A Monte Carlo Approach To Generator Portfolio Planning And Carbon Emissions Assessments Of Systems With Large Penetrations Of Variable Renewables

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Journal Article: A Monte Carlo Approach To Generator Portfolio Planning And Carbon Emissions Assessments Of Systems With Large Penetrations Of Variable Renewables

Abstract
A new generator portfolio planning model is described that is capable of quantifying the carbon emissions associated with systems that include very high penetrations of variable renewables. The model combines a deterministic renewable portfolio planning module with a Monte Carlo simulation of system operation that determines the expected least-cost dispatch from each technology, the necessary reserve capacity, and the expected carbon emissions at each hour. Each system is designed to meet a maximum loss of load expectation requirement of 1 day in 10 years. The present study includes wind, centralized solar thermal, and rooftop photovoltaics, as well as hydroelectric, geothermal, and natural gas plants. The portfolios produced by the model take advantage of the aggregation of variable generators at multiple geographically disperse sites and the incorporation of meteorological and load forecasts. Results are presented from a model run of the continuous two-year period, 2005-2006 in the California ISO operating area. A low-carbon portfolio is produced for this system that is capable of achieving an 80% reduction in electric power sector carbon emissions from 2005 levels and supplying over 99% of the annual delivered load with non-carbon sources. A portfolio is also built for a projected 2050 system, which is capable of providing 96% of the delivered electricity from non-carbon sources, despite a projected doubling of the 2005 system peak load. The results suggest that further reductions in carbon emissions may be achieved with emerging technologies that can reliably provide large capacities without necessarily providing positive net annual energy generation. These technologies may include demand response, vehicle-to-grid systems, and large-scale energy storage.

Authors 
Elaine K. Hart and Mark Z. Jacobson








Published Journal 
Renewable Energy, Date Not Provided





DOI 
10.1016/j.renene.2011.01.015


 

Citation

Elaine K. Hart,Mark Z. Jacobson. . A Monte Carlo Approach To Generator Portfolio Planning And Carbon Emissions Assessments Of Systems With Large Penetrations Of Variable Renewables. Renewable Energy. (!) .