on how these schemes can be designed and implemented for optimal results.</p><p>However, the practice of index-based insurance is still limited in Bangladesh, and the experience and knowledge generated by the different stakeholders involved needs to be better communicated.</p><div data-canvas-width="203.232">To identify and facilitate the diffusion of knowledge and best practices in this unique field, Worldfish will hold a two-day workshop for experts and practitioners who are working on this issue in Bangladesh. This event aims to map past and present index-based insurance schemes that have been undertaken in Bangladesh, and to facilitate knowledge sharing and capacity building among relevant organizations. Prior to this event, the International Centre for Climate Change and Development (ICCCAD) has conducted this scoping study to inform the design and objectives of the two-day workshop.</div><img src="" height="1" width="1" alt=""/>
07 Oct 2016 01:19:41 GMT
Aligning social protection and climate resilience: a case study of WBCIS and MGNREGA in Rajasthan
<div data-canvas-width="733.8588333333331">Social protection and climate change programmes are two public policy responses that governments use to address the challenges of poverty, climate vulnerability and gender inequality. Social protection programmes provide a safety net for households by providing cash/asset transfers and labour market instruments to address the immediate and underlying socio-economic risks facing the poor. Climate change programmes use a&nbsp; range of policy, financial, technological and capacity-strengthening measures to address</div><div data-canvas-width="720.5704999999999">climate change vulnerability. Despite the fact that most countries have comprehensive strategies for both social protection and climate change, there have been few attempts to align the two to develop more durable pathways out of poverty and climate vulnerability.<br /><br /></div><div data-canvas-width="149.99949999999998">This paper is the second of two case studies that examine how aligning social protection and climate change interventions could help households manage the risks they face, and set them on a path out of poverty and into climate-resilient livelihoods. It presents a case study of the Weather-Based Crop Insurance Scheme (WBCIS) and the Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (MGNREGA) in India, based on fieldwork in the northwestern state of Rajasthan.</div><img src="" height="1" width="1" alt=""/>
07 Oct 2016 01:03:12 GMT
Strengthening adaptive capacity to climate change: learning from practice, practionioner brief
<div data-canvas-width="64.48">Building adaptive capacity is increasingly understood as a critical piece in successful adaptation to climate change, and there has been much conceptual debate on what it consists of. Yet, there is still lack of clarity as to what it may look like in practice.<br /><br /></div><div data-canvas-width="304.7973333333332">This practitioner brief synthesises the learning on adaptive capacity that has emerged from the Adaptation Learning Programme (ALP) for Africa, a multi-country programme designed to demonstrate, document and disseminate innovative approaches for community based adaptation (CBA). Because it was explicitly designed as a learning programme, ALP has adopted a range of learning approaches, with a focus on learning by doing, reflecting and co-generating new knowledge with others. After five years of&nbsp; implementation, the programme is now in a position to synthesise and share learning on a range of aspects of CBA and related policy and practice.<br /><br /></div><div data-canvas-width="636.2866666666665">Specifically, this brief explains in simple, practical terms how strengthening adaptive capacity is critical for effective adaptation. It does this by presenting how ALP has interpreted the Local Adaptive Capacity Framework developed by the Africa Climate Change Resilience Alliance, in its practical approaches to engaging communities and other actors in community-based adaptation. This brief draws on ALP’s work with vulnerable communities living in Niger and Northern Ghana, which are Sahelian climate change hotspots also affected by high levels of chronic poverty. It gives insights into the dynamic interplay between analysis and planning processes, information, resources and decisions required for strengthening adaptive capacity, which is a key condition for adaptation.</div><div data-canvas-width="636.2866666666665">&nbsp;</div><div data-canvas-width="636.2866666666665">With recent attention on resilience, different types of critical capacities have been in discussion; for example, “absorptive”, “anticipatory” and “transformative” capacity. ALP’s work on adaptive capacity has been approaching these concepts in practical ways, exploring how vulnerable people can realise their own development, with adequate support, in the face of changing conditions. Through the lens of these experiences the brief aims to provide conceptual and practical knowledge for actors in adaptation, disaster risk reduction, development and humanitarian action, including NGOs, local government institutions, researchers, donors, sectoral ministries and policymakers across Africa.</div><img src="" height="1" width="1" alt=""/>
A. Otzelberger 06 Oct 2016 11:00:07 GMT
Climate change in Kenya: projections, impacts and way forward
<div data-canvas-width="663.6787999999999">Climate change (CC) poses an ongoing threat to development in Arid and Semi-Arid Lands (ASALS) in the</div><div data-canvas-width="634.8030666666667">Horn of Africa (HoA) (IPCC, 2012). Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs) have been implementing development interventions in the region for many decades. The effectiveness and sustainability of such</div><div data-canvas-width="647.5619333333334">interventions are questionable as Africa is still lagging behind other regions of the world in achieving the</div><div data-canvas-width="675.0362">Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) (United Nations, 2011). This calls for a shift in current development</div><div data-canvas-width="664.0375999999999">strategies. Increased vulnerability in the region has acquired increased attention to climate change as one of the many obstacles for achieving sustainable development and increasing resilience in the ASALS. This has given rise to a new era for development agencies as they are now attempting to build resilience through mainstreaming Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR) and Climate Change Adaptation (CCA).</div><div data-canvas-width="664.0375999999999">&nbsp;</div><div data-canvas-width="533.3270666666666">This brief will focus specifically on the significance of mainstreaming CCA into development interventions.</div><div data-canvas-width="533.3270666666666">&nbsp;</div><div data-canvas-width="10.373333333333333">Some key findings relevant to Kenya:<br /><ul><li>in 2007 the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) - released the Fourth Assessment Report. This section highlights some key statements and findings relevant to the Horn of Africa</li><li>there is high agreement and evidence that Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions will continue to increase over the coming decades</li><li>warming of about 0.2°C per decade is projected over the next two decades</li></ul><div data-canvas-width="381.87066666666675">Provided with the trends from this brief, the recommendation for Save the Children is to promote development interventions in the region using a precautionary approach to climate change. This is the only responsible and ethical choice for an organisation that is working specifically towards saving children who are the future generation.<br /><br /></div><div data-canvas-width="381.3373333333333">Mainstreaming climate change adaptation does not necessarily incur an increased financial burden on different sectors. It does however involve forward thinking and a shift in approach in terms of going beyond accepting what we are implementing and focusing more on how we are implementing projects. This will require the following:</div></div><div data-canvas-width="10.373333333333333"><ul><li>establishing a culture of prevention and mainstreaming DRR/CCA</li><li>taking an integrated management approach and understanding the current and future context of the region (socio-economic, environmental, and climatic)</li><li>to ensure sustainability of any intervention, these must be aligned with governments and existing plans</li><li><div data-canvas-width="596.4906666666666">advocate for longer term funding in project proposals where building resilience is identified as an overall objective</div></li></ul></div><img src="" height="1" width="1" alt=""/>
06 Oct 2016 10:35:14 GMT
Brexit: implications for climate change commitments
<div data-canvas-width="398.79416666666674">When the UK voted to leave the EU, climate change was far from the minds of both the electorate and politicians. Climate change had scarcely featured in the referendum campaign. Yet, the UK’s decision to exit has consequences for climate change policy in the UK and EU, as for almost every other area of policy.</div><div data-canvas-width="398.79416666666674">&nbsp;</div><div data-canvas-width="398.79416666666674"><div data-canvas-width="378.79666666666674">There is still considerable uncertainty about how the UK’s exit from the EU will affect climate change policy</div><div data-canvas-width="303.3825">and its implementation. However, it is worth reflecting on what the implications might be. It may be two or more years before the details of the UK’s new relationship with the EU are fully known but during this time, the global climate change agreement will continue to evolve in a number of areas. Parties to the UNFCCC are expected to confirm their Nationally Determined Contributions (NDCs), examine the options for making them more ambitious, and begin to consider longer-term commitments of climate finance. The EU is due to reform its emission trading system (ETS), revise policies on renewable energy and energy efficiency, and set 2030 targets for emissions outside the ETS. The urgency of deep cuts in greenhouse gas emissions to ensure the average global temperature rise is well below 2°C, will become even greater.</div></div><p>Key messages:</p><ul><li>departure from the EU is unlikely to affect the UK or the EU’s international commitments to reducing greenhouse gas emissions. These are enshrined in law in the case of the UK, and in Council Conclusions for the EU. In addition, the UK’s departure will not affect existing commitments to support developing countries to address climate change</li><li>the UK will need to decide whether to implement the Paris Agreement jointly with the EU or as an individual party. The terms of the UK’s exit from the EU may determine this decision</li><li>if the UK acts as an individual party after departure from the EU, it will need to submit its own Nationally Determined Contributions (NDC) to the UNFCCC. The EU’s NDC will need to be revised, which may affect the individual contributions of the remaining EU member states</li><li>how the UK sets its carbon pricing, whether within or outside of the EU emissions trading system (ETS) will be integral to the UK’s energy policy in achieving ambitious emission reductions</li><li>prolonged delay by the EU and the UK in revising international climate change commitments may weaken their influence and leadership in multilateral climate change negotiations.</li></ul><img src="" height="1" width="1" alt=""/>
04 Oct 2016 11:31:54 GMT
Climate resilient planning toolkit: Booklet 3: worksheets
<p>This toolkit, developed through the Building Resilience and Adaptation to Climate Extremes and Disasters (BRACED) programme,&nbsp;is designed to&nbsp;develop and deliver health,&nbsp;education, water and sanitation hardware&nbsp;interventions that are more resilient to climate&nbsp;extremes and disasters.&nbsp;It provides a generic framework to help users:</p><ol start="1"><li>Assess if resilience in a specific service&nbsp;delivery project should be treated as a high,&nbsp;medium or low priority.</li><li>Identify how the different components of&nbsp;basic service delivery systems might be&nbsp;vulnerable to a range of climate extremes&nbsp;and disasters.</li><li>Think through measures that can be taken&nbsp;to mitigate risks to service delivery.</li><li>Establish a plan to follow up on integration&nbsp;of resilience in the service delivery project.</li></ol><p>The toolkit can help project, technical and&nbsp;field staff of implementing agencies who&nbsp;plan and manage service delivery projects in&nbsp;developing country contexts. With early planning, the impacts of disasters can be reduced through preparation and&nbsp;minimising risk to people and equipment.&nbsp;Some hazards can be avoided entirely by&nbsp;building infrastructure out of harm’s way.</p><p>The downloadable toolkit consists of three booklets. These include:</p><ul><li>Booklet 1: guidelines that explain the tool and&nbsp;how to fill in the worksheets.</li><li>Booklet 2: worked examples to illustrate how&nbsp;other organisations have used the toolkit.</li><li>Booklet 3: worksheets that you can fill in&nbsp;straightaway.</li></ul><p>&nbsp;</p><p>&nbsp;</p><img src="" height="1" width="1" alt=""/>
04 Oct 2016 11:22:05 GMT
Climate resilient planning toolkit: Booklet 2: worked examples
<p>This toolkit, developed through the Building Resilience and Adaptation to Climate Extremes and Disasters (BRACED) programme,&nbsp;is designed to&nbsp;develop and deliver health,&nbsp;education, water and sanitation hardware&nbsp;interventions that are more resilient to climate&nbsp;extremes and disasters.&nbsp;It provides a generic framework to help users:</p><ol start="1"><li>Assess if resilience in a specific service&nbsp;delivery project should be treated as a high,&nbsp;medium or low priority.</li><li>Identify how the different components of&nbsp;basic service delivery systems might be&nbsp;vulnerable to a range of climate extremes&nbsp;and disasters.</li><li>Think through measures that can be taken&nbsp;to mitigate risks to service delivery.</li><li>Establish a plan to follow up on integration&nbsp;of resilience in the service delivery project.</li></ol><p>The toolkit can help project, technical and&nbsp;field staff of implementing agencies who&nbsp;plan and manage service delivery projects in&nbsp;developing country contexts. With early planning, the impacts of disasters can be reduced through preparation and&nbsp;minimising risk to people and equipment.&nbsp;Some hazards can be avoided entirely by&nbsp;building infrastructure out of harm’s way.</p><p>The downloadable toolkit consists of three booklets. These include:</p><ul><li>Booklet 1: guidelines that explain the tool and&nbsp;how to fill in the worksheets.</li><li>Booklet 2: worked examples to illustrate how&nbsp;other organisations have used the toolkit.</li><li>Booklet 3: worksheets that you can fill in&nbsp;straightaway.</li></ul><p>&nbsp;</p><p>&nbsp;</p><img src="" height="1" width="1" alt=""/>
04 Oct 2016 11:16:18 GMT
Climate resilient planning toolkit: Booklet 1: guidelines
<div class="field__item odd"><div class="field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden"><div class="field__items"><div class="field__item even"><p>This toolkit, developed through the Building Resilience and Adaptation to Climate Extremes and Disasters (BRACED) programme,&nbsp;is designed to&nbsp;develop and deliver health,&nbsp;education, water and sanitation hardware&nbsp;interventions that are more resilient to climate&nbsp;extremes and disasters.&nbsp;It provides a generic framework to help users:</p><ol><li>Assess if resilience in a specific service&nbsp;delivery project should be treated as a high,&nbsp;medium or low priority.</li><li>Identify how the different components of&nbsp;basic service delivery systems might be&nbsp;vulnerable to a range of climate extremes&nbsp;and disasters.</li><li>Think through measures that can be taken&nbsp;to mitigate risks to service delivery.</li><li>Establish a plan to follow up on integration&nbsp;of resilience in the service delivery project.</li></ol><p>The toolkit can help project, technical and&nbsp;field staff of implementing agencies who&nbsp;plan and manage service delivery projects in&nbsp;developing country contexts. With early planning, the impacts of disasters can be reduced through preparation and&nbsp;minimising risk to people and equipment.&nbsp;Some hazards can be avoided entirely by&nbsp;building infrastructure out of harm’s way.</p><p>The downloadable toolkit consists of three booklets. These include:</p><ul><li>Booklet 1: guidelines that explain the tool and&nbsp;how to fill in the worksheets.</li><li>Booklet 2: worked examples to illustrate how&nbsp;other organisations have used the toolkit.</li><li>Booklet 3: worksheets that you can fill in&nbsp;straightaway.</li></ul></div></div></div></div><img src="" height="1" width="1" alt=""/>
04 Oct 2016 11:10:00 GMT
Workshop proceedings on adaptation to climate change in the Upper Ganga Basin
<div data-canvas-width="60.88333333333333"><div data-canvas-width="109.26666666666664">The HI-AWARE Academy, organised from 27 February-4 March 2016, in order to strengthen the expertise of researchers and students associated with Himalayan Adaptation, Water and Resilience (HI-AWARE), culminated in the “Adaptation to Climate Change in the Upper Ganga Basin”, a day-long workshop that was jointly hosted by The Energy and Resources Institute (TERI) and the Centre for Ecology Development and Research (CEDAR). Like the Academy that immediately preceded it, the workshop aimed to improve the understanding of the challenges that communities in this arduous terrain-the Upper Ganga Basin-are facing with respect to climate change adaptation. <br /><br />The workshop brought experts from various sectors together to share valuable information on the climatic risks that the region-the Western Himalayas in general, and Uttarakhand in particular-is facing. The speakers also shared experiences from their respective domains related to adapting to current climate risks as well as those that are likely in the near future. While the first two sessions revolved primarily around climate risks and adaptation, the third session focused specifically on the de-listing of adaptation options by using the Multi-Criteria Analysis (MCA).</div></div><img src="" height="1" width="1" alt=""/>
04 Oct 2016 11:03:16 GMT
World Economic and Social Survey 2016: climate change resilience – an opportunity for reducing inequalities
<p>The World Economic and Social Survey 2016: Climate Change Resilience – An Opportunity for Reducing Inequalities contributes to the debate on the implementation of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development.</p><p>In addressing the specific challenge of building resilience to climate change, the Survey focuses on population groups and communities that are disproportionately affected by climate hazards, whose frequency and intensity are increasing with climate change. It argues that, in the absence of a continuum of policies designed to reduce the exposure and vulnerability of people to climate change, poverty and inequalities will only worsen.</p><img src="" height="1" width="1" alt=""/>
04 Oct 2016 10:54:39 GMT
Young people's burden: requirement of negative CO2 emissions
<p>The rapid rise of global temperature that began about 1975 continues at a mean rate of about 0.18°C /decade , with the current annual temperature exceeding +1.25°C relative to 1880-1920. Global temperature has just reached a level similar to the mean level in the prior interglacial (Eemian) period, when sea level was several meters higher than today, and, if it long remains at 25 this level , slow amplifying feedbacks will lead to greater climate change and consequences.</p><p>This discussion paper is under review for the journal Earth System Dynamics (ESD).</p><p>The growth rate of climate forcing due to human - caused greenhouse gases (GHGs) increased over 20% in the past decade mainly due to resurging growth of atmospheric CH 4, thus making it increasingly difficult to achieve targets such as limiting global warming to 1.5°C or reducing atmospheric CO 2 below 350 ppm. Such targets now require "negative emissions", i.e., extraction 30 of CO 2 from the atmosphere. If rapid phasedown of fossil fuel emissions begins soon, most of the necessary CO 2 extraction c an take place via improved agricultural and forestry practices, including reforestation and steps to improve soil fertility and increase its carbon content. In this case, the magnitude and duration of global temperature excursion above the natural range of the current interglacial (Holocene) could be limited and irreversible climate impacts could be 35 minimized. In contrast, continued high fossil fuel emissions by the current generation would place a burden on young people to undertake massive technological CO 2 extraction, if they are to limit climate change. Proposed methods of extraction such as bioenergy with carbon capture and storage (BECCS) or air capture of CO 2 imply minimal estimate d costs of 104-570 trillion dollars this century, with large risks and uncertain feasibility. Continued high fossil fuel emissions 40 unarguably sentences young people to either a massive, possibly implausible cleanup or growing deleterious climate impacts or both, scenarios that should provide both incentive and obligation for governments to alter energy policies without further delay.</p><p>&nbsp;</p><img src="" height="1" width="1" alt=""/>
J. Hansen 04 Oct 2016 10:32:15 GMT
Private investment in clean energy, inclusive agribusiness and financial inclusion: evidence of impact
<div data-canvas-width="223.4913183333334">This report, commissioned by DFID, seeks to identify what evidence exists that private investments made in clean energy, inclusive agribusiness and financial services lead to good development outcomes for the poor, especially women – with a particular focus on Asia. This paper is a rapid literature review, before deciding on whether or not to commission more detailed work. DFID is particularly interested in (a) specific suggestions that are made for how to strengthen the investments – for example, through complementary TA – so as to improve the likelihood of strong outcomes for the poor, especially women (b) gaps in the evidence base.</div><div data-canvas-width="251.78280166666664">&nbsp;</div><div data-canvas-width="526.3284966666668">The evidence of links between clean energy and good development outcomes for the poor was strong, although the review identified only very few rigorous impact studies. The literature highlighted the need for certain conditions to be met in order for those positive outcomes to be achieved. Financial sustainability was cited as a primary driver of development outcomes. Several studies indicated the importance of public sector intervention in clean energy investment alongside the private sector, to increase provision in poorer and rural areas and to ensure that proper standards are followed in the construction and operation of plants. For small-scale clean energy projects, the evidence indicated the importance of activities to promote their uptake, including financial services. Clean energy was seen to be of particular benefit to women but women are not properly represented in the design and implementation of small-scale clean energy projects.</div><div data-canvas-width="526.3284966666668">&nbsp;</div><div data-canvas-width="526.3284966666668"><div data-canvas-width="60.8006">The evidence of links between inclusive agribusiness and good development outcomes for the poor was largely case study-based and anecdotal. The literature identifies many factors affecting the impact of inclusive agribusiness on the poor, including the assets available to the poor in value chains (including land and water) and the process of land acquisition. The literature identified elements of the design of successful inclusive agribusiness including the presence of producer organisations; innovative partnerships to help link producers to markets; pre-commercial investment to transfer assets and building capacity; and giving producers (especially women) a voice in governance and investment. Given the need for careful design, several sources emphasised the importance of ‘patient’ investment in this sector.</div></div><div data-canvas-width="60.8006">&nbsp;</div><div data-canvas-width="60.8006"><div data-canvas-width="751.4377033333334">The evidence for the impact of financial inclusion on the poor was considerably more robust than in the other two sectors, and many more rigorous impact evaluations were available. The evidence is strong for positive impacts for the poor through several different channels for private investment including savings products, improved banking technology and access to credit. In terms of barriers to successful financial inclusion, there is evidence</div><div data-canvas-width="78.19292666666666">that farmers’ credit constraints are an important bottleneck in expanding agricultural output, and interventions that ease these constraints may be effective in reducing rural poverty and increasing agricultural production. The overall evidence on the impact of financial inclusion is mixed, as some studies show no effect on women while others associate it with positive impacts.</div></div><div data-canvas-width="78.19292666666666">&nbsp;</div><div data-canvas-width="78.19292666666666"><div data-canvas-width="717.6296216666667">The review showed that there is very limited robust evidence on the impact of particular private sector investments in these sectors. The evidence shows clearly that private sector investors, even when supported by development finance institutions (DFIs) rarely report on the impacts of their activities. Some of the more progressive companies and investors report on their reach to beneficiaries and some include an analysis of their beneficiaries by gender, but the review found no evidence of systematic reporting of impact by any private sector investors in clean energy, inclusive agribusiness or financial services.</div></div><div data-canvas-width="60.8006">&nbsp;</div><div data-canvas-width="60.8006">&nbsp;</div><img src="" height="1" width="1" alt=""/>
A. Chapple 29 Sep 2016 12:41:17 GMT
Evidence and examples to build resilient livelihoods in the South Sudan Context
<div data-canvas-width="709.0126416666666">Building resilience to weather and conflict shocks in South Sudan requires investing inside and outside the agriculture sector in order to promote sustainable livelihoods development and income diversification. This includes strengthening productive sectors, improving basic social services, and establishing productive safety nets. Establishing productive safety nets involves providing predictable income sources to vulnerable households through cash transfers, food transfers, or paid labour within a public works programme. Furthermore,</div><div data-canvas-width="226.4250933333333">climate change adaptation should be an integral part of the conflict prevention and food-security strategies, partly because climate change is expected to significantly increase the likelihood of future conflict.</div><div data-canvas-width="736.1726483333334">&nbsp;</div><div data-canvas-width="754.99041">DFID South Sudan is preparing a business case for the second phase of the Building Resilience through Asset Creation and Enhancement (BRACE) Programme in South Sudan. This phase is expected to start in August 2015 in order that there will be a smooth transition from phase 1. Building on learning from phase 1, phase 2 will focus more on climate adaptation and conflict sensitivity. Resilience in South Sudan mainly revolves around</div><div data-canvas-width="68.99432166666665">food security. Phase 1 was focused on food for assets, phase 2 is looking to scaling up cash for assets; but this will need to be handled in a sensitive way given risks in the operational context.</div><div data-canvas-width="710.2439883333334">&nbsp;</div><div data-canvas-width="394.4876283333332">To this end, the Economic Policy Research Institute (EPRI) was invited by Evidence on Demand to undertake a rapid desk-based study to provide evidence and examples to build resilient livelihoods in the South Sudan context.</div><p>&nbsp;</p><img src="" height="1" width="1" alt=""/>
M. Samson 29 Sep 2016 12:07:56 GMT