Big Eddy-Knight

From Open Energy Information


NEPA Document Collection for: Big Eddy-Knight
EIS

Big Eddy-Knight Transmission Project Environmental Impact Statement

Proposed Action

BPA has decided to construct the Big Eddy-Knight Transmission Project in Wasco County, Oregon and Klickitat County, Washington. This project consists primarily of constructing a new, approximately 28-mile-long, 500-kilovolt (kV) transmission line and ancillary facilities between BPA's existing Big Eddy Substation in The Dalles, Oregon, to a proposed new Knight Substation that would be connected to an existing BPA line about 4 miles northwest of Goldendale, Washington.

The Big Eddy-Knight Transmission Project will respond to requests for transmission service in the region by increasing transmission capability of the electrical system. For the transmission line, BPA has decided to build East Alternative Option 3, which was identified in the final EIS as the preferred alternative for the transmission line route. For the first 14 miles, the line will use double-circuit towers (combining the new line and an existing line on one set of towers) mostly on existing right-of-way. The remaining 14 miles of the new line will be built with single-circuit towers in newly-established transmission line right-of-way. BPA has also decided to build the small (about 1 mile) realignment of the East Alternative on the Oregon side of the Columbia River, as described in the final EIS. For the proposed new Knight Substation, BPA has decided to build Knight Substation on Site 1, which is on private property about 0.5 mile west of Knight Road. For the fiber optic cable necessary for system communications, BPA has decided to build the Loop Back Option, which will string fiber optic cable on the new transmission towers from BPA's Big Eddy Substation to the new Knight Substation and back again. The project also includes new equipment at BPA's existing Big Eddy and Wautoma substations. BPA considered three transmission line alternatives, two Knight Substation sites, two fiber optic cable options, and the No Action Alternative.

Conditions of Approval

BPA will be responsible for the execution of all mitigation measures. All the mitigation measures described in the draft EIS and updated in the final EIS that apply to the East Alternative, Knight Substation Site 1, and the Loop Back Option are adopted. A complete list of these measures the attached Mitigation Action Plan. Also included as part of the Mitigation Action Plan are possible measures to be implemented on DNR lands as negotiated by the Washington Statewide Rights‐of‐Way Memorandum of Agreement or other agreements. The Mitigation Action Plan is provided as part of the ROD and available at: http://efw.bpa.gov/environmental_services/Document_Library/Big_Eddy-Knight/pdf/rod-20110916-Big-Eddy-Knight-Transmission-Project.pdf

Data Completion Notes

A complete record of the project files can be found on the Project website at: http://efw.bpa.gov/environmental_services/Document_Library/Big_Eddy-Knight/

Documents

EA/EIS Report:



 

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Resource Analysis

Resource Not
Present
Present,
Not
Affected
Present,
Potentially
Affected
Not
Indicated
Comment Applicant
Proposed
Mitigation
Agency
Imposed
Mitigation
Lands and Realty
"NEPA_Resource_Analysis" is not in the list of possible values (Not Present, Present, Not Affected, Present, Potentially Affected, Not Indicated) for this property.

 

Close• Provide a schedule of construction activities to all landowners that could be affected by construction.

• Limit construction to daylight hours, minimizing disturbance to those residents who work during the day. • Compensate landowners for any new land rights required for right‐of‐way or access road easements. • Compensate landowners for any damage to property during construction. • Compensate landowners for reconfiguration of irrigation systems due to placement of towers or access roads. • Restore compacted cropland soils as close as possible to preconstruction conditions using tillage. • Do not allow mixing of excavated material with topsoil outside of tower footprint on farms or croplands. • Work with landowners to determine mitigation measures needed to maintain Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) status, if needed. • Follow applicable goals and objectives of the National Scenic Area Management Plan with guidance from the U.S. Forest Service (USFS) and Columbia River Gorge Commission (CRGC)in the Columbia River Gorge National Scenic Area (National Scenic Area). • Reseed disturbed areas (see mitigation measures in Vegetation). After construction • Implement measures to reduce the possible spread of noxious weeds (see mitigation measures in Vegetation). • Implement measures to control dust (see mitigation measures in Geology and Soils) During construction • Implement measures to control construction noise (see mitigation measures in Noise).

• Install gates, barriers, and postings at appropriate access points at the landowner’s request, to minimize or eliminate public access to project facilities.
 
Recreation
"NEPA_Resource_Analysis" is not in the list of possible values (Not Present, Present, Not Affected, Present, Potentially Affected, Not Indicated) for this property.

 

Close• Provide a schedule of construction activities to all landowners that could be affected by construction.

• Limit construction to daylight hours, minimizing disturbance to those residents who work during the day. • Compensate landowners for any new land rights required for right‐of‐way or access road easements. • Compensate landowners for any damage to property during construction. • Compensate landowners for reconfiguration of irrigation systems due to placement of towers or access roads. • Restore compacted cropland soils as close as possible to preconstruction conditions using tillage. • Do not allow mixing of excavated material with topsoil outside of tower footprint on farms or croplands. • Work with landowners to determine mitigation measures needed to maintain Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) status, if needed. • Follow applicable goals and objectives of the National Scenic Area Management Plan with guidance from the U.S. Forest Service (USFS) and Columbia River Gorge Commission (CRGC)in the Columbia River Gorge National Scenic Area (National Scenic Area). • Reseed disturbed areas (see mitigation measures in Vegetation). After construction • Implement measures to reduce the possible spread of noxious weeds (see mitigation measures in Vegetation). • Implement measures to control dust (see mitigation measures in Geology and Soils) During construction • Implement measures to control construction noise (see mitigation measures in Noise).

• Install gates, barriers, and postings at appropriate access points at the landowner’s request, to minimize or eliminate public access to project facilities.
 
Visual Resources
"NEPA_Resource_Analysis" is not in the list of possible values (Not Present, Present, Not Affected, Present, Potentially Affected, Not Indicated) for this property.

 

Close• Site all construction staging and storage areas away from locations that would be clearly visible from sensitive scenic areas, trails, and scenic highways as much as practical.

• Treat galvanized steel towers and transmission line conductors to dull the shininess of the steel • Implement construction site maintenance and clean‐up. Keep construction areas free of debris. • Provide regular maintenance of access roads and gates within and leading to the corridor. • Reseed disturbed areas (see mitigation measures for Vegetation). After construction Implement measures to reduce the possible spread of noxious weeds (see mitigation measures in Vegetation).

• Implement measures to control erosion and dust (see mitigation measures in Geology and Soils, and Air Quality).
 
Vegetation
"NEPA_Resource_Analysis" is not in the list of possible values (Not Present, Present, Not Affected, Present, Potentially Affected, Not Indicated) for this property.

 

Close• Locate towers and roads outside of priority ecosystems, high‐quality vegetation communities, and areas of special‐status plants as much as possible. Avoid these areas during construction (staging areas, pulling sites, etc.).

• Avoid tree removal to the extent possible. • Cut or crush vegetation rather than blade in areas that would remain vegetated to maximize the ability of native plants to resprout. • Work with the appropriate state agency to mitigate impacts to federal species of concern, state‐listed species, or protected habitats if impacts are unavoidable. Site‐specific mitigation to be determined after a project decision is made and during tower location and design. Measures could include the following:

  • Ecologically optimizing siting of facilities
  • Special construction techniques to minimize soil disturbance
  • Seasonal restrictions
  • Identifying and securing replacement lands
  • Identifying appropriate seed or plant sources for revegetation
  • Monitoring and response provisions.

• Seed all disturbed areas to prevent colonization by weeds and facilitate reestablishment of the preconstruction plant community. Use native seed mixtures that consist of locally dominate native species, unless requested differently by the landowner. On CRP lands, use native seed mixtures approved by the local Farm Service Agency (FSA). • Restore compacted soils if needed prior to seeding (see mitigation measures in Land Use). After construction Prepare and implement an Early Detection Rapid Response Plan to control the infestation or spread of noxious weeds that would include the following measures:

  • Collaborate with the Klickitat County Weed Board or Wasco County Weed Department and landowners to determine and carry out the best control measures deemed locally effective for weed control during construction and over the life of the line.
  • Conduct invasive weed surveys prior to and following construction to determine potential weed spread and appropriate corrective actions.
  • Where possible, treat identified infestations prior to construction.
  • Pressure or steam wash vehicles and other equipment that have been in weed infested areas at established wash stations upon leaving the infested areas to prevent spreading weeds to uninfected areas during construction.
  • Monitor and treat existing and new infestations during construction on a minimum annual basis and for 3 years after construction.

• Equip all vehicles with basic fire‐fighting equipment, including extinguishers and shovels to prevent fires that could encourage weed growth.

• Use certified weed‐free mulch, if mulch is used for erosion control.
 
Geology and Minerals
"NEPA_Resource_Analysis" is not in the list of possible values (Not Present, Present, Not Affected, Present, Potentially Affected, Not Indicated) for this property.

 

Close• Minimize the project ground disturbance footprint, particularly in sensitive areas (i.e., steep slopes and landslide areas).

• Prepare and implement a Storm Water Pollution Prevention Plan (SWPPP) for construction activities to lessen soil erosion and improve water quality of stormwater runoff. • For the SWPPP, use management practices contained in the Storm Water Management Manual for Eastern Washington (e.g., use silt fences, straw bales, interceptor trenches, or other perimeter sediment management devices; place them prior to the onset of the rainy season and monitor and maintain them as necessary throughout construction). • Prepare a Fugitive Dust Control Plan to control dust. • Water or use palliatives on exposed soil surfaces in areas disturbed during construction. • Water, use palliatives, or cover construction materials if they are a source of blowing dust. • Gravel access road surfaces in areas of sustained wind and potential dust erosion. • Ensure construction vehicles travel at low speeds on access roads and at construction sites to minimize dust. • Limit the amount of time soils are left exposed. • Reseed disturbed areas (see mitigation measures in Vegetation). • Restore compacted soils (see mitigation measures in Section 3.1 Land Use). • Conduct additional site‐specific evaluations in areas of potential landslides to determine degree of recent activity, likelihood of activation or reactivation, potential setbacks, and site‐specific stability as appropriate. • Design roads to limit water accumulation and erosion; install appropriate access road drainage (ditches, water bars, cross drainage, or roadside berms) to control and disperse runoff. • Design transmission tower footings and roads for specific site conditions through detailed geologic hazard assessments, including review of geologic maps and aerial photography, surface condition assessments, and geological testing at representative sites. • Minimize construction on steep or unstable slopes, if possible.

• Relocate towers or roads located within previously unidentified active slides, bedrock hollows, or other geologic hazard areas, where possible.
 
Soils
"NEPA_Resource_Analysis" is not in the list of possible values (Not Present, Present, Not Affected, Present, Potentially Affected, Not Indicated) for this property.

 

Close• Minimize the project ground disturbance footprint, particularly in sensitive areas (i.e., steep slopes and landslide areas).

• Prepare and implement a Storm Water Pollution Prevention Plan (SWPPP) for construction activities to lessen soil erosion and improve water quality of stormwater runoff. • For the SWPPP, use management practices contained in the Storm Water Management Manual for Eastern Washington (e.g., use silt fences, straw bales, interceptor trenches, or other perimeter sediment management devices; place them prior to the onset of the rainy season and monitor and maintain them as necessary throughout construction). • Prepare a Fugitive Dust Control Plan to control dust. • Water or use palliatives on exposed soil surfaces in areas disturbed during construction. • Water, use palliatives, or cover construction materials if they are a source of blowing dust. • Gravel access road surfaces in areas of sustained wind and potential dust erosion. • Ensure construction vehicles travel at low speeds on access roads and at construction sites to minimize dust. • Limit the amount of time soils are left exposed. • Reseed disturbed areas (see mitigation measures in Vegetation). • Restore compacted soils (see mitigation measures in Section 3.1 Land Use). • Conduct additional site‐specific evaluations in areas of potential landslides to determine degree of recent activity, likelihood of activation or reactivation, potential setbacks, and site‐specific stability as appropriate. • Design roads to limit water accumulation and erosion; install appropriate access road drainage (ditches, water bars, cross drainage, or roadside berms) to control and disperse runoff. • Design transmission tower footings and roads for specific site conditions through detailed geologic hazard assessments, including review of geologic maps and aerial photography, surface condition assessments, and geological testing at representative sites. • Minimize construction on steep or unstable slopes, if possible.

• Relocate towers or roads located within previously unidentified active slides, bedrock hollows, or other geologic hazard areas, where possible.
 
Water Quality
"NEPA_Resource_Analysis" is not in the list of possible values (Not Present, Present, Not Affected, Present, Potentially Affected, Not Indicated) for this property.

 

Close• Minimize the project ground disturbance footprint, particularly in sensitive areas such as stream crossings and wetlands, and stream and wetland buffers.

• Develop and implement a Spill Prevention, Control, and Countermeasure Plan to minimize the potential for spills of hazardous material, including provisions for storage of hazardous materials and refueling of construction equipment outside of riparian zones, spill containment and recovery plan, and notification and activation protocols. • Prepare and implement a SWPPP (see mitigation measures in Geology and Soils) to improve water quality of stormwater runoff. • Prepare to manage dewatering, including proper disposal of drilling fluids and mud away from wetlands or surface waters. • Prepare for management of excess concrete. • Remove and dispose of sediment properly, away from wetlands or surface waters. • Install culverts for access roads in the dry season or during low‐flow conditions if possible to minimize sediment delivery to streams. • Limit tracking of soil onto paved roads by gravelling road approaches, washing vehicle wheels, and cleaning mud and dirt from paved roads to reduce sediment delivery to roadside ditches and nearby streams. • Avoid use of heavy equipment and vegetation removal in wetlands and wetland buffer zones to avoid soil compaction, destruction of live plants, and potential alteration of surface water patterns. Use track equipment or matting, if appropriate. • Avoid placing staging areas in wetlands or stream buffers. • Avoid placing new access roads through wetland complexes around the Columbia River, Fifteenmile Creek, Little Klickitat River, Spring Creek, Swale Creek, and Blockhouse Creek to minimize the potential for altering surface water patterns and isolating connected wetlands. • Obtain all appropriate permits with approved wetland delineations and compensatory mitigation plans prior to construction as needed. • Use high‐visibility fencing around wetland buffer zones to avoid inadvertent activity (e.g., parking and driving) in wetlands or buffers or streams.

• Reseed disturbed areas (see mitigation measures in Vegetation).
 
Wetlands and Riparian Zones
"NEPA_Resource_Analysis" is not in the list of possible values (Not Present, Present, Not Affected, Present, Potentially Affected, Not Indicated) for this property.

 

Close• Minimize the project ground disturbance footprint, particularly in sensitive areas such as stream crossings and wetlands, and stream and wetland buffers.

• Develop and implement a Spill Prevention, Control, and Countermeasure Plan to minimize the potential for spills of hazardous material, including provisions for storage of hazardous materials and refueling of construction equipment outside of riparian zones, spill containment and recovery plan, and notification and activation protocols. • Prepare and implement a SWPPP (see mitigation measures in Geology and Soils) to improve water quality of stormwater runoff. • Prepare to manage dewatering, including proper disposal of drilling fluids and mud away from wetlands or surface waters. • Prepare for management of excess concrete. • Remove and dispose of sediment properly, away from wetlands or surface waters. • Install culverts for access roads in the dry season or during low‐flow conditions if possible to minimize sediment delivery to streams. • Limit tracking of soil onto paved roads by gravelling road approaches, washing vehicle wheels, and cleaning mud and dirt from paved roads to reduce sediment delivery to roadside ditches and nearby streams. • Avoid use of heavy equipment and vegetation removal in wetlands and wetland buffer zones to avoid soil compaction, destruction of live plants, and potential alteration of surface water patterns. Use track equipment or matting, if appropriate. • Avoid placing staging areas in wetlands or stream buffers. • Avoid placing new access roads through wetland complexes around the Columbia River, Fifteenmile Creek, Little Klickitat River, Spring Creek, Swale Creek, and Blockhouse Creek to minimize the potential for altering surface water patterns and isolating connected wetlands. • Obtain all appropriate permits with approved wetland delineations and compensatory mitigation plans prior to construction as needed. • Use high‐visibility fencing around wetland buffer zones to avoid inadvertent activity (e.g., parking and driving) in wetlands or buffers or streams.

• Reseed disturbed areas (see mitigation measures in Vegetation).
 
Wildlife Resources
"NEPA_Resource_Analysis" is not in the list of possible values (Not Present, Present, Not Affected, Present, Potentially Affected, Not Indicated) for this property.

 

Close• Minimize the project ground disturbance footprint, particularly in special‐status areas such as priority habitats, which can include riparian areas, wetlands, and grassland/shrubsteppe.

• Avoid tree removal to the extent possible. • In locations where nests for special‐status species have been identified, determine construction schedules through consultation with Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife or Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife to avoid breeding season disturbance. • The following mitigation schedules will be implemented where possible:

  • Peregrine falcon—avoid construction activities within 0.25 mile of any active nests during the breeding season (February 1 through July 15 or until young have fledged).
  • Prairie falcon—avoid construction activities within 0.25 mile of any active nests during the breeding season (March 1 through July 30 or until young have fledged).
  • Bald eagle and golden eagle—avoid construction activities within 0.25 mile of active nests during the breeding season (January 1 through August 31 or until young have fledged).
  • Install bird diverters on overhead ground wires in high risk areas (over river and stream crossings and near wetlands).
  • Prepare and implement a SWPPP and a Spill Prevention, Control, and Countermeasure Plan (see mitigation measures for Geology and Soils and Water Resources and Wetlands) to protect wetland habitats.

• Reseed disturbed areas (see mitigation measures for Vegetation). After construction • Prepare for fire control (see mitigation measures for Vegetation) to protect habitats.

• Work with the appropriate state agencies to mitigate impacts to federal species of concern, state‐listed species, or protected habitats if impacts are unavoidable (see mitigation measures for Section 3.3 Vegetation).
 
Fisheries Resources
"NEPA_Resource_Analysis" is not in the list of possible values (Not Present, Present, Not Affected, Present, Potentially Affected, Not Indicated) for this property.

 

Close• Minimize the project ground disturbance footprint, reseed disturbed areas, and install culverts during the dry season (see mitigation measures for Vegetation and Water Resources and Wetlands) to limit sedimentation affecting fish habitat.

• Prepare and implement a SWPPP and a Spill Prevention, Control, and Countermeasure Plan (see mitigation measures for Geology and Soils and Water Resources and Wetlands) to protect fish habitat.

• Avoid blasting within 200 feet of fish‐bearing streams.
 
Cultural Resources
"NEPA_Resource_Analysis" is not in the list of possible values (Not Present, Present, Not Affected, Present, Potentially Affected, Not Indicated) for this property.

 

Close• Locate transmission line towers and access roads to avoid cultural resources, where possible.

• Use existing access roads where possible to limit possibility of new disturbances. • Consult with the Washington State Department of Archaeology and Historic Preservation (DAHP) or Oregon State Historic Preservation Office (SHPO), as applicable; the Advisory Council, the Confederated Tribes of the Warm Springs Reservation of Oregon; the Confederated Tribes and Bands of the Yakama Nation, the Nez Perce Tribe, and the Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation; state agencies (if sites found on state lands); and the USFS (if sites found on USFS land or within the National Scenic Area) regarding National Register of Historic Place (NRHP) eligibility of cultural resources. • Develop an Inadvertent Discovery Plan that details crew member responsibilities for reporting in the event of a discovery during construction. This plan should include directives to stop work immediately and notify local law enforcement officials (if appropriate), appropriate BPA personnel, Tribes, USFS (if appropriate), and the Washington DAHP or Oregon SHPO if cultural resources are discovered. • Ensure cultural resource monitors are present during construction in the area of known cultural resources to monitor sites during excavation and to prevent unauthorized collection of cultural materials.

• Prepare a mitigation plan to protect sites if final placement of project elements results in unavoidable adverse impacts to a significant cultural resource.
 
Social Values
"NEPA_Resource_Analysis" is not in the list of possible values (Not Present, Present, Not Affected, Present, Potentially Affected, Not Indicated) for this property.

 

Close• Compensate landowners at market value for any new land rights for right‐of‐way or access road easements.

• Compensate landowners for damage to property or crops during construction or operation and maintenance activities, as appropriate. • Compensate landowners for irrigation systems that must be reconfigured to accommodate new transmission infrastructure. • Consult with the Natural Resource Conservation Service (NRCS) and FSA to mitigate impacts to CRP land to maintain existing CRP status of lands and federal payments to landowners, where practicable (see mitigation measures in Vegetation).

• Prepare for fire management (see mitigation measures in Vegetation).
 
Access and Transportation
"NEPA_Resource_Analysis" is not in the list of possible values (Not Present, Present, Not Affected, Present, Potentially Affected, Not Indicated) for this property.

 

Close• Coordinate with Klickitat County roads department for upgrades of county roads.

• Coordinate routing and scheduling of construction traffic with state and county road staff, Columbia River operators, and railroad operators. • Employ traffic control flaggers and post signs warning of construction activity and merging traffic, when necessary for short interruptions of traffic. • Conduct regular maintenance on access roads and gates within and leading to the corridor. • Prepare and implement a SWPPP (see mitigation measures in Geology and Soils) to prevent sediments from being transported onto adjacent roadways. • Limit tracking of soil onto paved roads (see mitigation measures in Geology and Soils). During construction • Design roads to limit erosion (see mitigation measures in Geology and Soils). • Restore public roadways to preconstruction conditions upon completion of project construction activities.

• Coordinate with the Washington State Department of Transportation (WSDOT) Aviation Division and comply with Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) regulations for marking or lighting (including lighting towers and installing marker balls on overhead ground wires in specific locations).
 
Noise
"NEPA_Resource_Analysis" is not in the list of possible values (Not Present, Present, Not Affected, Present, Potentially Affected, Not Indicated) for this property.

 

Close• Ensure standard sound‐control devices, including mufflers, are on all construction equipment and vehicles.

• Limit construction activities to daytime hours.

• Notify landowners located along the corridor prior to construction activities, including blasting.
 
Wastes Hazardous or Solid
"NEPA_Resource_Analysis" is not in the list of possible values (Not Present, Present, Not Affected, Present, Potentially Affected, Not Indicated) for this property.

 

Close• Notify landowners located along the corridor prior to construction activities, including blasting.

• If blasting is required, take appropriate safety measures and follow all state and local codes and regulations. Lock up or remove all explosives from work sites at the end of the workday. • Hold crew safety meetings at the start of each construction workday to review potential safety issues. • Prepare and implement a Spill Prevention, Control, and Countermeasure Plan (see mitigation measures in Water Resources and Wetlands) to manage hazardous materials and respond to emergency situations. • Prepare and maintain an on‐site safety plan in compliance with state requirements. • Prepare for fire control (see mitigation measures in Vegetation). • Fuel all highway‐authorized vehicles off‐site to minimize the risk of fire. Fueling of construction equipment that is transported to the site via truck and is not highway authorized will be done in accordance with regulated construction practices and state and local laws. Helicopters will be fueled and housed at local airfields or at staging areas. • Secure the site at the end of each workday to protect equipment and the general public. • Ensure that BPA contractors flying helicopters prioritize public safety during flights. For example, establish flight paths to avoid populated areas or schools (Helicopter Association International 1993). • Implement appropriate airport safety measures (see mitigation measures in Transportation). • Clear vegetation according to BPA standards to avoid contact with transmission lines prior to project construction and throughout the life of the line. • Prepare and implement a lead abatement plan that would cover removal and disposal of any contaminated paint chips in accordance with applicable federal, state, and local environmental and safety standards. • Report possible hazardous materials, toxic substances, or petroleum products discovered along the transmission line route that would pose an immediate threat to human health or the environment, including large dump sites, drums of unknown substances, suspicious odors, stained soil, etc. • Adhere to appropriate specifications for grounding fences and other objects on and near existing and proposed rights‐of‐way. • Design, construct, and operate the new transmission line according to the National Electric Safety Code (NESC).

• Restore reception quality if radio or television interference occurs as a result of constructing the transmission line so that reception is as good as or better than before the interference.
 
Air Quality
"NEPA_Resource_Analysis" is not in the list of possible values (Not Present, Present, Not Affected, Present, Potentially Affected, Not Indicated) for this property.

 

Close• Prepare and implement a SWPPP (see mitigation measures in Geology and Soils) to limit erosion and dust generation.

• Prepare a Fugitive Dust Control Plan to control windblown dust (see mitigation measures in Geology and Soils). • Reseed disturbed areas (see mitigation measures in Vegetation) to prevent dust from erosion. • Shut down idling construction equipment, if feasible. • Ensure all vehicles are in compliance with applicable federal and state air quality regulations for tailpipe emissions. Certification that vehicles meet applicable regulations will be provided by contractors to BPA in writing. • Maintain and certify in writing that all construction equipment is in proper working condition according to manufacturer’s specifications. • Obtain rock and concrete from sources with appropriate environmental permits. • Implement vehicle idling and equipment emissions measures (see mitigation measures in Air Quality). • Encourage carpooling and the use of shuttle vans among construction workers to minimize construction‐related traffic and associated emissions. • Locate all staging areas as close to construction sites as practicable to minimize driving distances between staging areas and construction sites. • Locate staging areas in previously disturbed or graveled areas to minimize soil and vegetation disturbance where practicable. • Use the proper size of equipment for the job. • Use alternative fuels for generators at construction sites such as propane or solar, or use electrical power where practicable. • Reduce electricity use in the construction office by using compact fluorescent bulbs, and powering off computers every night. • Recycle or salvage non‐hazardous construction and demolition debris to the maximum extent practicable. • Submit a plan for approval to dispose of wood poles locally where practicable. Prior to construction

• Use locally sourced rock for road construction, if possible.