Energy blogs

  • PPL-Procurement
    27 Aug 2015 - 12:11 by PPL-Procurement

    PPL Electric RFP is seeking to procure over 200,000 Tier II alternative energy credits (AECs) for PPL Electric Utilities Corporation to meet the Pennsylvania Alternative Energy Portfolio Standard. Qualification materials must be received by September 14 at 12PM EST.

    Contact: Ben Chee at Ben.Chee@nera.com or (215) 568-0200/(914) 473-8870.

  • Addiethomes
    27 Aug 2015 - 06:17 by Addiethomes

    Potassium hydroxide (KOH) is a liquid inorganic compound also known as caustic potash. Reacting sodium hydroxide with impure potassium gives KOH in its pure form. With the chemical formula KOH, potassium hydroxide is one of the compounds is called lye. As measured on the pH scale it has very high alkalinity. Due to its hygroscopic nature it becomes very tacky in air, hence it is sold as solid translucent pellets. When dissolved in water it dissipates the excess amount of heat thus making the reaction exothermic. KOH is a strong base has its use in niche applications. Potassium hydroxide is included in cleaning products, and has uses in industry and in medical diagnostics. It also has its role as an alternative health product.

     

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    Its main applications lie in the manufacture of soaps, petroleum refining, fertilizer industries among others. Many potassium salts like permanganates, carbonates, phosphates are prepared by neutralization reactions involving KOH. Potassium hydroxide is used as a direct intermediate for the manufacture of a huge range of chemicals which include potassium cyanide, aluminate, formate, fluosilicate, borohydride, bromated, bromide, gluconate, manganate, oleate, titanate, laurate etc. Other areas of its application include electroplating, herbicides, greases, catalysts, medicines and alkaline electrolyte batteries. Some dermatologists use KOH to diagnose fungal infections in skin, hair and nails. If misused potassium can have a number of ill effects including physical damage to the eyes, skin etc. Environmental damage to aquatic life is caused if KOH is disposed off in water bodies. NaOH is another chemical which has almost similar properties to KOH. They are caustic, corrosive and highly hazardous. Both chemicals are used interchangeably for a number of applications although NAOH is preferred in industries due to its low cost and is widely used. However, KOH finds its use in domestic and household applications. Its usage is also found in petroleum and natural gas refining for the removal of organic acids and sulphur compounds.

     

    The key factor that drives the market growth of KOH is its use in household products and in fertilizers. The world is facing ever-increasing population and hence there is continuous use of household products, which is one of the main drivers of the KOH market. Another driving factor is its use in fertilizers .With the growing demand for food, the fertilizer market is expanding causing the growth in the KOH market as well. The hazardous effects of KOH on health and also on the environment are major restraining factors for its market.

     

    The key segments for the KOH industry are Europe, Asia Pacific, North America and Rest of the World (RoW). Asia Pacific accounts for more than half of the potassium hydroxide demand and the trend is expected to continue over the next few years. India and China are one of the largest economies in terms of population and are expected to dominate the market in terms of demand. North America follows Asia Pacific as the second largest user of KOH, followed by Europe and then RoW. Emerging economies in the rest of the world segment are expected to offer huge growth opportunities especially in Latin American countries .Potassium hydroxide demand in Russia and Eastern European region will also foresee huge demand during the forecast period.

     

    Key companies that manufacture potassium hydroxide include The Mosaic Company, Armand Products, ICL Fertilizers, Occidental Chemical Cooperation, Potash Corp., and Qinghai Salt Lake Potash Company Limited among others. These companies not only manufacture KOH but other chemicals using potassium and potassium hydride as an intermediate .Moist of them manufacture fertilizers which makes use as KOH as one of the main chemicals.

     

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    Key geographies evaluated in this report are:

     

    • North America
      • U.S
      • Canada
    • Europe
      • France, Germany, Italy, Spain, and the UK
      • Eastern Europe
      • CIS
    • APAC
      • China
      • India
      • Japan
      • Australia
      • Others
    • Latin America
      • Argentina
      • Brazil
      • Others

    Key features of this report

    • Drivers, restraints, and challenges shaping the Potassium Hydroxide market dynamics
    • Latest innovations and key events in the industry
    • Analysis of business strategies of the top players
    • Potassium Hydroxide market estimates and forecasts(2015 -2021)
  • Addiethomes
    27 Aug 2015 - 06:13 by Addiethomes

    Aluminum is found in the earth’s crust and is the third most abundant material. This element is found predominately in oxidic and silicatic minerals. Organoaluminum chemistry includes the  detailed study of compounds which have bonds between carbon and aluminum. Very little about Organoaluminum compounds were known until the 1950s until it was discovered by Karl Zeigler who won the Nobel prize pertaining to his research. Organoaluminum is a structurally weak compound, it is resistant to corrosion, it readily reacts with water, it oxidizes more easily than iron and it is durable. These compounds are also known as polymerization catalysts owing to their use as an excellent catalyst

     

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    Organoaluminum have a few applications, which include its use in Drano to unclog drains, it is used to protect cigarettes and hard candy from moisture, it is also used in the making of various alloys including copper, magnesium, manganese, silicon and zinc among others. Industrially Organoaluminum is used in the production of polyolefin’s, polyethylenes among others. It also acts as a catalyst in various chemical reactions. A catalyst is one that is used to increase the rate of chemical reactions. Organoaluminum is used in the aldol catalysis where aluminum acts as a Lewis acid. It is also used in the amidoaluminum catalysis where Organoaluminum is used to synthesize guanidine. 

     

    The main application of organoaluminum, which drives the market, is its use as a catalyst. It is used in a variety of chemical reactions and hence this accelerates the demand of the compound. Its use in the production of polyolefin and polyethylene and other polymers is also another feature that drives the market for organoaluminum. Polymerization catalysts are expected to experience the fastest growth due to accelerated expansion of the polymer resin market. Polymers hold a big market share as of today and this is expected to drive the market for organoaluminum for the next few years. Polymers are used in the production of plastic, PVC among others. The stringent regulation by the FDA and the EU is what may restrain the market against the use of organoaluminum in these regions.

     

    The key segments analyzed for this market include North America, Europe, Asia Pacific and Rest of the World (RoW). Market for organoaluminum is the highest in North America followed by western European countries, the Middle East and then Asia Pacific. the market in north America and western Europe is still mature but is not expected to grow by much owing to the improved performance of organoaluminum catalysts which are substitute for organoaluminum and the decrease in the production of polyolefin especially polyethylene in the regions. The market for organoaluminum is growing at a very fast rate in Middle Eastern and Asia Pacific countries as most of the manufacturing units of polymers are shifting to this region owing to the lack of stringent rules and regulations from the government. The role of organoaluminum as a catalyst, in North America and Western Europe is what drives the market but by a small margin in these regions. The numbers of chemical and polymer industries are increasing at a fast rate in especially India and China among the Asia Pacific countries, hence the market for organoaluminum is bound to increase in he near future in these countries.

     

    T6he main companies profiles for the manufacture of organoaluminum include Akzo Nobel NV, Albemarle Corporation, Chemtura Corporation, BASF SE, Chevron Corporation, Evonik Industries AG, Honeywell International Incorporated, Mitsui Chemicals Incorporated among others.

     

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    Key geographies evaluated in this report are:

     

    • North America
      • U.S
      • Canada
    • Europe
      • France, Germany, Italy, Spain, and the UK
      • Eastern Europe
      • CIS
    • APAC
      • China
      • India
      • Japan
      • Australia
      • Others
    • Latin America
      • Argentina
      • Brazil
      • Others

    Key features of this report

    • Drivers, restraints, and challenges shaping the Organoaluminum market dynamics
    • Latest innovations and key events in the industry
    • Analysis of business strategies of the top players
    • Organoaluminum market estimates and forecasts(2015 -2021)
  • Addiethomes
    27 Aug 2015 - 06:11 by Addiethomes

    Malathion is an organophosphate insecticide and specifically an organophosphate parasympathomimetic, which binds to the enzyme group cholinesterase. Malathion products are usually available in the form of dusts, liquid, powder or emulsions. Their toxicity was believed to only affect pests and insects. In the past few decades however, malathion was found to exhibit  low levels of human toxicity as well. When used with caution and in the right amount, mosquito and insect infestations are treated with the chemical without causing any harmful effects on human and animal life. The chemical was known as carbophos in the former USSR, as maldison in Australia and New Zealand, and mercaptothion in South Africa. The U.S. first registered its use in the year 1956. 

     

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    Malathion is a widely used pesticide, which helps to get rid of insects and pests in the soil and on the plants. It kills insects by stunning their nervous systems, thus preventing them from functioning normally. it helps in the eradication of mosquitoes and fruit flies and are used in public health programs. Malathion is also used in small quantities in lice-killing shampoos. Hair lice and body lice are killed using malathion, but some studies have shown that only some of the lice were killed and that it had absolutely no effect on lice-eggs. Most agricultural programs make use of this chemical in order to stop the infestation of insects in fields. In order to get rid of pests, tanks of malathion were mounted on trucks or aircrafts and were sprayed in the infested surroundings. In order to reduce health effects, the people in that area were advised to close their windows and stay indoors in order to avoid physical contact with the chemical. Malathion is also used in medical applications in the treatment of scabies.

     

    Pesticides and insecticides are the main drivers for the malathion market. Pesticides are used globally as remedial methods for various agricultural issues caused by mosquitoes and fruit flies.. Agriculture is one of the most important industry segments that drive the market for  malathion. Recent studies have proven that if not used with caution this material can cause serious health issues to human population and animals as well. Malathion itself is less toxic but when inhaled or ingested metabolizes into malaoxon, which is comparatively more toxic than malathion itself. When exposed to the chemical for too long, it has been found that cancer-risk could increase. Many countries have not yet banned the use of this insecticide, but have put forward regulations for the safe usage of the product in public environment so as not to cause any inconvenience to people. At the same time, the U.S. has come up with a safer alternative for this insecticide called spinosad. As it is one of the newest findings, availability of the pesticide is relatively low. However, the market for malathion is still mature and is expected to exhibit a healthy growth rate over the next few years in some regions.

     

    The key market segments include Asia Pacific, North America, Europe, Rest of the World. Asia Pacific exhibits the highest demand for malathion, especially in countries such as India and China, owing to their booming agricultural sector. The U.S. being one of the biggest manufacturers of malathion has huge demand for the chemical as well. Malathion was off the market in Europe for a while owing to its ill effects but has been recently brought back into the European market by public demand. Due to its harmful properties, most of the countries have stringent regulations about its use in areas, which are heavily populated but can be used with extreme caution to get rid of their pest infestation.

     

    A few of the companies that manufacture malathion include Dow AgroSciences India Pvt. Ltd., Suven Life Sciences, Paramount Pesticides Ltd. among others.

     

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    Key geographies evaluated in this report are:

     

    • North America
      • U.S
      • Canada
    • Europe
      • France, Germany, Italy, Spain, and the UK
      • Eastern Europe
      • CIS
    • APAC
      • China
      • India
      • Japan
      • Australia
      • Others
    • Latin America
      • Argentina
      • Brazil
      • Others

    Key features of this report

    • Drivers, restraints, and challenges shaping the Malathion Material market dynamics
    • Latest innovations and key events in the industry
    • Analysis of business strategies of the top players
    • Malathion Material market estimates and forecasts(2015 -2021)
  • Addiethomes
    27 Aug 2015 - 06:10 by Addiethomes

    Magnesium is a naturally sourced mineral and is very important for the functioning of many systems in the body especially muscles and nerves. Magnesium hydroxide is an inorganic compound and is obtained by precipitation between magnesium salts and sodium, potassium or ammonium hydroxide. Brucite is a form of natural magnesium and is used for commercial purposes as a fire retardant. The commercial and industrial magnesium hydroxide is chemically manufactured from sea water or brine. As a suspension in water, magnesium hydroxide is called as milk of magnesia owing to its milk-like appearance. This compound has very less solubility in water.

     

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    The main application of magnesium hydroxide is as a common component of laxatives and of antacids. Magnesium hydroxide should not be taken on a daily basis but very occasionally. It is primarily used to reduce stomach acid. This compound is also used as an antiperspirant underarm deodorant. Milk of magnesia is sold as a liquid suspension, chewable tablets, and capsules as liquid syrups in a variety of flavors. It is mainly used to rid the system of indigestion and heartburn. Magnesium hydroxide powder also finds is application in industrial purposes as a non-dangerous alkali in order to neutralize acidic wastewater.  The compound is also used in desulphurization.

     

    The main market driver for this product is its use in the health industry. the demand for this product is high in end use industries which is the pharmaceutical industry. as it is used as a antiperspirant deodorant, its demand is high among the younger generation. The pharmaceutical industry is growing at a very high rate and hence the demand for this product will also increase to a high extent. The largest end user for magnesium hydroxide beside the pharmaceutical industry is desulphurization and the water treatment industry. countries are shifting to fossil-fuel based power plants which will in turn increase the consumption of magnesium hydroxide for desulphurization. Owing to its flame retardant properties it is a fast growing application globally due to its performance, price, low corrosiveness and its extremely low toxicity.

     

    The key segments observed for this market include North America, Europe, Asia Pacific and Rest of the World (RoW). The global consumption of this compound is mainly concentrated in East Asia and North America.  The market for this product is maximum n China and is expected to continue growing at a fast pace over the next few years as well. the market for this product in north America and Europe is mature and is not expected to grow by a huge margin over the forecast period. However, the demand for this product in Japan is high and is expected to accelerate over the next few years due to the increase in the number of fossil fuel power plants there. Its use as a fuel retardant also has increased its demand in the global market especially in the developing counties. The use of this product is increasing at a high pace in developing countries due to its good performance, low price, low corrosiveness and as it is a non toxic compound. North American and European governments do not have very stringent rules and regulations against its use.

     

    The key companies profiled for the manufacture of magnesium hydroxide are aAkzoNobel, Albemarle Corporation, Almatis GmbH, BASF SE, Chemtura Corporation, China Minmetals Nonferrous metals, Cyter Industries, Israel Chemicals among others.

     

    Request Full TOC: http://www.persistencemarketresearch.com/toc/4645

     

    Key geographies evaluated in this report are:

     

    • North America
      • U.S
      • Canada
    • Europe
      • France, Germany, Italy, Spain, and the UK
      • Eastern Europe
      • CIS
    • APAC
      • China
      • India
      • Japan
      • Australia
      • Others
    • Latin America
      • Argentina
      • Brazil
      • Others

    Key features of this report

    • Drivers, restraints, and challenges shaping the Magnesium Hydroxide market dynamics
    • Latest innovations and key events in the industry
    • Analysis of business strategies of the top players
    • Magnesium Hydroxide market estimates and forecasts(2015 -2021)
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