CA-96062042

From Open Energy Information


NEPA Document Collection for: CA-96062042
EIS at Medicine Lake Geothermal Area for Geothermal/Power Plant, Geothermal/Well Field, Geothermal/Transmission,

Fourmile Hill Geothermal Development Project Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) / Environmental Impact Report (EIR) for Geothermal/Power Plant, Geothermal/Well Field, Geothermal/Transmission

Proposed Action

Calpine Corporation has submitted a Plan of Utilization (POU) to the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) and the U.S. Forest Service (USFS) to develop a 49.9 megawatt (MW) geothermal power plant and wellfield and 24-mile, 230-kilovolt (kV) transmission line. This project, known as the Fourmile Hill Geothermal Development Project, would be located in the Glass Mountain Known Geothermal Resource Area (KGRA) on the Klamath and Modoc National Forests, in Siskiyou and Modoc Counties, California. The Glass Mountain KGRA represents one of the only remaining undeveloped KGRAs in North America with a demonstrated geothermal resource.


Data Completion Notes

Argonne has EA file - maybe in NGDS?

8/26/2013 - Not sure what above note refers to. This is an EIS, not an EA. The Final EIS is already here and uploaded. Mitigation measures not fully populated. OpenEI wouldn't take any Wildlife mitigation past 4.3.8.j. Same with Visual mitigation from 4.9.5a onward. Human Health and Safety mitigation measures need to be added once that category is added.

Documents

FONSI:


 

Resource Analysis

Resource Not
Present
Present,
Not
Affected
Present,
Potentially
Affected
Not
Indicated
Comment Applicant
Proposed
Mitigation
Agency
Imposed
Mitigation
Geology and Minerals
"NEPA_Resource_Analysis" is not in the list of possible values (Not Present, Present, Not Affected, Present, Potentially Affected, Not Indicated) for this property.

 

Close
  • Project construction would include culverts, berms, and ditches to direct runoff and minimize erosion potential. This would include a berm around each well pad and the power plant site.
  • Cut and fill slopes would be engineered, compacted, and maintained to provide slope stability and minimize erosion.
  • A drainage plan involving gathering channels would be developed, as necessary, along excessive sloped access and maintenance roads. This plan would be installed so that surface water run-off can be conveyed to normal waterways and prevent undue erosion.
  • Road maintenance designed to reduce the erosion potentials would consist of grading roadways, cleaning ditches and culvert openings, controlling vehicle travel during wet seasons, and periodic patrols of roads to stop potentially serious damage.
  • In order to prevent undue erosion and runoff, Calpine would use existing roads wherever possible.
  • As soon as the construction phase of the proposed action is complete, all cut and ill slopes, as well as any disturbed level areas, would be seeded or planted with native grasses and/ or shrubs, as directed by USFS.
The injection program shall be designed to avoid interference with temperature or chemical characteristics of production fluids as a result of injecting waste fluids.
CloseCalpine shall not undertake project activities within any established SIA. Calpine shall define in the field with a USFS representative the limits of project activities and surface disturbance for facilities proposed near SIAs to ensure that inadvertent damage to SIAs does not occur. The limits of surface disturbances shall be marked by stakes and flags prior to construction.

If a transmission line alignment is chosen that includes segment A2, roads will not be constructed on the steep north slopes of Glass Mountain. The distance between transmission poles in this area will be maximized in order to accomplish this goal. Existing roads will be used in this area to the maximum extent possible.

Calpine shall develop a comprehensive Soil Conservation and Erosion Control Plan (SCEC) for the proposed project in consultation with the USFS and BLM prior to issuance or a permit. This plan shall describe measures to reduce erosion in all three phases of the project. In addition to the control measures already identified by Calpine, the SCEC shall include, but is not limited to, the following control measures:

  • Soil disturbance shall be limited to the amount necessary for construction and access.
  • Vehicular traffic associated with the project shall be restricted to access roads and construction clearings.
  • Grading and other surface disturbance activities shall be scheduled to avoid periods of heavy precipitation.
  • The time between surface disturbance and revegetation shall be minimized.
  • Detention basins, straw bales, or silt fences shall be used where appropriate.
  • Where transmission line construction occurs along steep slopes (greater than 15 percent), special soil handling measures shall be implemented, including replacing topsoil and leaving the seedbed rough and using mulch or erosion-control matting.
  • New access roads shall incorporate erosion-reduction measures such as water bars, outsloping, road oitches, and rock-lined drainages.
  • The water supply pipeline shall be monitored for leaks throughout the first construction season and removed at the end of this period.
If the USFS determines that significant increased soil erosion is occurring as a result of the proposed project, Calpine shall implement additional control measures as directed by the USFS.
Water Quality Surface and Ground
"NEPA_Resource_Analysis" is not in the list of possible values (Not Present, Present, Not Affected, Present, Potentially Affected, Not Indicated) for this property.

 

 
ClosePrior to construction, Calpine shall submit for approval by: the USFS and BLM a hydrologic monitoring plan for the caldera and a defined local area. This plan shall be implemented by Calpine, with the provision that other active geothermal developers be required to participate in the monitoring. The monitoring plan shall include, but not be limIted to the following:
  • Collection of baseline water quality data at Medicine Lake, Bullseye Lake, and Little Medicine Lake
  • Calpine shall drill two to three monitoring wells (to the 90° F temperature level) around the wellfield that are down-gradient from the geothermal fluid production and injection wells (see Figure 4.3-1)
  • The plan shall include a description of the wells and the well drilling procedures that will be used
  • Monitoring shall include measurement of water levels in wells and analysis of standard drinking water quality constituents
  • The plan shall include a description of the sampling and analysis schedule
  • Record of groundwater pumping rates
  • If groundwater contamination is detected, procedure for identifying and repairing the well that caused the contamination

Groundwater pumping rates shall be reduced if monitoring detects significant adverse impacts to water availability, and these impacts can be attributed to project pumping of local groundwater.

If hydrologic monitoring detects significant adverse impacts to water quantity from the production or injection of geothermal fluids, the USFS and BLM shall require Calpine to make appropriate changes to operational procedures that will increase groundwater availability. These changes could include changes in production and injection rates and locations.

Calpine shall reseed, as recommended by USFS, all disturbed areas that will not be used (such as cut and fill slopes) after completion of the construction phase.

Calpine shall temporarily store excess runoff in well pad sumps or inject it into the geothermal system via injection wells.

Calpine shall place drains or energy dissipaters at intervals along new access roads to allow water greater opportunities to exit the roadbed and percolate into the native soils, and prevent the discharge of large volumes of runoff at a few points along the road.

Calpine shall monitor new non-bladed roads for impacts to vegetation and increased runoff and erosion. If substantial impacts occur, Calpine shall implement corrective actions. These measures could include construction of energy dissipaters, berms or culverts, or other appropriate runoff diversion structures.

Calpine shall seed and plant as recommended by USFS the area of the transmission line right-of-way disturbed during construction with low-growing native plants to provide soil stabilization. Seeding and planting shall occur before the next growing season after construction. Native plants that naturally revegetate (such as resprouting shrubs) should be utilized to the fullest extent possible. This mitigation measure shall be consistent with Mitigation Measure 4.7.1d.

Calpine shall not site transmission line structures and access roads within Riparian Reserves, as delineated by the USFS. For streams located outside of Riparian Reserve areas, Calpine shall not site transmission line structures and access roads (except road crossings) within 100 feet of intermittent stream channels.

Calpine shall ensure that vehicular traffic in intermittent stream channels is minimized.

If a high volume of drilling muds are lost to the formation, the drilling contractor shall use Lost Circulation Material (LCM) to seal the well and reduce the migration of drilling mud into the formation. LCM can include constituents such as cottonseed hulls, wood chips, sawdust, etc. Alternatively, the contractor shall use air, foam or aerated mud instead of LCM to reduce the lost circulation. This technique would reduce lost circulation by reducing pressure in the hole.

The BLM shall require Calpine to periodically test the mechanical integrity of the wells to reduce the potential for failure 0 the well casings. Tests results shall be submitted to the BLM.

The Calpine Emergency Contingency Plan shall define control and restoration measures to be implemented in the event of a sump overflow, pipeline rupture, or well blowout.
Cultural Resources
"NEPA_Resource_Analysis" is not in the list of possible values (Not Present, Present, Not Affected, Present, Potentially Affected, Not Indicated) for this property.

 

 
CloseTo comply with Federal requirements pertaining to cultural resources, a qualified archaeologist (on behalf of Calpine) shall survey, identify, and record cultural resources within the proposed transmission line corridor and where ground disturbance outside 0 the corridor would occur due to access roads, fay-down areas, and other associated sites. The survey shall be conducted prior to the commencement of surface disturbing activities for the proposed project. Preliminary construction plans should be overlaid on the cultural resources base maps to identify where surface disturbance will likely occur that may impact a cultural resource. Transmission facilities shall be relocated to avoid historic and prehistoric sites where possible and practical. If avoidance is not feasible, it will be necessary to evaluate each potentially affected site in order to determine if the site is eligible for listing under NRHP criteria. Evaluation of prehistoric sites may include some amount of surface collection and subsurface excavation; evaluation of historic sites may include focused archival study, field recordation, and/or surface collections and

subsurface probing as part of data or resource recovery methods.

At sites already determined eligible~ prior evaluation and mitigation efforts (where conducted) shall be thoroughly reviewed to better assess the effects that this undertaking will have on the property, prior to construction activities. An effort shall be made to relocate transmission facilities, where possible and practical, so that impacts are restricted to areas previously mitigated within eligible properties and remaining intact deposits are not affected. At some eligible sites, it may be necessary to evaluate deposits within the right-of-way to determine the appropriate course of action, as determined by a qualified archaeologist or cultural resource specialist. At historic sites, evaluation may include archival study and/ or field recordation. Avoid cultural resources wherever possible. To ensure that construction activities do not encroach on cultural resources slated for avoidance, sensitive areas shall be flagged prior to surface-disturbing activities, supervisory construction personnel shall be briefed on these locations (and the consequences of encroachment). And, the areas shall be monitored once every week during construction activities by a qualified archaeologist to ensure sites are protected/ avoided.

Construction activities and the production/injection line shall be routed a minimum of 100 feet from the northern boundary of the prehistoric quarry identified at the power plant site. The construction area shall be defined and flagged, with a USFS representative and a cultural resource specialist or archaeologist in attendance, prior to construction. If avoidance is not feasible, the resource specialist shall evaluate the prehistoric site to determine if it is eligible for listing on the NRHP. If it is eligible, data recovery methods, such as collecting surface and subsurface resources shall be pursued as determined by the resource specialist. In addition, it is recommended that no evaluation of the historic site identified at the wellfield and power plant site be undertaken, provided that the proponent's use of USFS Road 44N64 remains as a roadway and does not involve any surface disturbing or subsurface activities, such as grading or excavation adjacent to the roadway.

Construction workers and other persons directly involved with on site activities for the proposed project, including maintenance crews, shall be informed of the sensitivity of the area for cultural resources, and instructed to refrain from unauthorized prehistoric and historic resource collection. All construction workers and other persons directly involved with on-site activities for the proposed project shall be required to sign an agreement recognizing the fragile nature of prehistoric resources and acknowledging that unauthorized collection of said resources is a crime.

If prehistoric archaeological resources are discovered during construction, all work in the immediate vicinity shall be suspended pending site investigation by the USFS and a qualified archaeologist to assess the materials and determine their significance. After halting construction in the area that previously undiscovered resources are found, the resource will be recorded and it will be determined if the project could be re-routed to avoid any additional effects. If avoidance IS not feasible, the site will be evaluated by a qualified archaeologist and a determination of eligibility for the NRHP shall be made. If the site is determined to be eligible, then a mitigation proposal (which may include a data recovery program similar to those conducted for similar resources in the vicinity) shall be submitted with the site record to the State Office of Historic Preservation (SOHP) for review and concurrence.

If prehistoric archaeological deposits that include human remains or objects considered "cultural items" according to the Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act are discovered during construction, the County Coroner and a qualified archaeologist shall be notified immediately and NAGPRA regulations shall be followed. If the remains are identified as American Indian, the tribe(s) shall be notified within one (1) working day and consultation will be initiated. Project activities may resume 30 days after notifying the tribe(s). Repatriation of the other categories of items (funerary objects, sacred objects, and cultural patrimony) shall be based on evidence that indicates whether or not the original acquisition of the object was from an individual that had the authority to separate the item from the tribal group.

If avoidance of previously undiscovered prehistoric archaeological resources is not be feasible, an evaluation of the resources shall be required and conducted by a qualified archaeologist or cultural resources specialist. An evaluation plan would be developed by the archaeologist and would consist of the methodical excavation of those portions of the site(s) that would be adversely affected. Only a qualified archaeologist or cultural resources specialist shall be allowed to collect any prehistoric resources discovered at the site. The work shall be accomplished within the context of a detailed research design and in accordance with current professional standards. The plan shall result in the extraction of sufficient volumes of non-redundant archaeological data so as to address important regional research consideration, detailed technical reports shall be prepared to document the findings.

Maintenance and emergency plans to be developed by Calpine and required for project operation shall include maps of cultural resources that clearly outline site boundaries. Project maintenance and emergency plans shall ensure that successful implementation of these activities can occur without the encroachment of cultural resource sites.

Plans for project operation shall ensure that spills of hazardous material or geothermal fluids are rapidly contained so that cultural resource sites area not affected in the case of such an event.
Native American Concerns
"NEPA_Resource_Analysis" is not in the list of possible values (Not Present, Present, Not Affected, Present, Potentially Affected, Not Indicated) for this property.

 

 
CloseThe proposed transmission line shall be rerouted to avoid traditional-use sites. The appropriate local tribes shall be consulted for location and areal extent of sites prior to the commencement of construction activities.

Calpine shall designate an authorized representative who may be contacted by tribal members during construction to determine activity schedules; this would reduce the potential for interference with tribal activities in the project area during construction. The Calpine representative's name and telephone number shall be provided during the annual project schedule update.

Prior to the commencement of construction activities, Calpine and the USFS shall consult with the appropriate local tribes to determine which sites of tribal concern should be evaluated for noise effects. A monitoring program shall be defined that would determine actual project-related noise levels (with monitoring during drilling and power plant operation). Rescheduling certain project activities and use of temporary noise shields to minimize effects also may be considered.

Prior to the commencement of project construction activities, Calpine shall make a specific outreach to local tribes for hiring for both construction and plant operation jobs. A similar outreach shall be made prior to decommissioning activities.
Vegetation
"NEPA_Resource_Analysis" is not in the list of possible values (Not Present, Present, Not Affected, Present, Potentially Affected, Not Indicated) for this property.

 

 
CloseVegetation loss shall be kept to a minimum during the construction of the project. Facilities shall be sited in areas of previous disturbance, such as log aecks, wherever possible. During all construction, tree removal shall be kept to a minimum; removal of trees with a dbh greater than or equal to 18 inches shall also be minimized. The impact to late seral stage forest shall be

minimized by skirting stands of forest, such as red fir, to the greatest extent possible. In addition, the freshwater pipeline shall be placed between trees, and shall avoid the need to clear timber.

For loss of late seral stage forest and trees and snags with a dbh greater than or equal to 18 inches, Calpine shall be responsible for providing compensation since this loss will result m loss of habitat for certain special-status wildlife species. Compensation shall be provided as discussed under impact 4.8.1 in Section 4.8-Wildlife.

Roads and wellpads shall be sited to minimize cut and fill and fill slopes shall be constructed at no greater slope than 1.5:1. Standard erosion control measures shall be implemented where appropriate, such as construction of water bars on roads, and check dams and energy dissipaters as needed.

During construction of wellpads, the top 6 inches of surface soil shall be stockpiled separately for application onto the fill slopes. Following construction and decommissioning, a revegetation plan shall be prepared for the revegetation of the transmission line, wellpads, pipelines, and power plant site, under the direction of the USFS. The revegetation plan shall include the use of currently accepted practices and plant materials. Areas cleared within the transmission line right-of way shall be seeded or planted with native perennial grasses and low growing shrubs such as ceanothus, manzanita, and bitter brush. The selection of plant materials will be based on site conditions and will approximate the species composition of nearby successional areas.

Calpine shall develop and implement a monitoring plan in coordination with the USFS to document the deposition impacts to vegetation in the vicinity of the power plant resulting from project operation. The plan shall include the following:

  • Periodic (i.e., quarterly) chemical analysis of circulating water to ascertain the concentration of boron, mercury, and arsenic.
  • An annual evaluation of the effect of cooling tower drift on nearby trees in the vicinity of the power plant. Assessment may be a semi-quantitative assessment of leaf damage, but may also include chemical analysis of damaged leaves.
  • If tree mortality occurs in close proximity to the power plant site and it is determined that this mortality is due to the emissions 0 and deposition from the proposed project, revegetation shall be carried out by Calpine (as directed by the USFS) to compensate for these effects. This

compensation could involve replanting more tolerant indigenous vegetation such as grass and shrubs in the power plant vicinity, providing off-site replacement vegetation, and/ or enhancing other vegetated areas as directed by the USFS.

Early summer floristic surveys and preconstruction surveys of the proposed transmission line route and the wellfield and power plant area shall be carried out. Currently-identified populations of special-status species (particularly Hall's sedge, sugar stick, gray penstemon, and volcanic daisy populations) shall be marked and avoided. Detailed surveys for additional special-status species shall be carried out and populations marked and avoided. Populations of CNPS List 1 and 2 plants and Category 2 plants listed in the Northwest Forest Plan shall be avoided with sufficient buffer to protect the population. Where possible, other special-status plant species, such as CNPS List 3 and 4, USFS Special Interest, and Presidents Forest Plan Category 3 and 4 species shall be avoided where possible.

Maintenance plans and emergency access plans shall include maps of special status species in the area that must be avoided.

In order to avoid the meadow north of Medicine Lake, the portion of segment A1 of the transmission line corridor near the meadow shall be relocated to be routed north of this meadow, between the meadow and the Medicine Lake Glass Flow. The transmission line at this location shall be constructed to avoid the meadow and its 150-foot Riparian Reserve buffer zone by ensuring that the transmission line poles are located such that the transmission line spans any portion of the meadow or its buffer zone underneath the line. Access roads shall not be located in the meadow area or in its buffer zone, and construction activities shall avoid this meadow and its buffer zone.

The dispersed, small potential wetland areas along segment C1or C2 of the transmission line shall be avoided. A qualified biologist shall delineate the extent of these potential wetland areas prior to construction, and transmission line facilities shall be sited to avoid these areas. Habitat disturbance in areas other than potential wetland habitat shall be minimized, and construction activities shall be timed to avoid periods of wet weather in which habitat disturbance (e.g., soil erosion an compaction) may be greater. Access roads and support structures for this portion of segment C1 or C2 shall be placed in uplands.

In consultation with the USFS, Calpine shall select and plant appropriate timber species as part of revegetation efforts during decommissioning of the project. Ultimately, this replanting program would serve to replace timber lands removed as a result of project development.
Wildlife Resources
"NEPA_Resource_Analysis" is not in the list of possible values (Not Present, Present, Not Affected, Present, Potentially Affected, Not Indicated) for this property.

 

 
CloseVegetation management activities should use selective methods during construction. Selective methods, such as scalloping or clearance, should be used to trim or remove only vegetation with potential to interfere with construction of the transmission line.

Vegetation management activities should use selective methods during operation. Selective methods, such as scalloping or clearance, should be used to trim or remove only vegetation with potential to interfere with transmission line operation.

Minimize the removal of late seral stage forest and individual trees and snags with dbh greater than or equal to 18 inches during construction of the transmission line by locating transmission line facilities in areas such as log decks, previously logged forest stands, and areas of small class-size trees (i.e., smaller than 18 inches dbh), wherever possible.

For stands of late seral stage forest that are lost due to project construction, compensation shall be provided by Calpine in accordance with the standards and guidelines of the Northwest Forest Plan (USFS and BLM 1994a). Compensation could include activities such as silvicultural enhancement in the form of thinning understory or prescribing underburning techniques of an acreage equivalent to that removed by project activities. The USFS shall identify appropriate sites for compensation through a collection agreement with Calpine prior to the commencement of construction activities.

For trees and snags with dbh greater than or equal to 18 inches that are removed during construction, compensation shall be provided by Calpine in accordance with the standards and guidelines of the Northwest Forest Plan (USFS and BLM 1994a). Per these guidelines, all loss of snags with dbh of 18 inches or more shall be mitigated for at an off-site location that is a distance of 250 feet or more from any edge of an area cleared for project facilities. The trees selected for snag creation shall be inspected by a qualified wildlife biologist to ensure that they are not occupied by bats or other special-status wildlife. Snag creation (or other compensatory measures) could include killing live trees or accelerating the development of stands to increase tree senescence.

Use standard noise controls and reduction measures on construction, well drilling, and power plant equipment to minimize disturbance of general wildlife in the area.

Preconstruction surveys for certain special-status species shall be conducted prior to the commencement of construction activities to identify the actual presence of these species in potential habitat, and to identify specific areas to be avoided during project construction. Surveys shall be administered by a qualified biologist and will follow USFS protocol or other survey methodology as directed by the USFS. Surveys shall be completed for the species listed in Mitigation Measures 4.8.3b through 4.8.31 and 4.8.3p through 4.8.3r, which include the Cooper's hawk, northern goshawk, northern spotted owl, sage grouse, Swainson's hawk, pallid bat, Townsend's big-eared bat, Myotis sp. and silver-haired bats, American marten, and survey and manage mollusks.

Cooper's hawk: During the spring of the year prior to construction and decommissioning of the transmission line, survey for active Cooper's hawk nests in a corridor extending 0.25 mile from the centerline of transmission line in potential Cooper's hawk habitat. Avoid disturbance to any active Cooper's hawk nest sites within this corridor by maintaining a limited operating period (March 1 to August 31). During this period, construction and decommissioning activities shaill be prohibited within 0.25 mile of the nest site. All other forested habitats that may provide nest sites for Cooper's hawks along the transmission route proposed for this alternative have been surveyed for raptor nests and no active nests have been found in areas that would be disturbed by project construction activities. However, preconstruction surveys shall also be conducted in these areas to ensure nesting has not occurred since the last surveys were conducted.

Northern goshawk: A limited construction and operating period shall be in effect to protect the goshawk nest site in the west-central portion of the wellfield and power plant area. This limitation will prohibit certain activities (depending on distance from the nest site) between March 1 and August 31 of each calendar year. This limitation includes no noise disturbance or habitat modifying activities within 0.25 mile of the nest site during this period (this includes limiting truck traffic on Forest Road 44N54 between March 1 and August 31 by designating an alternate route away from the goshawk nest site). This limitation also includes no habitat-modifying activities within 0.25 to 0.5 mile of the goshawk nest site during this period, but allows noise disturbance within this distance. Therefore, the following activities would be prohibited during this period within 0.25 and 0.5 mile of the goshawk nest site: (1) Construction of well pads P-4, P-5, 1-2, and 1-3, (2) road construction, and (3) well drilling. The testing and operation of wells at these pads would not be restricted within 0.25 and 0.5 mile of the goshawk nest site. Beyond 0.5 mile from the goshawk nest site, no restrictions on operation and construction activities will apply. In addition, all Calpine employees and contract personnel working at the site will be notified of the importance of isolating the goshawk nest site from noise and unnecessary human activity. Personnel will be prohibited from conducting field activities within 0.25 mile of the goshawk nest site unless authorized by the USFS.

Northern goshawk: Preconstruction surveys shall be conducted upon identification and selection of the transmission line alignment to identify goshawk nest sites along this route and to identify specific areas where limited project-related activities would be allowed to occur.

Northern Spotted Owl: Conduct appropriate surveys for northern spotted owl roosting or nesting habitat prior to construction of the transmission line and installation of the temporary freshwater pipeline in a corridor extending 0.25 mile from the centerline of transmission line segments in the Medicine Lake Highlands, and along the freshwater pipeline route. If there is suitable northern spotted owl roosting or nesting habitat within 0.25 mile of the freshwater pipeline and transmission line right-of-way, then no construction activity shall occur in these areas between February 1 and July 31. During annual spring maintenance, transmission line helicopter maintenance within 0.25 mile of suitable roosting or nesting habitat shall not be used. Instead, snowmobiles or sno-cats may be used to access these portions of the transmission line for annual spring maintenance.

Sage grouse: During the spring of the year prior to construction and decommissioning of the transmission line, survey the project site to determine whether or not active sage grouse strutting grounds are present. No transmission line or access road shall be constructed within 0.5 mile of a known strutting ground (as identified in CNDDB or USFS records or through preconstruction surveys). No project activities likely to create noise or disturbance shall be conducted within 0.5 mile of a known strutting ground during the spring breeding season (February 15 through April 30).

Swains on's hawk: During the spring of the year prior to construction and decommissioning of the transmission line, survey juniper woodland habitat for active Swainson's hawk nests in a corridor extending 0.25 mile from the centerline. Avoid disturbance to any active Swainson's hawk nest sites within this corridor by maintaining a limited operating period (March 1 to July 31). During this period, construction and decommissioning activities shall be prohibited within 0.25 mile of the nest site.

Pallid bat: Prior to construction and decommissioning of project facilities in pallid bat habitat, survey for potential diurnal roosting habitat. Also survey for potential roosting habitat within a 250-foot buffer area on either side of the transmission line corridor and along proposed access roads. Avoid removal of snags and defective trees with dbh of 18 Inches or more to the greatest extent possible during construction of project facilities. All loss of snags with dbh of 18 inches or more shall be mitigated for at an off-site location at a distance of 250 feet or more from the edge of areas cleared for project facilities.

Townsend's big-eared bat: Prior to construction and decommissioning of project facilities, survey for potential diurnal roosting habitat in the form of caves in all areas that shall be cleared or disturbed, and in a 250-foot buffer area on either side of these project facilities. When constructing project facilities, avoid impacts to caves that provide roosting habitat by enforcing a 250-foot buffer zone around these habitat features.
Visual Resources
"NEPA_Resource_Analysis" is not in the list of possible values (Not Present, Present, Not Affected, Present, Potentially Affected, Not Indicated) for this property.

 

 
CloseWell venting shall be conducted to minimize the size and visibility of steam plumes and will include directing geothennal fluids from the wellhead to a portable silencer, allowing for minimization of particulate matter.

Although not required to reduce a significant impact, cooling towers shall be designed to minimize the size of the steam plume. Calpine shall review plume reduction technology during design to detennine if feasible technology exists. The available technology shall be reviewed with the BLM and USFS. If feasible technology is available, it shall be used in cooling tower construction.

Prepare and submit to the Klamath National Forest Service for approval, a detailed Exterior Lighting Design and Management Plan that incorporates the following guidelines:

  • Use lights that may be within view of Primary Forest Route 49 and other identified sensitive viewpoints only when necessary, such as for emergency purposes or when conducting routine night-time maintenance activities.
  • Constant area lighting would be limited only to those places that must be observed from a distance for safety purposes.
  • Area lighting, cooling tower exterior lighting, and security lighting should be controlled by the use of timed switches and/or motion detector activation control so lights are only on when necessary.
  • All light fixtures should include shrouds (either fixed or adjustable), other shielding, or be directed in such a way as to block direct light from Forest Road 49, from identified sites located in the west portion of the Medicine Lake Highlands that are significant to traditional cultural values, and from other identified sensitive viewpoints.
  • Drill rig mast lighting shall also be shrouded and directed down the drill mast, not out from it. (This mitigation does not apply to any lighting of masts to meet Federal Aviation Administration requirements.)
  • Stray light should be controlled through use of low-brightness fixtures with optical controls.


Standard site planning and construction methods would be followed to minimize the visual disturbance to the existing landscape caused by construction. These include methods such as:

  • Limiting construction access to identified routes
  • Designating layout space and other construction zones to pre-defined areas
  • Identifying and clearly delineating grading and construction limit lines around the power plant site, all well pads, and along the pipeline routes
  • Clearing of trees should be limited to the minimum area required
  • Clearing of land for facilities and structures should use curvilinear boundaries where practical instead of straight lines
  • Providing dust control measures
  • Removing construction equipment from the project area when no longer needed
  • Restoring and revegetating temporary construction areas and equipment storage areas that are no longer needed, in accordance with U.S. Forest Service requirements


Landscape Design: Landscaping should be used in areas visible from Primary Forest Route 49 (the entrance road to the plant site) and Forest Road 44N54 to screen the appearance of project facilities and attain a natural landscape character within a 3-year period to include:

  • Shaping cuts and fills to appear as natural forms, to the extent possible
  • Stockpiling and reusing topsoil
  • Furrowing slopes
  • Hydroseeding and mulching clear-cut and fill areas
  • Revegetating cut/fill slopes with native shrub and tree species of sufficient

size, growth rate, and density

  • Fertilizing, mulching, and watering planted areas
  • Cutting rock areas so that forms are irregular


Facility Design: Appropriate facility design standards and facility materials should be used to reduce the visual contrast between project facilities and the characteristic landscape including, but not be limited to:

  • Using paint or integrated material coloring that is uniform, noncontrasting and non-reflective, except where safety colors are required by code
  • Selecting facility colors, including any exposed concrete, to blend with the immediate natural environment and to be a shade darker than the adjacent forest landscape to compensate for effects of shade and shadow
  • Inspecting and repairing facilities annually to evaluate the buildup of dust or other materials and the effects of weathering processes that will reduce the effect of the original colors
  • Using wooden posts for required signs
  • Designing a coordinated signing program which minimizes use of signs and is based on approved USFS sign colors
  • Using only non-reflective fencing throughout the project


For the entire transmission line route, implement the following measures to minimize the visual effects of right-of-way vegetation clearance and transmission line facilities:

  • To minimize the need for excessive vegetation clearing from the transmission line right-of-way, prepare a detailed transmission line clearing plan for review and approval by the USFS that takes into account basic principles of feathering and scalloping of the transmission line right-of-way
  • Prior to clearing activities, identify those trees to be removed, trees to be pruned, and trees to remain within the transmission line right-of-way, with review and approval by the USFS
  • To reduce reflection and glare, use only non-specular conductors as is already planned for by Calpine
  • To reduce reflection and glare of metal poles, use flat paint or integrated material coloring except where safety colors are required by code.

The following measures shall be implemented at road crossings and at the segment Al crossing of the Medicine Lake Lava Flow Trail in order to minimize the establishment of a visual corridor from vegetation clearing under the conductor, minimize views down the transmission line right-of-way, and reduce the dominance of the transmission line:

  • For each transmission pole immediately adjacent to the road, use self-supporting single steel poles rather than H-frame poles.
  • Site transmission line poles as far away as practical from either side of the road; redirect the transmission line right-of-way from the two poles adjacent to the road at a sufficient angle so that only that portion of the right-of-way between the two poles nearest the road may be visible from the road.
  • Retain all trees within the right-of-way between 5 feet and 12 feet in height depending upon the height of the conductors in that segment (30 or 37 feet clearance between the conductor and the ground)
  • Regrade to create designed earth berms and/or plant native trees and understory vegetation within 100 feet on either side of the roadway at a density, size, and growth rate sufficient to screen views into the right-of-way from the roadway within a 3-year period.


Reroute the transmission line and utility corridor along segment Al slightly west of the proposed alignment to avoid crossing Primary Forest Route 77 in a VQO Retention area. This shall be accomplished by rerouting segment Al at approximately 0.25 mile from the power plant, due south for approximately 0.75 mile. At approximately 1.0 mile from the power plant, the line shall be redirected back towards the southeast for approximately 1.25 miles to just north of Medicine Lake. From this point just north of Medicine Lake the segment shall continue to follow the proposed alignment of segment AI. Rerouting the transmission line and utility corridor in accordance with this measure shall result in the crossing of Primary Forest Route 77 in a VQO of

Partial Retention.
Lands and Realty
"NEPA_Resource_Analysis" is not in the list of possible values (Not Present, Present, Not Affected, Present, Potentially Affected, Not Indicated) for this property.

 

 
CloseAmend the Klamath LRMP to revise forest-wide standard 24-25 to state: "Protect traditional Native American cultural and religious uses and practices consistent with PL 95-341, American Indian Religious Freedom Act of 1978."
Recreation
"NEPA_Resource_Analysis" is not in the list of possible values (Not Present, Present, Not Affected, Present, Potentially Affected, Not Indicated) for this property.

 

 
CloseIn consultation with the USFS and BLM, Calpine shall develop a public information plan by which the local and general public would be notified of upcoming construction activities and schedules. Calpine shall place appropriate signs in approved locations informing users of the recreation area

of the construction activities.

Calpine shall sign the intersection of the access road to the plant site with Forest Road 44N54 and feather this crossing for snowmobiles.
Access and Transportation
"NEPA_Resource_Analysis" is not in the list of possible values (Not Present, Present, Not Affected, Present, Potentially Affected, Not Indicated) for this property.

 

 
CloseCalpine, under the direction of the USFS, shall make improvements to Forest Roads 44N01 and 44N64 to ensure that projected traffic volumes can be safely accommodated on these roads.

The USFS shall develop a road maintenance plan for project area roads to ensure that the structural integrity of these roads is not impaired by the proposed project. Calpine shall be responsible for implementing or financing this maintenance plan and make any necessary repairs.

The USFS shall require that Calpine develop and implement a construction and decommissioning access plan that stipUlates construction and decommissioning equipment and truck access routes into the proposed transmission line route along segments Al and A2. This plan shan also be used for any heavy truck hauling required during the operation phase and shall provide for the following:

  • Avoidance of Primary Forest Route 49 between Primary Route 97 and 77, in the Medicine Lake area
  • Avoidance of Forest Road 43N48
  • Consideration of Forest Road 43N53 as access points into segments Al and A2
  • Identification of an access route for through traffic between the wellfield and power plant area, and the transmission line route to ensure avoidance of roads identified above
  • Construction and decommissioning equipment and truck traffic originating from Highway 139 east of the Medicine Lake Highlands would follow a path of travel west on Primary Forest Route 97 to its intersection with Forest Road 44N01, then northwest past Cougar Butte to a section of

Primary Forest Route 49 (44N75), and then southward to the wellfield and power plant area

  • If these roads cannot be avoided, then construction and decommissioning vehicle trips on these roads shall be prohibited from traveling on these roads during weekends and holidays, signage shall be provided in the area warning recreationalists of the presence of construction or
decommissioning vehicles, and the applicant shall repair pavement that is damaged and destroyed as a result of construction or decommissioning vehicles.
Air Quality
"NEPA_Resource_Analysis" is not in the list of possible values (Not Present, Present, Not Affected, Present, Potentially Affected, Not Indicated) for this property.

 

 
CloseCalpine shall be required to design and implement measures to control the generation of dust during wellfield, power plant, and transmission line construction. The measures shall be applied during the construction season after the ground becomes dry. Such measures shall be reviewed and approved by the SCAPCD and the USFS and could include, but would not be limited to the following measures:
  • Apply water or dust palliative (i.e. magnesium chloride) to all active construction areas where soil disturbance is occurring; the amount of watering shall depend on the soil moisture content and the weather conditions
  • For exposed construction soil stockpiles or inactive construction areas where soil disturbance has occurred, vegetate, enclose, water, or treat with dust palliative
  • Limit construction vehicle speeds to 25 miles per hour or less on all unpaved roads
  • Cover all construction trucks hauling loose materials that would travel off forest roads


H2S emissions during flow testing shall be monitored and the results reported to the APCD on a schedule approved by the APCD. If the monitoring reveals emissions in exceedance of ilie APCD's emission limitation, the APCD could require additional control measures to ensure compliance with the emission limitation. Additional control measures could include, but would not be limited to, the following:

  • Reduce the number of wells venting simultaneously
  • Implement additional wellhead abatement measures, such as caustic injection between the flash tank and the portable silencer


If during initial well drilling H2S concentrations in the geothermal resource exceed the expected concentration of 8 ppm, H2S emissions should be re-modeled to determine H2S concentrations at adjacent receptors and the potential for exceedances of the state I-hour standard. Additional mitigation measures to control H2S may be required, such as the use of a surface condenser instead of a direct-contact condenser.

Log plant operations after startup to document actual frequency and duration of upset conditions. This information would be used in conjunction with monitoring of H2S concentrations to evaluate the effectiveness of H2S abatement systems. If significant impacts are measured, additional abatement measures would be required that are acceptable to the agencies.

Calpine shall be required to throttle back the wells to 50 percent of full flow after 1 hour of full-flow venting. After 6 hours, Calpine shall further reduce flow (if possible without damaging the well casings and/or killing the wells) to a level that meets SCAPCD emission requirements for H~. Calpine shall evaluate the potential to further reduce flow by collecting operational information during the initial year of wellfield production and over the long term.

Calpine shall use diesel engines that have ignition timing retard to power drill rigs. Ignition timing retard refers to adjusting an engine's timing such that the fuel is injected into the cylinder later in the cycle, whlle the piston is traveling downward. This reduces NOx emissions (by 20-30%) because the combustion takes place at a lower temperature, resulting in less conversion of nitrogen and oxygen present in the intake air to form nitric oxide (NO). It should be noted that theNOx emissions modeled reflect control using ignition timing retard.
Noise
"NEPA_Resource_Analysis" is not in the list of possible values (Not Present, Present, Not Affected, Present, Potentially Affected, Not Indicated) for this property.

 

 
CloseCalpine shall use feasible noise controls on standard construction equipment to minimize potential noise effects to existing nearby residences. Impact tools should be shielded or shrouded when practicable, and equipment should have a muffled exhaust.

For the portion of segment Allocated within the Modoc National Forest, Calpine shall not perform transmission line construction activities on Sundays and legal holidays or between the hours of 10:00 p.m. and 7:00 a.m.

Calpine or its contractors shall implement site-specific measures to respond to complaints and minimize future disturbances of nearby residences. Such measures could include changing the location of stationary equipment, installing acoustic barriers around stationary construction noise sources, shutting off idling equipment, and rescheduling construction activity.

For the portion of segment C1 located east of the PacifiCorp and USWAPA 500 kV corridor and west of Highway 139, Calpine shall not perform transmission line construction activities on Sundays and legal holidays or between the hours of 10:00 p.m. and 7:00 a.m.
Economic Values
"NEPA_Resource_Analysis" is not in the list of possible values (Not Present, Present, Not Affected, Present, Potentially Affected, Not Indicated) for this property.

 

 
CloseCalpine shall facilitate the transfer of information about short-term housing opportunities between local businesses and individuals providing housing for construction workers by installing a bulletin board and housing availability file in the construction office.

Calpine shall establish an emergency response facility at the plant site to assist the USFS fire organizations in emergency response. The facility shall include the equipment necessary to provide a first-response to emergency situations at the plant site until the arrival of the USFS fire organizations.

Calpine shall provide Level A equipment protective suits, breathing equipment) to respond to hazardous materials spills.

Calpine shall implement a comprehensive safety program at the plant facility, including safety training for all plant personnel.

Calpine shall ensure that at least one person during each of the three project phases is trained in basic emergency medical aid, such as wound treatment, bandaging, and cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR), in order to respond to potential on-site injuries.

Calpine shall contract with a private security company to supply guards at the power plant facility.

Calpine shall establish a waste reduction program at the plant site to minimize the solid waste stream going to the landfill.
Invasive, Nonnative Species
"NEPA_Resource_Analysis" is not in the list of possible values (Not Present, Present, Not Affected, Present, Potentially Affected, Not Indicated) for this property.

 

 
CloseCalpine shall develop and implement a weed control plan under the direction of the USFS. This plan shall be modeled on the plan for the Tuscarora natural gas pipeline project segment on the Modoc National Forest, and shall include the following elements:
  • Development of a list of weeds for which control measures are required
  • An inventory of existing weed infestations within the project area
  • Wash stations for construction vehicles entering the project area and at staging areas along the transmission line route
  • Post-construction monitoring and control of weed infestations that will occur periodically throughout the life of the project, under the direction of the USFS.
Range Resources
"NEPA_Resource_Analysis" is not in the list of possible values (Not Present, Present, Not Affected, Present, Potentially Affected, Not Indicated) for this property.

Mitigation was included despite the EIS saying there would be no adverse effects on grazing.

 
CloseCalpine shall install temporary cattle guards leading from the transmission line to US 139 when constructing the transmission line between Tionesta and the proposed substation.