Brine pH Modification Scale Control Technology. 2. A Review.pdf

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Journal Article: Brine pH Modification Scale Control Technology. 2. A Review.pdf

Abstract
A variety of processes has been deployed at geothermalfields to inhibit or control siliceous scale deposition. It has beenknown for decades that the kinetics of silicic acid polymerizationis retarded when the pH of an aqueous solution is decreased.Therefore, a potential method for controlling siliceous scalingfrom geothermal brine is treatment with acid. Early attempts tocontrol siliceous scaling in geothermal brine-handling equipmentby retarding polymerization led to the belief that the pHhad to be reduced to < 4. Acidifying brine was discourageddue to corrosion concerns. In 1980, the author and colleaguesexamined acidification of hyper-saline brine to mitigate ferricsilicate scaling. Field studies showed that a compromise betweenscaling and corrosion could be achieved by reducing the brinepH to no lower than 4.5.The pH modification process was operated commerciallyby 1982 at two fields in the Imperial Valley of California, USA.In 1994, this process was installed on a bottoming cycle powerplant to control scaling in heat exchangers and injection wells(Gallup, 1996b). Today, the pH modification process has beendeployed at a number of geothermal fields around the world tocontrol amorphous silica and metal silicate scale deposition. Thehistory of and development of improvements to pH modificationtechnology will be reviewed. The present paper is an update of aprior publication on the subject (Gallup, 1996a).

Author 
Darrell L. Gallup








Published Journal 
GRC Transactions, 2011





DOI 
Not Provided
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Online 
Internet link for Brine pH Modification Scale Control Technology. 2. A Review.pdf

Citation

Darrell L. Gallup. 2011. Brine pH Modification Scale Control Technology. 2. A Review.pdf. GRC Transactions. 35(N/A):609-614.